Secondary Program 1st Cycle


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Secondary Program 1st Cycle

  1. 1. ANNEXE English as a Second Language
  2. 2. Common Introduction to the Two ESL Programs: Core and Enriched There are two Secondary Cycle One ESL programs: Core situations with relative ease. Core ESL students begin ESL and Enriched ESL (EESL). These programs have been to develop fluency and accuracy, while EESL students designed to better meet the needs of different students and continue to develop the fluency and accuracy they have to provide them with a challenging learning environment. already acquired. They reflect on their personal language While Core ESL students continue their progression from development, and manage strategies and resources more the regular elementary program, EESL students are equip- autonomously than Core ESL students. ped to go beyond the Core ESL program. Most EESL stu- In both programs, students explore authentic texts: p o p u- dents have completed an intensive English program at the lar, literary and information-based. Core ESL and EESL stu- elementary level or have had other enriching experiences dents listen to, read and/or view texts that are appropriate in English. to their age and interests. Because EESL students have Core ESL students focus on their language development in attained a higher level of language development, they order to improve their ability to communicate in situations exploit a much broader range of text types and demon- that correspond to their age, needs and interests. These strate their understanding of texts through more complex students need considerable guidance from the teacher to responses and tasks. interact in English. EESL students, however, are already Core ESL and EESL students use processes to write and confident second language learners. They focus on using produce texts. They experiment with these processes and English with increasing fluency and accuracy to explore a personalize them over time. Core ESL students progress wide variety of issues and to exploit response, writing and from using models to write and produce texts to creating production processes more fully. their own original texts. EESL students have a more exten- Students in both programs continue to develop the three sive language repertoire which allows them to expand ESL competencies found in the elementary school program– their use of the processes, and to focus on their creativity interacts orally in English, reinvests understanding of texts, and personal style. Students in both programs reflect on and writes and produces texts. their learning throughout the processes. EESL students, because of their communicative competence, are better Oral interaction is essential for learning English. Core ESL able to notice their own errors and offer corrective feed- students build a basic language repertoire while carrying back to their peers. out tasks and sharing their ideas, feelings and opinions. EESL students already have the basic language they need to converse in English; they continue to expand their language repert o i re and participate in a variety of communicative 579 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language
  3. 3. English as a Second Language, Core Program
  4. 4. 582 Making Connections: English as a Second Language, Core Program and the Other Dimensions of the Programme de formation English as a Second Language Writes and Languages produces texts Interacts orally S in English PETENCIE es CTUA L COM enc Uses creativity ELLE Exercises critical COM INT ci judgment MU NIC ialS Solves problems AT IO N- RE Uses information Personal and Career LA c T Ar Planning So Communicates ED ts Health and appropriately CO Identity Well-Being MP Edu ETE Media NCY Literacy cation Wo STUDENT t rld-V men iew Empower Citizenship and Community Life Environmental Awareness Adopts effective and Consumer Rights and work methods Responsibilities M Ma ET Achieves his/her potential HO ES CI nt em DO th me N LO Uses information Cooperates with others TE GIC PE ati AL COM and communications I AL C OM p c s, S PETE technologies ND S OC l o ev e NCIE S NAL A PERSO cien D ce a al nd Te Pe r son chnology Aims of the Programme de formation Broad Areas of Learning Cross-Curricular Competencies Subject Areas Reinvests Subject-Specific Competencies in ESL understanding of texts Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  5. 5. Introduction to the English as a Second Language Core Program For Québec students, learning English as a second lan- fold purpose of support for learning and recognition of guage (ESL) enables them to communicate with people competencies. This program is based on the communica- who speak English in Québec, in Canada and throughout tive approach, strategy-based learning, cooperative learn- the world. It also gives them access to the wealth of infor- ing, cognitive approaches to language learning and the mation and entertainment available in the English media: latest developments in second language acquisition. magazines, radio, television, as well as information and In the previous secondary school objective-based program, communications technologies (ICT). In the ESL classroom, listening, speaking, reading and writing skills were taught students construct their identity by cooperating; sharing separately for specific purposes. This new ESL program values, ideas and opinions; and reflecting on their learn- goes beyond the sum of these skills: the three ESL com- ing. They are empowered by taking responsibility for their petencies are developed in synergy in an interactive learn- learning and by making decisions about issues to be inves- ing environment. When students are developing one tigated in class. Learning English provides them with competency, they constantly draw upon the other two. The opportunities to construct their world-view as they learn competency interacts orally in English is the backdrop for about other cultures and come to better understand the other competencies as English is the language of com- English-speaking communities. At the same time, English munication at all times. When developing reinvests under- gives students a vehicle to promote their own culture. standing of texts, students explore various types of texts, At the end of the ESL secondary school program, students construct the meaning/message of these texts with peers will be able to communicate in English in order to meet and the teacher, and reuse or adapt the knowledge they their needs and pursue their interests in a rapidly evolv- have acquired. This reinvestment is often carried out ing society. The Secondary Cycle One ESL program is a step through the other two ESL competencies. In the compe- towards the achievement of this goal. tency writes and produces texts, students write and pro- duce with a purpose and express themselves for an The Secondary Cycle One ESL program builds on what stu- intended audience. They are guided by the teacher and dents learned in the Elementary ESL program. It focuses receive help and feedback from both the teacher and their on the students’ development of the three competencies: peers. In an atmosphere of respect, students are encour- interacts orally in English,* reinvests understanding of aged to take risks and develop their creativity. texts,1 and writes and produces texts. Students continue to develop these three competencies in Secondary Cycle One and progress from very guided second language * Note: Italics are used in the text to highlight links to other aspects of the program. learners to more autonomous and confident learners. As 1. In the ESL programs, the word ‘text’ refers to any form of communication– in the elementary school program, evaluation has a two- spoken, written or visual–involving the English language. 583 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  6. 6. 584 Making Connections: ESL and the Other Dimensions of the Programme de formation de l’école québécoise The Programme de formation de l’école québécoise (PFEQ) writing and producing texts, they reflect on the best way focuses on helping students construct their identity and to carry out a task and use the necessary resources–a world-view and on empowering them to become respon- focus of the CCC adopts effective work methods. sible citizens. The three dimensions of the PFEQ are the The ESL program can also be linked to the other subjects broad areas of learning (BAL), the cross-curricular compe- in the PFEQ. Learning English allows students to construct tencies (CCC) and the subject areas. knowledge and develop strategies that can be reinvested The broad areas of learning deal with the important issues in other fields of study and areas of interest, both inside of contemporary life that students face in today’s society. and outside the classroom. There is a clear connection The ESL program is linked to all BAL in that language is between ESL and Français, langue d’enseignement: in both a means for learning about and discussing these issues. programs, students develop the ability to write texts, which For example, in Citizenship and Community Life, students permits the transfer of learning from one subject to the are called upon to develop openness towards the world other. They produce media texts in ESL, while further devel- and respect for diversity. They develop this openness and oping the competency creates media images from the respect as they discover other cultures and communicate Visual Arts program. Students draw on the competency with members of different communities through the use uses mathematical reasoning from the Mathematics pro- of English–a universal language of communication. An gram when, for example, they interpret the results of a educational aim of another BAL, Media Literacy, is to survey carried out in the ESL class. Furthermore, in inter- enable students to exercise critical, ethical and aesthetic disciplinary projects, the English language becomes an judgment with respect to the media. The ESL competency additional medium through which students may access reinvests understanding of texts helps students to form resources available in English. For example, they can do opinions as they explore, respond to and produce diverse research on historical events in English, construct meaning media texts. of the texts they find, and then reinvest their under- standing of these texts in the French language when The cross-curricular competencies are a focal point in all developing competencies in the History and Citizenship subjects and school activities, and can be linked to the Education program. three ESL competencies. For example, while students inter- act orally in English, they have to cooperate with others Other connections may be found in an example of an inter- so that effective interaction can take place. A connection disciplinary learning and evaluation situation which follows between the ESL competency reinvests understanding of the section on “Integrated Teaching-Learning-Evaluating texts and the CCC uses information and communications Context.” technologies is evident when students use the Internet and CD-ROMs as sources of texts to research topics or when they use software to organize and develop their ideas throughout the writing or production processes. When Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  7. 7. Integrated Teaching-Learning-Evaluating Context All three competencies in the ESL program–interacts tion together. Being active members of this community Role of the Student orally in English, reinvests understanding of texts, and of learners provides opportunities for students to learn Students are at the centre of their language-learning expe- writes and produces texts–are developed in synergy. to respect the different views of peers, to express their rience. They are actively involved in their learning, for To maximize their development, certain conditions must own opinions with confidence and to use effective work example, by participating in decisions about the content be put into place. methods. of learning and evaluation situations, the resources they A Community of Learners Resources for a Rich Learning Environment will need to carry out a task or the format of a final prod- uct. The more students contribute to planning what goes Within a community of learners, relationships are estab- Students must be immersed in a rich English environment: on in the classroom, the more they will invest as respon- lished which allow students to construct values, beliefs and examples of the English language and culture such as sible participants in their community of learners. knowledge together. In the Secondary Cycle One ESL class- posters of functional language, banks of expressions and room, students and the teacher work as a community of teen magazines are present in the ESL classroom. Students Students use English to communicate with their peers and learners to pursue the goal of developing communicative may also contribute to creating this environment by dis- the teacher. They develop fluency by experimenting with competence. Students build their knowledge with and playing texts they have written and produced, and by a language repertoire (functional language, other vocab- through others. In an atmosphere of trust and respect, they selecting books or films that are used in class. Through ulary and language conventions) in a variety of sponta- are willing to take risks and help each other learn and exposure to various aspects of culture such as cinema, neous conversations, planned situations and in the grow. They interact in English within a learning environ- history and humour, students come to know and appre- carrying out of tasks. While interacting, they use commu- ment that respects their individual differences and learn- ciate the culture of English speakers in Québec, in Canada nication strategies to help them make up for their lack of ing styles. Oral interaction is at the heart of all activities and throughout the world. knowledge of the language. The use of learning strategies in the classroom: students use English to communicate enables them to reflect on their learning process, to manip- For learning and evaluation, students must have access to with each other and the teacher to share their ideas while ulate language and to interact with others. Students a variety of material resources such as ICT, banks of speaking, listening, reading, viewing, responding, writing explore the response, writing and production processes expressions, checklists, models, dictionaries, thesauruses and producing. The ESL class allows students to participate and are encouraged to experiment with the different ele- and grammar reference books. They also have access to as active members of a community of learners as well as ments in the phases of each process. They personalize the human resources through support and feedback from their to work and reflect on their own. processes over time as they experiment with various texts, teacher and peers. Both inside and outside the classroom, models, tools and resources and apply what works best The students’ development of communicative competence students explore authentic2 spoken, written and visual for them in a given context. in English is both an individual achievement and a com- texts. Some examples of texts are illustrated books, news- munity effort. They work with others in collaboration and papers, magazines, advertisements, radio broadcasts, tele- Students are also active participants in evaluation, which cooperation. Collaboration involves any situation in which vision programs, videos, movies, the Internet and is a planned and integral part of learning situations. They two or more students work together. They may collaborate CD-ROMs. To enable students to write and produce texts, are encouraged to reflect on their language acquisition with others to attain an individual goal or personal prod- the appropriate technology must be made available (e.g. 2. ‘Authentic texts’ refer to materials that reflect natural speech or writing uct such as writing an advertisement in the school news- televisions, tape recorders, CD players, the Internet, pre- as used by native speakers. Teacher-made or adapted materials may paper. Cooperation involves two or more students working sentation and publishing software and media-related com- qualify as authentic if they resemble real-world texts the students will towards a common goal, for example, planning a celebra- puter equipment). encounter. 585 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  8. 8. 586 and their progress by using a variety of evaluation tools teacher evaluates the students’ learning process as well as End-of-Cycle Outcomes such as conferencing, self- or peer-evaluations and port- their final product. Students reflect on their own learning The end-of-cycle outcomes provide a global portrait folios. They take into account feedback from the teacher and progress and, when necessary, make the appropriate of what a competent student is able to do by the end of and peers and make adjustments to their methods, their adjustments. For recognition of competencies, the teacher the cycle. The outcomes are not merely the sum total work and to the language they are learning. evaluates the degree to which students have developed of the results of evaluation activities that went on during a competency, generally at the end of the cycle. Role of the Teacher the cycle. They describe how a student demonstrates com- Evaluation Criteria petency, under what conditions and with what resources. ESL teachers have an active role in helping students learn The level of complexity of the outcome is determined by English. They are responsible for establishing and nurturing The evaluation criteria represent the important aspects of the task, by how the evaluation criteria are defined and a positive learning environment; they encourage students the competency that are to be observed in order to judge by the range of resources that are used. Students must be to take risks, to interact in English and to work with others. the development of this competency, both during the cycle familiar with the end-of-cycle outcomes and use them to As facilitator, the teacher is an observant pedagogue ready and at the end of the cycle. guide their progress throughout the cycle. The outcomes to adjust to the proficiency levels, needs, interests and Criteria are used to create evaluation tools such as obser- serve to interpret students’ results for the end-of-cycle learning styles of the students. The teacher is committed vation checklists and self-evaluation forms to gather infor- progress report so that appropriate remedial or enrichment to encouraging students to actively participate in their mation about the students’ development of the three activities may be provided for the students in the next cycle. learning by connecting what they have learned to their competencies. This information serves as a support for world, which includes the academic, social and personal learning. It permits teachers to modify certain elements of Learning and Evaluation Situations aspects of their lives. The teacher is a model and guide. their teaching in order to meet the needs of their students The teacher, with contribution from the students, plans S/he explicitly teaches strategies by modelling or through and helps students to improve their methods, work and learning and evaluation situations that deal with issues elicitation, a technique whereby s/he prompts students language learning. drawn from the BAL; aspects of culture; the students’ to find an answer for themselves. As students experiment The evaluation criteria are generic in nature so that they needs, interests or experiences; the CCC; or other subjects. with language, strategies and resources, the teacher may apply to diverse learning and evaluation situations. Whether teacher-directed or student-initiated, these situa- helps them become increasingly confident second- They are neither hierarchical nor cumulative. Teachers tions must be meaningful and interesting to the students language learners. choose one or more criteria to observe and adapt them and provide them with opportunities to interact in English, When students take risks to communicate, they may make to the specific characteristics of the learning and evalua- to cooperate and to collaborate. The greater the appeal errors, which are a natural part of the language acquisi- tion situation, the period during the cycle, the students’ and relevance of the issue to them, the more students will tion process. Although the primary focus is on the mean- prior learning, and the competencies and content targeted make an effort to participate and communicate their point ing of the message, if such errors impede comprehension, by the task. The evaluation criteria must be explained to of view. When students do not have the words or struc- the teacher focuses on form (grammar)3 and uses correc- the students in order for them to know what is expected tures to accomplish the task, the teacher plans language- tive feedback techniques (e.g. elicitation, clarification in a particular learning and evaluation situation and to be focus activities within the context of the situation. The requests, metalinguistic feedback and repetition) in order able to make appropriate adjustments to their learning. teacher and students can use a variety of methods and for students to notice and correct their errors. In keeping with the students’ role of participating in their tools (e.g. observation, conferencing, checklists and learning, they could be more fully involved in the evalua- portfolios) in order to carry out self-, peer- or teacher- Evaluation: an Integral Part of Learning evaluation, an integral part of the learning situation. tion process by developing evaluation tools of their own The teacher supports the students’ learning throughout the for certain tasks. cycle and assesses the development of competencies. The 3. See Focus on Form (Grammar) p. 188. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  9. 9. Essential Characteristics of a Learning and Example of an Interdisciplinary Learning and Evaluation Situation: Earth Day Evaluation Situation: The following situation is only one example of how connections can be made among the components of the PFEQ. In – Maximizes opportunities for oral interaction this interdisciplinary learning and evaluation situation, the ESL teacher and teachers of other subjects collaborate to – Promotes cooperation and collaboration observe Earth Day, held in Canada on April 22. – Is appropriate to student’s age and level of language development Broad Area of Learning Environmental Awareness and Consumer Rights and Responsibilities – Is relevant to the student Focus of development of the BAL: Awareness of his/her environment – Is connected to the real world – Is purposeful Cross-Curricular Competencies Uses information and communications technologies – Is challenging and motivating Uses information – Exploits authentic texts English as a Second Language Interacts orally in English – Allows for differentiation Reinvests understanding of texts – Encourages reflection Writes and produces texts – Provides opportunities for transfer Science and Technology Seeks answers or solutions to scientific or technological problems Geography Interprets a territorial issue Catholic Religious and Moral Instruction Takes a reflective position on ethical issues Protestant Moral and Religious Takes a reflective position on situations involving an ethical issue Education Moral Education Takes a reflective position on ethical issues 587 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  10. 10. 588 Earth Day and the Broad Areas of Learning be used to evaluate the students’ level of participation in Earth Day provides an occasion to explore issues drawn the various discussions and their ability to communicate from the BAL Environmental Awareness and Consumer their message. Rights and Responsibilities. As students do work relating to a learning and evaluation situation based on Earth Day, Students can visit pertinent English Internet sites or do they are encouraged to develop an active relationship research in the library to get information about the pol- with their environment while maintaining a critical lutant they have selected. As they do the research, they attitude towards consumption and the exploitation of the can share their findings, as well as their reactions to this environment. information. Finally, they can reinvest their understand- ing of the information they have gathered by making an Earth Day and the Cross-Curricular Competencies illustration of the pollutant and its source. The teacher The CCC uses information and communications tech- may analyze the students’ illustrations to determine how nologies is targeted as students organize their Internet appropriately they use information from their research browsing techniques and their bookmarks and use appro- and how well they are able to express their message. priate search engines to consult specialized sites. In the ESL class, students may exchange information The CCC uses information is targeted because students through e-mail messages or write letters to environmen- encounter an abundance of information and conflicting tal groups. They can present their research findings by points of view as they research different environmental producing an information brochure, a poster or a multi- concerns. While developing this competency, the student media computer presentation. Students could use a peer- systematizes the information-gathering process, gathers evaluation grid to give feedback on the pertinence of the information and puts information to use–all essential message and on an error of form they have been making. elements of efficient research. This competency can be Earth Day and Connections to Other Subjects evaluated through peer interviews, in which students discuss the sources of information explored, the per- In an interdisciplinary Earth Day project, connections to tinence of this information and, finally, how they would several subjects are possible. In the Science and improve their research skills the next time they do a simi- Technology program, students may search for alternative lar task. ways to reduce waste. In the Geography program, they can determine the impact that these solutions would Earth Day and the ESL Competencies have on the local region. In the Catholic Religious and Throughout the entire learning and evaluation situation, Moral Instruction, the Protestant Moral and Religious students interact orally in English to carry out different Education, or the Moral Education program, students activities such as brainstorming, sharing information, could compare and contrast waste-related issues from writing and producing. Teacher and peer checklists may different points of view (e.g. industry versus environment). Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  11. 11. ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE, CORE PROGRAM Reinvests understanding of texts Interacts orally STUDENT in English Writes and produces texts 589 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  12. 12. 590 COMPETENCY 1 Interacts orally in English Focus of the Competency The very nature of oral interaction requires students to work their personal language repertoire.4 As they interact, stu- with others using the English language in order to learn dents take risks by experimenting with the language when the second language in context. Students learn to they ask questions, give information, express ideas, understand and speak the language most efficiently when thoughts and feelings, and share their point of view. If they are given frequent opportunities to do so in an interaction breaks down, students exploit communication interactive environment. Therefore oral interaction is the strategies, such as stalling for time, to make up for their backdrop for the Secondary Cycle One ESL program. lack of knowledge of the language. They end oral interac- English is the language of instruction and communication tion appropriately. While students interact, they make a used in all student-student, student-teacher and teacher- conscious effort to build on what they already know in student interaction. order to expand a personal language repertoire of func- tional language, other vocabulary and language conven- At the elementary level, students were guided by the tions. Their personal repertoire depends on their learning teacher who modelled the language for them as they com- style, individual needs, and language experience and abil- municated in English in situations that were centred ities. As students interact orally, they develop a certain around classroom life. In the Secondary Cycle One ESL pro- level of fluency. They convey messages that are pertinent gram, the situations go beyond classroom life and become to the requirements of the task and articulate these mes- increasingly complex; students use English to begin to sages using simple sentences. Students may make errors investigate issues related to their needs and interests, and of form such as word order and choice of words, as well their experiences outside the classroom. They explore con- as errors of pronunciation and intonation. These errors of cerns taken from the BAL, aspects of culture, the CCC, articulation, however, do not impede comprehension of the other subjects or themes proposed by the students message by an English speaker and are normal at this themselves. Students are encouraged to take risks–an stage of students’ language development. Students also essential step in the language acquisition process–in a use material and human resources available to them both classroom which nurtures trust and respect. inside and outside the classroom. To develop this competency, students interact orally in both structured activities, such as role-playing, jigsaw tasks, problem solving and discussions, as well as spon- taneous conversation that may arise in the class. Students initiate interaction by using appropriate functional lan- guage. They use learning strategies such as listening atten- tively to recognize words and expressions they already know. They respond appropriately, either verbally or non- 4. A language repertoire is personal in that it reflects individual language verbally. Students maintain conversation by making use of experience and abilities. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  13. 13. Key Features of Competency 1 (Core Program) End-of-Cycle Outcomes By the end of Secondary Cycle One, Initiates, reacts to, maintains students initiate, react to, maintain and and ends oral interaction end oral interaction with peers and the Takes into account the other speaker(s) or audience Constructs meaning of the message teacher. They take risks in their use of • Begins interaction • Actively participates • Listens Listens to the message • Grasps the meaning English. Through structured oral interac- attentively • Reacts to what the other says • Keeps the of the message • Validates personal under- standing • Readjusts comprehension when tion, students convey personal messages conversation going • Ends appropriately • Uses com- munication and learning strategies, and resources necessary • Uses communication and learn- that correspond to the requirements of ing strategies the task. They use functional language and other vocabulary to interact sponta- neously in a variety of communicative Interacts orally situations related to classroom life, the in English students’ interests, and the carrying out of tasks. They deliver messages in simple sen- tences. With support from peers and the teacher, they make use of communication and learning strategies with increasing Expands a personal language repertoire confidence. They effectively exploit some Uses functional language, other vocabulary and language conven- material resources such as posters of func- tions • Takes feedback into account • Pronounces words in an under- standable way • Practises and reflects on newly acquired language tional language and banks of expressions. and strategies They seek help from peers and, when necessary, the teacher. Errors of articulation may be present and are normal at this stage of the students’ language develop- Evaluation Criteria ment. These errors, however, do not – Participation in oral interaction impede understanding. – Pertinence of the message – Articulation of the message – Use of communication and learning strategies – Use of resources 591 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  14. 14. 592 COMPETENCY 2 Reinvests understanding of texts Focus of the Competency When developing this competency, students explore reading and/or viewing, students pay attention to the authentic texts which are sources of information and overall message and/or to specific details. They accept not entertainment, and that bring the students into contact being able to understand all words and ideas. Students with the literature and culture of English-speaking com- respond to the text, which means that they reflect on the munities in Québec, in Canada and around the world. text, establish a personal connection with it, and then go beyond their own reality to address the issues in the text By the time students reach Secondary Cycle One, they are at a broader level (see response process, p. 192).Throughout already familiar with a variety of texts in their mother this process, students construct meaning with their peers tongue. In the Elementary ESL program, they were intro- and the teacher. Guided by the teacher, they share impres- duced to different text types: popular, literary and infor- sions, thoughts, feelings, opinions and interpretations of mation-based, and they reinvested their understanding of the text in order to arrive at a deeper understanding. Once some of these texts by carrying out very guided tasks and the students have negotiated sufficient understanding of using explicit models. Students also learned to compare the text, they reinvest this understanding by carrying out what is presented in texts with their own reality, and to meaningful tasks. They select, organize and adapt the express appreciation of texts. In the Secondary Cycle One information, all the while cooperating with their peers and ESL program, students listen to, read and view a variety using resources required by the task. To reinvest their of authentic texts that correspond to their age, interests understanding, students interact orally in English or write and level of language development (e.g. lyrics of popular and produce texts, thus further reinforcing the interdepen- songs, young adult literature and magazines). Through the dence of the three ESL competencies. Reinvestment tasks response process, they relate to the text at a deeper level could include building a model of a scene, making a comic than they did at elementary school. They research and strip, retelling or dramatizing a story, or creating a multi- choose texts themselves, respond to the text, participate media computer presentation. in the planning of the reinvestment tasks and decide on what form this reinvestment will take. Throughout Secondary Cycle One, they become less dependent on teacher guidance and models. To develop this competency, students first begin by prepar- ing to listen to, read and/or view a text. They take into account the key elements of the text, such as the head- line, photos and captions in an article from a magazine or an e-magazine. They use learning strategies such as anticipating the content of the text, activating prior knowl- edge of the topic or making predictions. While listening, Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  15. 15. Key Features of Competency 2 (Core Program) End-of-Cycle Outcomes By the end of Secondary Cycle One, stu- Constructs meaning of the text dents demonstrate an understanding of Listens to, reads and/or views texts Tolerates ambiguity • Takes into account text various types of texts that correspond to Explores a variety of popular, literary and information- type and components • Negotiates meaning their age, interests and level of language based texts • Uses prior knowledge of topic, text and • Reacts to the text • Uses resources when language • Receives input from others • Uses com- necessary • Uses communication and learn- development. They show this understand- munication and learning strategies, and resources ing strategies ing as they engage in the response process with the support of peers, prompts and teacher guidance. Students share their Reinvests reactions as they explore texts, establish a understanding personal connection to texts, and some- times generalize beyond the texts. They of texts use knowledge from texts such as the overall meaning, specific details and key elements when accomplishing various Represents understanding of the text reinvestment tasks. With support from Selects, organizes and adapts the information peers and the teacher, they make use of and language through reinvestment tasks communication and learning strategies • Cooperates • Uses communication and learning strategies, and resources with increasing confidence. Students use material resources such as dictionaries and the Internet, with help. They seek assis- tance from peers and, when necessary, the teacher. Evaluation Criteria – Evidence of comprehension of texts – Use of knowledge from texts appropriate to the task – Use of communication and learning strategies – Use of resources 593 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  16. 16. 594 COMPETENCY 3 Writes and produces texts Focus of the Competency For Québec students, writing and producing texts in in these processes, or use certain phases more than once, tion from the students as they cooperate with each other English provides them with the means to communicate in order to personalize their writing or production process. and the teacher, and reflect on their learning. Over time, with people from all over the world, for example, through Certain writing, such as informal e-mail messages, may students build a personal inventory of writing and produc- e-mail messages and letters to pen pals. This authentic not require students to make use of all the phases in the tion resources that are adapted to their individual needs. communication gives students a purpose to write and pro- writing process. For written texts such as note taking and They experiment with a variety of examples from popu- duce. Through the processes involved in this competency, journal writing, students do not use a writing process. lar, literary and information-based texts. They use different students have the opportunity and the time they need to writing and production tools, as well as communication In the writing process, when students prepare to write, experiment with the language, to develop their creativity and learning strategies such as self-monitoring. they determine the purpose for their writing, the target and individual style, to incorporate feedback from peers audience and the text type to best reach that intended and the teacher, and to reflect on their learning. When audience. They may research a topic and incorporate their they publish their work, students feel a sense of pride and findings in their writing, thus reinvesting their understand- receive recognition for what they have written or produced. ing of texts. When they share those findings with their Students in Secondary Cycle One are familiar with the writ- peers, they interact orally in English. Students also make ing process through experience in elementary school both use of their knowledge of texts, for example text compo- in Français, langue d’enseignement and ESL classes. In the nents, when they write. They set down their ideas in a first Elementary ESL program, students, guided by the teacher, draft and take into account feedback from peers and the followed very explicit models and experimented with open- teacher when revising their texts. Students use material ended models in order to write their texts. In Secondary resources such as dictionaries and grammar references to Cycle One, students are encouraged to personalize the edit (e.g. correct spelling mistakes and other grammatical writing and production processes5 to create texts: over errors to improve the formulation of their text). They may time, they experiment with various texts, models, tools then write a polished copy to present to an audience, which (e.g. mind maps, outlines, checklists, storyboards) and could include peers, parents or other students in their school. other resources, then apply what works best for them in Throughout the writing process, students use their language a given context. Students become less dependent on repertoire and communication and learning strategies teacher guidance and models as they gain confidence in such as asking for help from their peers and the teacher. using the processes and expressing their creativity. In the production process, students express their ideas, To develop this competency, students experiment with thoughts, feelings or messages by creating media texts writing and producing a variety of texts through tasks such as posters or Web pages. The production process which may range from changing a few words in a model involves three phases: preproduction, production and to creating a completely original text. Writing and produc- postproduction. By working through the process, students 5. Processes are personalized over time as students experiment with various ing are recursive processes, therefore students may choose get an insight into the media from both a producer’s and texts, models, tools and other resources, then apply what works best to use any number of combinations of the different phases consumer’s perspective. This process relies on participa- for them in a given context. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  17. 17. Key Features of Competency 3 (Core Program) End-of-Cycle Outcomes By the end of Secondary Cycle One, stu- dents write or produce different types of Uses a personalized production process texts by using a personalized writing Adapts the process to the task • Cooperates and/or production process. The texts begin Uses a personalized writing process • Prepares to produce • Produces the media text to reflect students’ creativity. They write or Adapts the process to the task • Prepares to write • Adjusts and presents the media text • Shares • Writes the draft(s) • Revises • Edits • Publishes produce texts that correspond to the and reflects on process and product • Uses com- • Shares and reflects on process and product • Uses munication and learning strategies, and resources requirements of the task or to their per- communication and learning strategies, and resources sonal intention. They use simple sen- tences, and they apply the language conventions required by the task that correspond to their level of language Writes and development. Errors of formulation may produces texts be present and are normal at this stage of the students’ language development. These errors, however, do not impede understanding. Students consult their Builds a personal inventory of writing and production resources peers and the teacher, and take their feed- Experiments with a variety of popular, literary and information-based texts • Uses back into account. With support from and adapts various text models • Uses a variety of writing and production tools peers and the teacher, they make use of • Uses communication and learning strategies communication and learning strategies with increasing confidence. Students use Evaluation Criteria material resources such as models, dictio- naries and grammar references, and – Pertinence of the text request assistance with these resources, – Formulation of the text when necessary. – Use of communication and learning strategies – Use of resources 595 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program
  18. 18. 596 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise
  19. 19. Related Content The elements of this section are considered essential to – Media (e.g. radio shows, newspapers, teen magazines, Functional Language the development of the three Secondary Cycle One ESL various types of television programs: situation comedies, – Social conventions (e.g. Pleased to meet you. How are competencies. Students explore different aspects of the cartoons, soap operas, news programs, commercials) you? Hello! I’m…, Hi, this is my friend…) culture of English speakers. They experiment with and The Sociological Aspect of Culture – Identification (e.g. This is…, She’s my partner.) expand their personal language repertoire as well as their – Telephone talk, voice mail, e-mail talk (e.g. May I speak use of communication and learning strategies. Students – Organization and nature of family (e.g. values, beliefs, to…? Is Peter there? I’ll get back to you later.) use processes to respond to different texts and to write authority figures, roles, chores) – Fillers (e.g. You see…, So…, Well…, Let me think…, and produce texts, and to broaden their understanding of – Interpersonal relations (e.g. friendship, sports, games Give me a second…) text types and text components. and other hobbies) – Apologies (e.g. I’m sorry, I apologize for…, Excuse me.) – Customs (e.g. food and meal traditions from around Culture – Rejoinders, connectors (e.g. What about you? Are you the world, holiday celebrations) sure? What do you think? Is this clear?) When selecting and discussing aspects of culture, it is – Material conditions (e.g. clothing, housing) – Warnings (e.g. Pay attention! Be careful! Watch out!) essential to consider the students’ needs, interests and – Heroes and idols – Politely interrupting a conversation (e.g. Sorry to inter- abilities. Incorporating aspects of English culture into the – History (e.g. historical sites, historical events, museums) rupt. Excuse me.) ESL program greatly contributes to the development of the – Geographical features (e.g. natural and artificial – Agreement, disagreement, opinions (e.g. I think you’re students’ world-view and to a better understanding of features) right, I disagree, They believe…, We agree…, I don’t their own culture. It is important to incorporate references The Sociolinguistic Aspect of Culture think so.) to English-language culture within Québec and Canada, – Capabilities (e.g. They can…, He can’t…, She is able to other English-language cultures (American, Irish, – Social skills (e.g. taking turns, disagreeing politely) – Paralinguistic skills (e.g. gestures, facial expressions) to…, I’m sure we can.) Scottish, Australian, etc.), and to cultures that use English – Feelings, interests, tastes, preferences (e.g. He loves…, as a second language. – Language code (e.g. dialects, accents, idiomatic expres- sions) They like…, I hate…, She prefers…, He enjoys…, I’m The subcategories of each aspect of culture do not exclude – Humour (e.g. jokes, riddles, puns, tall tales) happy…, She is sad.) other possibilities. – Decision/indecision (e.g. They’ve decided that…, I’m Language Repertoire not sure about that. We choose this one.) The Aesthetic Aspect of Culture – Permission (e.g. May I…? Can you…?) The language repertoire contains elements essential to the – Cinema* (e.g. movie trailers, science-fiction, action, – Advice (e.g. Should I…? Do you think…? I think that…, students’ development of communicative competence in romantic and comedy films) Is this the right thing to do?) English. Over time, students assemble a personal language – Literature (e.g. folktales, myths and legends, poems, – Instructions and classroom routines (e.g. Write this repertoire that reflects individual language experience and short stories, novels, biographies, autobiographies, down. Whose turn is it? We have 15 minutes to do it.) abilities. They expand and begin to refine their repertoire young adult literature) – Offers of assistance, needs (e.g. Let me help you. Can while developing the three ESL competencies. – Music (e.g. campfire songs, traditional folk music and I give you a hand? Do you need help? Can I help you?) songs, contemporary English songs, music videos) * Note: Italics are used in the Related Content to highlight suggestions and examples. 597 Chapitre 5 Programme de formation de l’école québécoise Domaine des langues English as a Second Language, Core Program