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  • UNIVERSITE DE SHERBROOKE Faculté d‟éducation Département de pédagogie B.E.A.L.S. Providing Feedback to Written Assignments Work presented to Michelle Paradis and Dominique Hétu As part of Professional Essay (INT 400) 41 December 21, 2009
  • 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………..2 CONTEXT…....................…………………………………………………………………..3 LITERATURE REVIEW.......……………………………………………………………....5 METHODOLOGY.........................………………………………………………………....10 POSSIBLE CHALLENGES….……………………………………………………….....…16 CONCLUSION...…………………………………………………………………………....16 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………................…17 APPENDIX..............................................………………………………………………........18 APPENDIX A – QUESTIONS…….………………………………………………...………19 APPENDIX B - QUESTIONAIRE…………………………………………………….....….20 APPENDIX C- CHECKLIST……………………………………………………….……......22 APPENDIX D – OUTLINE FOR A FIVE-PARAGPRAH TEXT.………………..…….......23 APPENDIX E – HOW TO USE A DICTIONARY………….....………………..………......24 APPENDIX F - SCALE………………………………………..………..…….….………..…25 APPENDIX G – THE MT. MERCURY ADVENTURE.........………......……………….…26 APPENDIX H- SELF-EVALUATION QUESTIONAIRE ………………………………….31 APPENDIX I - RUBRIC..…….......………………………………………………………….32 APPENDIX J – MEDIUM RANGE PLANNING…....……………………………………...34
  • 2 Providing Feedback to Written Assignments This is a description of an action-research in progress, which inspires students to write and use constructive feedback from the teacher to learn from their mistakes. The purpose of this assignment is to elaborate my action research project proposal in which I describe the context, develop a review of the literature as well as elaborating on a methodological approach. Up until now in my career, I have gained experience while teaching every level from kindergarten to secondary five. I also had the occasion to teach Intensive English to six graders, teach in a private school as well as being an animator for group discussions in college. Ever since I started teaching, I noticed that students do not take into consideration written corrections on their assignment which is why I am focusing my action research on the following question: how to provide constructive feedback on ESL students` written assignments. Context I have selected this subject because, at the beginning of my teaching career, my standards were too high. I quickly learned that when correcting a student‟s written assignment, I should not underline in red every mistake, because when students received their copy they were disappointed. Another pitfall was that they did not take the time to look at the mistakes. As a teacher, I would spend time correcting each text and it was upsetting to see that students did not even take the time to look at the corrections and learn from their mistakes. Next, I changed my correcting method. I would spend more time looking for what the students did right and I was working to build on those strengths, rather than pointing to weaknesses. Of course I was also helping students to improve their weak points but I learned to share with them what they had done right instead of only telling them what they had done wrong. View slide
  • 3 For my part, this subject interests me greatly because I would like to find a constructive way to correct assignments and provide meaningful feedback and corrections. Students have different ways of learning. Some will take the time to read the corrections and will not make the same mistake twice because they acquired new knowledge and understand it. Others do not even take the time to look over the corrections. Why should I correct if it is not meaningful for the students? The impact my corrections have on students is important for me as a teacher and I would like to take this occasion to research on the subject. Another dilemma I experienced in correcting mistakes is that I remember correcting a student frequently who was making the same mistake repetitively. It seems as if even if I corrected her and taught her using a different method, she never acquired the correction I was trying to fix. Why do some students learn differently? Why do some take a longer time to find a proper way to learn and to grasp a grammar concept? An additional problem I was confronted with regarding written production is the fact that once a student obtains a satisfying result, he does not think it is necessary to apply himself when he is asked to write a text. Therefore, his first written production was very well written, the second one was acceptable and the third one was terrible. He did not take the time to review his mistakes since his score was satisfying to him. My action- research is taking place in three elementary schools: Notre-Dame-des- Bois-Francs, St-Christophe, and Saint-David, which are part of the Commission scolaire des Bois-Francs in Victoriaville. I have chosen these schools because they offer a regular English program as well as an Intensive English program. Students for whom English is a second language are a growing segment in these school populations. In these schools, there are no typical ESL students. I teach to four hundred and thirty students from grade one to grade six. They are divided into nineteen groups which I see between two to three times, for a period of sixty minutes in a cycle of ten days. View slide
  • 4 Most students are Canadian-born from francophone families who live in the surrounding neighborhood. All students have had varied degrees of exposure to their second language, as well as a wide variety of life experiences and attributes that can significantly enrich the life of the school and help enhance learning for all students. Some have various linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Not all require the same types of support. A number of students may need to complement their early childhood experiences and first languages with wide ESL support if they are to be successful in the school system. A few who have immigrated to Victoriaville from Germany, Algeria, Columbia and the United-States with their families after having received some formal education in their home countries. In some cases, they have learned English as a foreign language in school. Given appropriate ESL support, including cultural-bridging experiences, these students progress well in their new schools. Some students arrived in Canada as refugees. These students may have received little or no schooling in their country. They may also have experienced traumatic conditions caused by political, social, and economic disturbance. In addition to ESL support, these students may need specialized counseling and literacy training in their first language as well as in French since it is the main language taught in schools. A few students have special needs associated with mental challenges, physical challenges, and behavioral difficulties which do not facilitate their success in their second language. One student even has a special educator who comes with her in the classroom. Even if students have different abilities and backgrounds, I will need to motivate all of them to write. As far as I am concerned, they are not stimulated to write in their second language whether it is from their parents or English teacher. Therefore, it will be a challenge for me to get them to write a text but I believe that with the proper tools and motivation they will succeed. On top of focusing on my action-research question, I will also focus on sub
  • 5 questions such as: how to teach students to revise their text and how to motivate students to write. Since English is mostly a second language in Quebec, it is hard to expect a well structured and error free text on behalf of the students. Teaching a second language is a challenge and learning it is even a greater challenge also. But, in my opinion, students should start writing in English as soon as in grade one. That way, the quality of texts would be greater by the end of high school which means after eleven years of English as a second language. Literature Review Writing is a highly valued skill that is often neglected in the ESL classroom. I think that one reason is that teachers often do not receive adequate training in writing assessment. Many different methods are used by teachers to evaluate student writing. Which method is the best? How may teachers provide constructive feedback on ESL students` written assignments? In this present study various feedback methods are analyzed. I examine effective and efficient methods to provide feedback according to authors and the preference between peer feedback, self feedback and teacher feedback. I will also explain the writing competencies that students need to achieve according to the MELS. According to Williams, the traditional method used by teachers which is only correcting the mistakes is not working. Students copy the corrections but do not understand the mistakes they made. It does not teach students how to recognize or correct errors on their own. Indicating the presence or types of errors without correction is also ineffective. Many times the students do not understand why the errors were indicated and guess the corrections as they rewrite. Both of these methods ask students to focus more on surface errors than on the clarity of their ideas, and it only stresses the negative.
  • 6 Let‟s focus on the meaning of feedback for the purpose of this study. What does it really signify? According to Williams, (2003) “The goal of feedback is to teach skills that help students improve their writing proficiency to the point where they are cognizant of what is expected of them as writers and are able to produce it with minimal errors and maximum clarity.” (Williams, 2003) He also states the difference between feedback on form which is to indicate by underlining the place and type of error but without correction and feedback on content which is written comments by teachers on drafts, to point out problems and offer suggestions. Students are expected to incorporate information from the comments into their writing. In order to give effective and efficient feedback, Woodhouse and Page (2006) suggests the following: Don‟t correct more than a paragraph or two; Give rules or strategies for language errors; Distinguish language issues from comments on the substantive issues about the assignment; Give feedback anonymously to the whole group highlighting common problems, rather than to each individual; Give feedback on aspects that the student requests; Refer for ESL support when necessary. (Woodhouse and Page, 2006) I will take into consideration these suggestions when I correct and provide feedback. Williams (2003) believes that two methods work to give appropriate and effective feedback. The first one is when students receive grammar feedback that indicated the place but not types of errors. Indirect feedback is more useful than direct correction. The second one is when students find understanding written feedback problematic. Student-teacher conferencing is useful to develop strategies for improvement, since direct questions can be asked and answered right away. (Williams, 2003) The two previous authors only elaborated on written feedback on the other hand Ferris and Hedgcock (2004) suppose that “it is safe to assume that some students may have
  • 7 problems adequately comprehending oral feedback, even though the conference format allows them increased opportunities to request clarification.” (Ferris and Hedgcock, 2004, p. 205) Williams (2003) also states that teachers should consistently use a standard set of symbols and familiarize students with the system. They should also use a standard set of clear and direct comments and questions to indicate content feedback. They should also familiarize students with the types of comments and train them how to make use of the comments. (Williams, 2003) Shum, a teacher at the University of Hong Kong in China, performed a study which “investigated the effects of four different methods used to evaluate Chinese compositions of senior secondary students in Hong Kong, with a particular interest in examining whether any one method would result in improving students' attitudes to writing (especially their willingness to revise) and increasing their writing achievements. ” (Shum, p.1) The first method is a “detailed evaluation by the teacher”. The second one is an “evaluation by the teacher using symbolic codes”. The third one is a “peer evaluation by students using a checklist after students receive some training”. The last one is a “self-evaluation by students using a checklist.” (Shum, p.2) Shum cited Liu (1985) who used a rather interesting figure of speech to describe these four methods: The process of conducting detailed evaluation of composition by teachers is similar to that of teaching a child how to walk. The adult would first demonstrate how to walk to the child. The process of teacher evaluation by using symbolic codes and giving the composition back to the students is similar to that of helping the child to walk by leading him the way. For peer evaluation, it is similar to the process of letting the children walk hand in hand. Self-evaluation by students is similar to the situation when the child learned how to walk on his own, as equivalent to the ultimate goal of training. (Liu, 1985) Shum‟s results “showed that the students in the 'peer evaluation (checklist)' group performed better in terms of taking the initiative in rewriting, their writing habits and their recall rate of revising. A post-study questionnaire survey of the students found that they
  • 8 generally held a positive attitude toward peer evaluation by checklist. ” (Shum, p.1) However, Woodhouse and Page (2006) obtained a different result on a similar survey. Apparently, students “overwhelmingly preferred teacher feedback over peer and self-feedback” (Woodhouse and Page, 2006, p. 228) Students also want, according to William (2003), multiple rewrites, student-teacher conferencing, label mistakes and to make corrections on their own and feedback about the content. He also provided a list of questions about form, content, comments that teachers should take into consideration when giving feedback. (Appendix A) In the school system, students need to achieve a writing competency whether it is at the primary level or in secondary. At the end of cycle 3, in elementary school, which is grade six, students are expected to attain competency 3: To write texts. According to the elementary English as a Second Language Program: By the end of Cycle Three, students write a variety of well structured texts to fulfill meaningful goals. Supported by peers and the teacher, students make greater and more confident use of compensatory and learning strategies. They produce a text that is pertinent to the instructions given and apply the language conventions targeted for the task. From an open-ended model and available resources, students deliver a personalized final product that shows imagination and creativity, and takes the intended audience into account. (MELS, 2003) Few are the students who can write a text at the level and hardly any have the ability to revise their texts using strategies. In the first cycle in secondary, students need to achieve competency 3: Writes and produces texts. According to the Secondary Cycle One ESL programs: By the end of Secondary Cycle One, students write and produce popular, literary and information-based texts that represent their increased proficiency and their emerging personal style. In order to write/produce an effective, well-structured text, they use and adapt personalized writing and production processes to the task at hand with increased ease…. They write/ produce a well formulated text that is easily understood. They request, provide and integrate feedback from peers and teachers on a regular basis….Students reflect regularly on
  • 9 their successes and challenges and make appropriate adjustments for their continued language development. (MELS, 2003) Even if students are expected to accomplish all that, it is not everyone who does. In the second cycle in secondary, students need to perform the same competency as in cycle one. According to the Secondary Cycle Two ESL programs: By the end of Secondary Cycle Two, students have developed a positive attitude towards writing and producing texts in English. With some support from the teacher and peers, they use and adapt the writing and production processes to suit the task. They persevere, even when faced with challenges, and take risks with language. Students cooperate and are open to other viewpoints during the writing and production processes. (MELS, 2003) These outcomes are not realistic for some students. According to the British Columbia ministry of education, experienced teachers have found that ESL students make better, faster, progress in the long run if they are given sufficient time to absorb new input and are not pressured to complete work or meet the usual age-level performance expectations right away. Most of the frequently used and relied on methods of teacher feedback on written assignments are ineffective when it comes to developing writing skills. Although students tend to have greater confidence in teachers' evaluations and, in opposition, tend to have doubts about their classmates' feedback, peer evaluation can encourage students to revise and improve students' writing habits. Moreover, teachers need to familiarise and train students in how to effectively use the feedback in order to make gains in their proficiency and competence as English writers. Methodology The purpose of my action research is to bring students to consider the teacher‟s feedback on their written assignments. I am focusing on students in grade six since I do not think the other levels produce a sufficient amount of texts for me to elaborate my project. The
  • 10 objectives of my action research are to find appropriate ways of correcting texts and providing feedback to students in order to answer the question: how to provide effective feedback to ESL students‟ written assignments? Given that students in cycle three have targeted competencies to achieve. I am focusing my action research on competency 3. They will also develop other competencies as I elaborate my action-research. In addition, they will develop many cross-curricular competencies such as to use creativity, to adopt effective work methods, to cooperate with others and to communicate appropriately. Moreover they will use strategies like cooperation, self-monitoring, use of prior knowledge and using resources. My action-research will take place during a period of many months from approximately January to March. During those months, I am planning to ask grade six students to write three texts on various subjects. I will use different methods to correct their written assignments. Following that, I will compile the results and compare the texts in order to see which of my methods will have been more constructive for students. I will also ask students to fill out a questionnaire. (Appendix B) Before teaching students how to write a text, I will talk to the students‟ French teacher, Stéphane Lemieux, to see which steps they have learned to use for writing. Students can transfer their prior knowledge and apply it in their writing process. First of all, I will teach students the steps they should follow in order to write a text. I will provide them with a checklist with all the following aspects to focus on, as demonstrated in appendix C. The first step is to prepare to write. Students need to think of the instructions; take out the resources they need such as books, dictionaries, bank of expressions and more; look a the model provided by the teacher, write down ideas which is brainstorming and then put them in order in an outline. Refer to appendix D to see an outline students will need to complete. The second step is to write a draft. Students need to look at the model again,
  • 11 follow the instructions, use their ideas, write short sentences in English with a subject, verb and object; use the vocabulary and expressions known; and if they have any problems they need to ask for help. The third step is to revise the text. Students need to ask themselves questions such as: ``did I follow the instructions? Did I follow the model? Are my ideas original? `` Afterwards, they need to check the spelling, the word order and punctuation with the resources they have as well as with a friend. The last step is to write the final copy of the text. Students need to ask themselves questions such as: Is it ok? Is it neat? Is it easy to read? Next, I will teach them how to decide their layout which consists of five paragraphs: an introduction which includes roughly three sentences. It should contain two sentences about the topic and one thesis sentence. What are you going to write about in your text? A body or development of three paragraphs of more or less five sentences each. To complete your text, you need a conclusion which holds around three sentences. It should rephrase the question, summarize the main ideas, give your opinion, if you have not given it already and look to the future by saying what will happen if the situation continues or change. All this needs to be done in just three sentences! The conclusion is the end of the text and it is the part that the reader may remember the most. It should be clear, and avoid confusing the reader which is why you should never add new information. Each sentence should have an average of about 12 words each, which makes a text of about 252 words. It might seem like a big amount of words but in my experience, with intensive English grade 6 students, most of them could write long texts without any difficulties. There was only two or three who were struggling to attain that quantity of words. Secondly, I will explain to them how to revise and correct their work and remind them about the sentence structure. I will give them strategies to edit and proofread their text such as: correcting vocabulary errors, correcting grammar errors, correcting punctuation, and capitalization and editing to improve style. I will also show them how to look up words in the
  • 12 dictionary since a lot of them are not sure which word to take when they want to translate a word. (Appendix E) Thirdly, I will show them the grading scale I will use which is the same one the Mels provides to teachers for the correction of their ministry exams. I have decided to use that scale because I find it easy to use and straightforward. It allows me to be equal with all the students‟ texts. As you will see in appendix F, the scale is divided in three sections. Once I read a text, I read the first question in the scale and answer it. As you will see, they are all yes and no questions that allows the teacher to answer easily without too much questioning. Once all the questions are answered, a level is given to the text. Fourthly, I will give them a subject and precisions such as the number of words and the amount of time they have to complete their text. For the strong students, I would increase the amount of words that is required. I would explain to them that since they are strong, they have the ability to create a text of a greater length. According to my experience, students who are strong enjoy writing and do not mind to submit a bigger amount of words. It allows them to express their ideas with a rich variety of words. For the weaker one, I will propose to them to come to remedial English either at lunch time or after school in order to finish their text. I will also be more present for them since writing is hard for them. Given that I am planning to make students write a few texts, many subjects will be given to students such as: The Mount Mercury Adventure, What would you do if you won 9 million dollars? What will you do during the summer? For the first subject, students need to write a narrative text in groups. Students are guided throughout a process to stimulate their imagination. The Mount Mercury Adventure is a writing project where students create a narrative based on a very simple structure. This came to me as an idea to help students realize they can report past events.
  • 13 To start with, I will teach target language such as: in the beginning, first, next, after that, afterward, while, as, before long, finally, in the end. After, I will review the past tense: simple past and/or past perfect as well as adjectives. The written project requires at least 4 or 5 lessons. It gives the time to the students to process the information and make changes. It also allows them to rewrite their story and correct it. The materials needed for each group are: a model of a story, a map, a hero sheet, an obstacle sheet, and a story board. All the materials are available in appendix G. Here is a description of the planning step by step. First of all, have the students read an example of a story. Give one map to each group of students as well as a hero and obstacle sheet. Explain that they are going to create a story using this map as a guideline. First, choose and give your hero a name. Give names to any other characters. Second, decide upon a reason for him/her to be going to Mt. Gold. Explain that on the way to Mt. Mercury their hero will have 3 major obstacles. Discuss some possibilities as a class (giant spider attack, giants from the mountains, a lake of fire, a waterfall and more). Have the groups decide upon 3 obstacles from the discussion period or on their own. Have the students begin creating their storyboard. Let the students begin elaborating on the events and creating their story. When they get to the temple at Mt. Mercury they can bring the story to any conclusion they want. Once completed, review the target language and ask students to go back and try to improve the flow of the story. Have the students add ten adjectives or adverbs to their story. Ask students to type their story on the computer and use the correction tools provided but teach them how to be critical of Spelling & Grammar check on Microsoft Word or on translation websites. Recommend them to use online dictionary. Ask them to insert pictures related to the story. Ask them to print their story, read it, correct it, and hand it in. While correcting, I will underline the mistakes and ask them to correct it and bring the modifications to their story on the computer.
  • 14 As a follow up, have the students tell their story to the class using their storyboard. This makes the writing project more communicative, post their stories in the classroom if possible and have the students read their story to younger students. For the second and last subject, students need to write texts individually. In both of them, they need to use the future tense to write which is why I will review the tense with the students prior to the writing. The subject will be written on the board and students will be guided toward the writing process taught previously. Once they are completed their writing process, I will ask students to fill out a self- evaluation (appendix H). Answering these questions allows students to reflect on their performance. Questions 1 and 2 ask students to evaluate successful and unsuccessful aspects of their papers. Both of these questions seek to uncover students` developing awareness of their intentions and to ascertain how accurately and specifically they are able to explain these intentions. Questions 3 and 4 ask students what aspects of writing the paper were easier and more difficult. I believe these two questions prompt students to think about changes that may be occurring in their composing processes. I do not expect that students` responses will show steady growth; on the contrary, I assume that changes in composing will only be inferable over an extended period of time. The correction methods that will be used are the following: first of all, as the students will be writing, I will read parts of their writing and give immediate feedback to the students. After doing that, I will correct students‟ text using a rubric (appendix I). While using this rubric, I will correct every mistake with a red pen. I will also label the characteristics of students writing skills using a rubric such as in appendix I. While correcting, I will gather mistakes that are made often by many students and bring it to the attention of the class. This way, other students can benefit from it and learn from others mistakes. After that, I will hand
  • 15 them back their text and give them time to read and reflect on their results and mistakes. I could also ask them to rewrite their text and include the corrections that were made. Since students are expected to write two texts individually, I will ask them to refer to their first text done individually while they will be correcting their second text. I think this method will allow them to recognize their mistakes and not reproduce them. At least, it is the goal I am hoping to attain. In other words, they will have a corrected text as a resource to follow. For the second text, my correction method will vary since I will only underline the mistakes and then ask students to correct them. I am also considering other methods such as to use abbreviations while correcting to let students know which type of mistakes they made. But, I believe this method might be too difficult for grade six students to understand. My medium range planning is available in appendix J. It divides my action-research process in ten classes. It is an approximation of what I will do with students and modifications might occur. The students‟ texts will provide information to be shared. For that reason, the texts will be put in the students‟ portfolios in order for parents to see them during parent-teacher night and for students to refer to them when needed. Possible Challenges Since I am correcting all the mistakes one of my hypotheses is that it might be confusing for students. I should possibly focus on one, two, or three main errors and correct only those. I could also let the students know which grammar point I will be correcting. Therefore, they can pay attention to that grammar point when they are writing. Using this method, won‟t penalize students for other mistakes they do apart from the grammar point demanded.
  • 16 The potential challenges and complications could be the fact that I am not doing my action-research with the appropriate level since students in elementary are not expected to create a big amount of texts. Therefore, I believe it would be useful for me to pursue my research in high school eventually during my career. Once I will start gathering texts from students, maybe I will realize that my project is too big and not realistic. I am ready and open to change and to adapt my action-research if I experience any problems. As a matter of fact, I am possibly going to ask the students to write letters instead of texts since they will have penpals. As I perform my action-research, I will keep in mind that error correction should be helpful and lead to better learning, not become a huge burden on the students and I. I view error correction as a necessary and important part of student learning, not just testing.
  • 17 References British Columbia Ministry of Education (1999). English as a Second Language Learners : A Guide for Classroom Teachers. Special Programs Branch. Dana R. Ferris & John S. Hedgcock. (2004) Teaching ESL Composition: Purpose, Process, and Practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ. Publication. Gouvernement du Québec (2003). The elementary English as a Second Language (ESL) Program. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise. Québec : Ministère de l‟Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. 351-362. Gouvernement du Québec (2003). Secondary Cycle One ESL programs: Core ESL and Enriched ESL. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise. Québec : Ministère de l‟Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. 579-631. Gouvernement du Québec (2003). Secondary Cycle Two ESL programs: Core and Enriched. Programme de formation de l’école québécoise. Québec : Ministère de l‟Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport. 1-56. Shum, K. E. Mark. Effects of Four Methods of Evaluation of Chinese Composition in Hong Kong Secondary Schools. Peer checklist at a closer look. The University of Hong Kong, China. Williams, G. Jason. (2003). Providing Feedback on ESL Students` Written Assignments. Retrieve September 7, 2009, from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Williams- Feedback.html Woodhouse, Ros & Page Joan. (2006). Strategies for Assessing and Giving Feedback to ESL Learners. Retrieve September 29, 2009, from http://www.yorku.ca /cst/faculty/nfty/ resources/nfty_assessment-esl.ppt#1
  • 18 Appendix
  • 19 Appendix A General questions 1. Is the feedback consistent with the goals of the course? 2. Is the feedback consistent with the goals of the assignment? Form 1. Is the feedback clear and easy for the students to understand? 2. Did I use the system and symbols that I made the students aware of? 3. Will the student know what to do with the feedback? Content 1. Is the feedback clear and easy for the students to see and understand? 2. Did I use the system and symbols that I made the students aware of? 3. Have I made only negative comments or did I also add some praise? Comments for feedback on content 1. I like this very much. 2. This is a good example. 3. Tell me more about this. 4. Can you think of another example? 5. Do you have a personal example about this? 6. Can you make this clearer? 7. Can you think of another way to say this? 8. Why did you think so? 9. Is this paragraph complete? 10. Do you think this is necessary? Why or why not? 11. Should this paragraph be divided? 12. Is your thesis clear? 13. Are your topic sentences clear? 14. You are repeating yourself here. 15. I am not sure what you mean. (Williams, 2003)
  • 20 Appendix B
  • 21 Appendix C Put a check mark in the circle Checklist : I write Texts 1. I prepare to write o I think of the instructions. o I take out the resources I need. (My books, my dictionary, my bank of expressions…) o I look at the model. o I write down ideas in English. o I put them in order. 2. I write a draft. o I look at the model again. o I follow the instructions. o I use my ideas. o I write short sentences in English. (Subject / Verb / Object) o I use the vocabulary and expressions I know. o If I have a problem:  I ask for help. 3. I revise my text. o Did I follow the instructions? o Did I follow the model? o Are my ideas original? o I check the spelling, the word order and punctuation with the resources I have. o I ask a friend to revise my text. I correct my text. 4. I write my final text. o Is it OK? o Is it neat? o Is it easy to read?
  • 22 Appendix D Outline for a five-paragraph text Title: ___________________________ I. Introduction A. Introductory statement B. Thesis statement: _______________________________________________ II. Body A. First supporting idea 1. ___________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________ III. Conclusion A. Closing statement B. Restate thesis: _________________________________________________
  • 23 Appendix E
  • 24 Appendix F Scale
  • 25 Appendix G The Mt. Mercury Adventure 1. Our hero‟s name: 2. What are the hero‟s physical characteristics and character traits? Physical characteristics Character Traits 3. Why is he/she going to Mt. Mercury? : _____________________________________________________ 4. On his/her way to Mt. Mercury the hero comes upon 3 major obstacles. What are the names of the 3 obstacles that the hero encounters? Obstacle 1 Obstacle 2 Obstacle 3 _______________ _______________ _______________ The Storyboard: Introduction Obstacle one: (How does the hero get out of the situation?) Obstacle two: (How does the hero get out of the situation?) Obstacle three: (How does the hero get out of the situation?) Conclusion
  • 26 The Mount Mercury Adventure Once upon a time there was a man. His name was Achilles. He was tall and strong. He had long blond hair. He had green eyes. He wore an armor, an axe, a bow with arrows, a sword and a shield. Achilles went to Mount Mercury because he wanted to save his princess Achilles left for Mount Mercury. He found a maze. He met a Minotaur. He killed the Minotaur and then found the exit. He walked towards the mountain. He climbed up the mountain. He saw a dragon of ice; he got his sword out, and attacked the dragon of ice. The dragon of ice froze his sword. Then he got his axe out and threw the axe in the dragon‟s neck. The dragon collapsed. The dragon of ice was dead. He continued his way and he found a troll archer, he continued his way and there was an ambush by the smurfs. Achilles and his troll arrived in front of an army of smurfs. He set his bow with magic arrows. He shot the magic arrows and the smurfs died. He continued his way and found a magic potion. He put it in his bag. Suddenly he saw the magnificent lost city of smurfs. The two guards of the lost city blocked the way. Achilles got out his axe and he fought. He killed them easily. He went back in the lost city. He climbed the stairs. The king of smurfs left lost city and Achilles found the princess. Achilles freed the princess. He went back to his castle. THE END Corentin, Théo, Jérôme and Hugo wrote this story.
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  • 30 Appendix H Self-Evaluation Questionnaire 1. List the most successful actions you did in writing this story. List the things that a reader will think are successful. 2. List the things you were unable to do in this paper that would have made it more successful. 3. In the process of writing this paper, what aspects were easier than when you have written previous papers? 4. In the process of writing this paper, what aspects were more difficult than when you have written previous papers?
  • 31 Appendix I Rubric for Text Evaluation 1 2 3 4 Visual * There was no There was little There was some There was clear and evidence of evidence of pertinent concrete evidence relation links between evidence of the of understanding of between the the text and the connection the text and the writing and subject. between the text subject. the subject. and the subject. Quality The text is The writing is The text has The text is of written in difficult to many interesting interesting to read writing poor English understand. things in it. The and holds the and needs to writing is attention. Writing is be re-written. understandable, simple, clear, direct, but there are and in an active some places voice. It is well where it may be structured and there hard to is a logical flow. understand. Details There is a variety of supporting There is a rich variety of relevant information, much of which is supporting information that is useful, useful, adds interest and adds interest and contributes to an contributes to an understanding understanding of the text's main idea. of the text's main idea. Some of the information may not seem to fit or doesn't seem to make any important contribution. *Visual aids are required in the first story students will write.
  • 32 Characteristics of Students Writing Skills Focus: writing Emerging ¥ uses single words, pictures, and patterned phrases ¥ copies from a model ¥ exhibits little awareness of spelling, capitalization, or punctuation Beginning ¥ writes predominantly phrases and patterned or simple sentences ¥ uses limited or repetitious vocabulary ¥ uses temporary (phonetic) spelling Developing ¥ writes in present tense and simple sentences; has difficulty with subject- verb agreement; run-on sentences are common ¥ uses high-frequency words; may have difficulty with word order; omits endings or words ¥ uses some capitalization, punctuation, and transitional spelling; errors often interfere with meaning Expanding ¥ able to write an entire paragraph ¥ writing exhibits inconsistent use of a variety of verb tenses, subject verb agreement errors, and limited use of transitions, articles, and prepositions ¥ vocabulary is appropriate to purpose, but sometimes awkward ¥ uses punctuation, capitalization, and mostly conventional spelling; errors sometimes interfere with meaning Proficient ¥ writes multiple paragraphs, as necessary ¥ is generally able to present a main idea with supporting detail ¥ uses appropriate verb tenses; errors in sentence structure do not detract from meaning ¥ uses varied vocabulary appropriate fro the purpose ¥ makes few mechanical errors (errors of spelling, punctuation, and capitalization) and seldom any that detract from meaning Independent ¥ Writes for enjoyment ¥ Writes and completes a wide variety of texts ¥ responds personally and critically to texts ¥ matches a wide variety of writing strategies to purpose Fluent ¥ writes single or multiple paragraphs with a clear introduction, fully developed ideas, appropriate transitions, and a conclusion ¥ uses appropriate verb tenses and varied sentence structures ¥ uses varied, precise vocabulary ¥ makes only occasional mechanical errors, none of which detract from meaning
  • 33 Appendix J School: Notre-Dame-des-Bois-Francs, St-Christophe, and Saint-David Dates covered by this plan: January to March Pedagogical context Subject: English second language, regular group Cycle & Grade: Elementary cycle 3, grade 6 School Board: Commission scolaire des Bois-Francs Group characteristics. Group 610: 26 students Homeroom teacher: Stéphane Lemieux 2 students have an attention deficit 5 students are enriched in English 1 student is bilingual 6 students are weak in English 1 student speaks only Spanish Themes - Writing process - Revising and correcting - Narrative Text - Simple future - What will you do if you won 9 million dollars? - What will you do during the summer? Lesson 1 Objective: Methods & activities: Introduce the writing process and Lecture about the steps to follow Theme: layout they should follow. in order to write a text. Writing process Disciplinary competencies: -Reinvests understanding of texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Checklist: I write Texts - Observations Steps to write a text. Outline for a five-paragraph - Read Outline text Lesson 2 Objective: Methods & activities: Give techniques on how to revise and Lecture about strategies to edit Theme: correct a text. and proofread. Show students how to find the translation of a word in Revising and correcting Disciplinary competencies: a bilingual dictionary. -Reinvests understanding of texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Dictionaries - Observations Steps to write a text. - Correct the activities
  • 34 Lesson 3 Objective: Methods & activities: Introduce The Mount Mercury Lecture and activities to motivate Adventure. students to write. Theme: Disciplinary competencies: Narrative Text -Reinvests understanding of texts -Writes and produces texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information - Achieves his potential - To solve problems Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Handouts - Observations Introduction of a writing activity. - Direct feedback Lesson 4 Objective: Methods & activities: Give time to students to write their Students write with their partner. Theme: stories. They have access to tools in order to help them in their writing Narrative Text Disciplinary competencies: process. -Reinvests understanding of texts -Writes and produces texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Handouts previously given -Observation The writing process continues Dictionary -Provide direct feedback Lesson 5 Objective: Methods & activities: Give time to students to write their Students write with their partner. Theme: stories. They have access to tools in order to help them in their writing Narrative Text Disciplinary competencies: process. -Reinvests understanding of texts -Writes and produces texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Handouts previously given -Observation Give corrected texts Dictionary -Provide direct feedback -Correct texts Lesson 6 Objective: Methods & activities: Introduce the base form of the simple Theme: future „‟will‟‟ and „‟be going to‟‟ and Lecture about the verb tense the negative form and the contracted simple future Simple future form of the future. Activity Book „‟Kick Off‟‟ Disciplinary competencies: chapter 3. -Interacts orally in English -Reinvests understanding of texts -Writes and produces texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information
  • 35 - To cooperate with others - Communicates appropriately - Achieves his potential Material Evaluation: Link to the next lesson where the - Observations correction of the chapter 3 will be Activity Book „‟Kick Off‟‟ - Activity Book correction done. chapter 3. Lesson 7 Objective: Methods & activities: Write a text. Get the students to write using the Introduce them the subject. Theme: future tense. Give instructions. What will you do if you won Disciplinary competencies: 9 million dollars? -Writes and produces texts Guide them through their brainstorming. Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information - Uses creativity - Achieves his potential Material Evaluation Link to next lesson Dictionary - Provide direct feedback Overview of mistakes done and give back corrected texts. Lesson 8 Objective: Methods & activities: Writing continues Theme: Provide a quite classroom in Disciplinary competencies: which students can concentrate. What will you do if you won -Writes and produces texts 9 million dollars? Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information - Uses creativity - Achieves his potential Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Dictionary Correct texts and provide feedback Students will receive their corrected texts and continue their writing process. Lesson 9 Objective: Methods & activities: Write a text. Get the students to write using the Introduce them the subject. Theme: future tense. Give instructions. What will you do during the Disciplinary competencies: summer? -Writes and produces texts Guide them through their brainstorming. Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information - Uses creativity - Achieves his potential Material Evaluation Link to next lesson Dictionary Correct texts and provide feedback Overview of mistakes done and Text give back corrected texts. Lesson 10 Objective: Methods & activities: Writing continues Theme: Provide a quite classroom in Disciplinary competencies: which students can concentrate. What will you do during the
  • 36 summer? -Writes and produces texts Cross-curricular competencies: - Adopt effective work methods - Uses information - Uses creativity - Achieves his potential Material: Evaluation: Link to next lesson: Dictionary Correct texts and provide feedback Students will receive their corrected texts.