3. Barcelona 1850: The demolition of the citywalls
3.1. Main characteristics from the 19th century architecture.
The 19th Century in Europe was a period full ofChanges in different levels: Political Changes Most European countries got a democratic constitution and the monarquies lost power. The 19th century is also marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Portuguese, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the German Empire and the United States, spurring military conflicts but also advance in science and exploration. Social and economic changes The 19th century was an era of inventions and discovery, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that lay the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century. This new century will see the birth of two new social classes: the workers and the bourgeoisie. All this changes became evident in different artistic and architectural movements along this period...
The town planning Town-planing reform of Barcelona, “Plan Cerdà” 1860Town-planing reform of Paris, 1853-1869 Town-Planing reform of Viena “Ring” 1859-1872
There are not global artistic trades: Architecture is not connected anymore with otherarts. The architectonical styles doesn’t envolve all the arts (painting and sculpture). Thelast global style is The Neoclassical.The education is divided in two areas: In 1794 The Polytechnic School (Écolepolytechnique) was opened in Paris. Is a specialized school for Engineering.In 1806 was opened in Paris the School of Fine Arts (École nationale supérieure desbeaux-arts) where the architects were educated.Engineering is attached to the new materials used in Architecture: glass, iron,cement and concrete anr used to satisfy needs.The architecture will be identificated with the past: Historicism or Eclecticism ,used the architectonical lenguage from old artistic trends. Old materials will beused (Stone, break…).
EngineeringAttached to the Industrial Revolution and technological advances and the serialproduction that will predetermine the construction. Which materials am I going to use? There are not aesthetic ideas. Which type of building can I build Everithing is fuctional. with these materials?The industrial Revolution created new needs: bridges, viaduct, trais stations, citymarkets…1th International World Fair: 1851 in London.
Historicism or Eclecticism Born at School of Fine Arts (École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts) .Back to the national past: Middle Ages. Gothic Style. The 19th Century bourgeoisie accepted the lenguage of old artistic trends. They liked the Historicism and the Eclecticism because it fits with them notion of beauty.Garnier. Paris OperaTheater.1875
Christian Jank, Eduard Riedel and Georg Dollman: Neuschawanstein Castel(1869-1886). Baviera
Francisco Jareño: National Library, 1855. Madrid
Violet-Le.Duc: Drawingfor the Illustrateddictionary of 11th –16th century Frencharchitecture.
- Cronology: 1890 - 1910.- Is an international style but with national variations: Art Nouveau (France), Jugendstil(Germany), Secession (Austria), Arts and Crafts Movement (England) and Modernismo(Spain).- It involve design in all the areas: Architecture, fornitures, jewellery, …- Aims to link technology and advances with the craft tradition.- Artisanal production is back: carpenters, blacksmith, glazier work is valued again.- Recupera el sentido estético de carácter naturalista, decoración natural, con líneascurvas, dinámicas y llenas de vida, sinuosas, copiando elementos naturales.- Misture of elements from East Asia (China, Japan), Muslim Architecture, NeogothicArchitecture from the Historicism and Architecture from Fary Tales (imaginary world).- Is the main style of the bourgesie from the end of the 19th Century.
Arts & Crafts : EnglandGlasgow School of Art (1897), Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Art Nouveau : FranceHector Guimard. Gate from the Subway Station La PorteDauphine (1909) Hector Guimard. Hotel Mezzara (1910)
Secession: AustriaJ.M. Olbrich . Secession (1897) Otto Wagner: House Majolika, 1898. Vienna
Modernismo: Spain Antoni Gaudí. Casa Batlló (1904-1906)