“The True North Strong and Free”
Today, travelling has never been so easy. However,
rare are Canadians who can claim having visited
our entire country because it is so vast. In fact, over
five thousand kilometres separate our two coasts. In
the LES, you will discover new things about
Canada, at a glance. You will hear, read and write
about cultural, historical and unusual facts about
your majestic country.
Canada is a huge country in the continent of North America. Canada is the second
biggest country in the world after Russia. Canada is comprised of 3,849,675 square miles
(9,976,140 square km); it is the second-largest country in the world (Russia is first at
17,075,200 sq km). This huge country borders the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the
Arctic Ocean, and the United States of America. Canada has over 151,480 miles
(243,791 km) of coastline. Most of Canada's human population lives along its southern
The Capital: The capital of Canada is the city of Ottawa, which is in the province of
Ontario, located above the Great Lakes.
Provinces and Territories: Canada has 10 provinces and 3 territories (the capital of
each is shown in parentheses): Alberta (Edmonton), British Columbia (Victoria), Prince
Edward Island (Charlottetown), Manitoba (Winnipeg), New Brunswick (Fredericton),
Nova Scotia (Halifax), Nunavut (Iqaluit), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City),
Saskatchewan (Regina); Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's), Northwest Territories
(Yellowknife), and Yukon Territory (Whitehorse).
Geography: Canada's land ranges from fertile agricultural plains in the south to freezing
tundra in the north. The southwest of Canada (British Columbia) has a mild climate.
Cold winters characterize most of the rest of Canada. The magnetic North Pole is within
Mountains: Parts of Canada are very mountainous. The tallest mountain in Canada is the
Yukon's Mount Logan, which is 19,850 feet (6050 m) tall. Canada has many mountain
ranges, including the Appalachians, Torngats, and Laurentians in the eastern regions, the
Rocky, Coastal, and Mackenzie ranges in the western regions, and Mount St. Elias and
the Pelly Mountains in the northern country.
Lakes: Canada has about two million lakes. The biggest lakes are (in order by their
surface area): Lake Huron [36,000 sq. km of Lake Huron's 59,600 sq. km are in Canada],
Lake Great Bear [31,328 sq. km], Lake Superior [of which 28,700 sq. km of Lake
Superior's 82,100 sq. km are in Canada], Lake Great Slave [also the deepest lake, with a
depth of 614 m], Lake Winnipeg, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The 2,000,000 lakes cover
about 7.6% of Canada's land.
Rivers: The longest river in Canada is the Mackenzie River, which is 2,635 miles (4241
km) long. It runs through the Northwest Territories. Other large and important rivers are
the St. Lawrence River (1,900 miles = 3058 km long), the Yukon River, the Columbia
River (partly in the USA), the Nelson River, the Churchill River, and the Fraser River.
The Canadian flag is red and white; these are the official colors of Canada. The flag
features a red maple leaf with eleven points. The maple leaf is a symbol of Canada. The
flag is twice as wide as it is tall. This flag was officially adopted on February 15, 1965.
1. What are the official colors of Canada? ________________ and _________________.
2. What type of leaf is featured in Canada's flag ? _______________________________
3. How many points are on the leaf? __________________________________________
4. When was this flag officially adopted? ______________________________________
Listen to the Canadian National Anthem and read the lyrics.
Lyrics of O Canada
Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North strong and free!
From far and wide,
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
Map of Canada and flags of every provinces and territories
Draw a map in the school yard, bring the students outside with the map in
hand and tell them where to go.
Go on Ontario
Travel to the second province
Hop in your card and drive to Manitoba
Take the plane and fly to Newfoundland
Bike across Canada to go to British Columbia
Label Canadian Provinces and Territories
Read about the Canadian provinces and territories, then label the map below.
Alberta - a province in southwestern
Canada, between British Columbia and
Nunavut - a territory in northern Canada east
British Columbia - a province in
of the Northwest Territories, bordering the
southwestern Canada, by the Pacific
Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay.
Ontario - a province in southern Canada
Manitoba - a province in southern
between Manitoba and Quebec, bordering
Canada, between Saskatchewan and
Ontario, bordering Hudson Bay.
Prince Edward Island - an island province
New Brunswick - a province in
just north of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
southeastern Canada that is east of
Quebec - a province in southern Canada, east
Quebec and west of Nova Scotia.
of Ontario, bordering Hudson Bay.
Newfoundland and Labrador - a
Saskatchewan - a province in southern
province that is northeast of Quebec.
Canada, between Alberta and Manitoba.
Northwest Territories - a territory in
Yukon Territory - a territory in northwestern
northern Canada between the Yukon and
Canada, by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska.
Nova Scotia - a province in southeastern
Canada that is east of New Brunswick.
Canada: Geographic Features Quiz
1. What ocean forms Canada's western border? _________________________________
2. What ocean forms Canada's eastern border? __________________________________
3. What ocean lies north of Canada? __________________________________________
4. What is the name of the enormous Canadian bay that almost divides Canada in two?
5. What is the name of the country that borders Canada to the south? ________________
6. What is the name of the Bay that separates part of Canada from Greenland? _________
7. What is the name of the southeastern Canadian gulf that opens to the Atlantic Ocean?
8. What is the name of the large river that flows north into the Beaufort Sea? __________
9. What is the name of the long lake in south-central Canada? ______________________
10. What is the name of the tallest peak in Canada? It is located in western Canada, near
“One defends and the other conquers”
Official flower: Mayflower (also called trailing arbutus)
Official bird: Osprey
Canada’s seacoast Nova Scotia is one of the three Maritime
Provinces. It is surrounded by the Bay of Fundy, the strait of
Northumberland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the northwest, in
the west by the province of New Brunswick, in the northeast by
Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador, and in the
east, the south and the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
-Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin;
-Nova Scotia became a province in 1867;
-Second-smallest province (P.E.I. is the smallest);
-Capital city and largest city - Halifax - population 375,000 (estimated 2005);
-Halifax is an international seaport and transportation center.
-There are 937,900 people living in Nova Scotia.(2005);
-Many people live in or close to Halifax;
-Most of the communities are along the coast;
-First people were the Micmac and Abenaki;
-People came from Britain, Western Europe, and Southern Europe;
-One-quarter of the people are of British origin;
-N.S. also has Canada's oldest African-Canadian community.
-Micmac lived there. They hunted, fished, gathered plants and berries;
-French settlers arrived in 1605;
-A French settlement named Port Royal was built in 1605;
-The area was turned over to the British after a war;
-French colonists were forced to leave;
-Some went back to France while others went to the U.S.
WATER AND LAND
-The Bay of Fundy is between N.S. and N.B.
-Most of the province is covered with forests and lakes.
-There are 3000 lakes in this province.
-The main mineral is coal (used for making electricity).
-Scallops, crabs, clams, cod, haddock, pollock, herring, salmon, and haddock are fished.
-Lobsters from N.S. are eaten all across Canada.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
Nova Scotia is proud of its exciting and engaging history. Nova Scotia attractions are
eclectic and exciting – from the urban attractions of the Halifax Citadel and Pier 21, to
the rural provincial parks and sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. There’s a lot to
celebrate in Nova Scotia – and many attractions to help you. On Cape Breton Island,
the Cabot Trail is breathtaking.
-The Miner's Museum in Glace Bay is incredible and tells the story of mining in the
province from the perspective of the miner
-In Halifax, Pier 21 tells the stories of many immigrants to Canada who came into the
country through the famous Pier 21. It is well worth a visit.
-The Martime Museum of the Atlantic in the historic properties is a great place and has
some fascinating exhibits on both the Titanic and the Halifax Explosion
-Peggy's Cove is a great tourist destination and has a pretty lighthouse; there is also a
restaurant and several gift shops close by; don't miss the view of the picturesque cove.
Quiz on Nova Scotia
1. What does Nova Scotia means in Latin? ____________________________________
2. What is the most important fact about Halifax? _______________________________
3. Where are located most of the communities? _________________________________
4. How many lakes are in this province? _______________________________________
5. N.S. also has Canada's oldest African-Canadian community. True False
6. The main mineral we can find in Nova Scotia is: ________________________
Step through a doorway in time to discover historic landmarks. Did you know that NS
attracts tourists more than any other provinces?
- Read the questions below. - Listen to the text
- Link every question with the right answer. - Write your answers.
1. What historic site is located in Louisbourg? ___
2. What historic site is situated in Halifax? ___
3. Where is the home of the famous Bluenose? ___
4. Where is Alexander Graham Bell museum? ___
5. What is the Cabot trail? ___
A) Citadel B) Lunenburg
C) Fortress of Louisbourg D) Canada’s great ocean highway
“Hope was Restored”
Official flower: Purple violet
Official bird: Black-capped Chickadee
New Brunswick, a maritime province in the east of Canada, connected
to Nova Scotia, is boarded at the east by Prince Edward Island, at the
west by the American State of Maine and in the northwest by Quebec.
Here, the world’s highest tides rise and fall the height of a four-storey building, twice a
day, every day. That’s just the beginning of the wonder waiting in New Brunswick… a
place where rivers stretch from breathtaking to beautiful. Where you will be fascinated by
the fragile beauty of coastal dunes… or inspired by the Appalachians, some of the oldest
mountains on the planet! There’s a world of Natural Wonders waiting for you in New
-The royal lion of England is on the top of the flag and shield;
-The bottom has a sailing ship which shows the province;
once relied on the shipping and shipbuilding industry;
-It became the official flag of New Brunswick in 1965.
-The name "Brunswick" was in honor of King George of England
whose family came from the House of Brunswick;
-New Brunswick became a province in 1867;
-It is the third-smallest province;
-N.B. is the home of about 752,000 people.(2005) ;
-The largest city is Saint John;
-Other major cities are Fredericton (the capital city) and Moncton;
-Many people are of French, British, Scottish and Irish origin.
-The first people to live in N.B. include the Micmac and Maliseet-Passamaquaddy
-The Micmac and Malecite hunted and fished and were guides for the French explorers;
-In 1604 Samuel de Champlain and the French arrived;
-The French called the east coast area Acadia;
-Acadia became an English colony in 1713;
-Some of the people would not swear loyalty to England. Their homes were burned and
they were sent away. Some went to Louisiana (U.S.A.);
-American settlers founded the city of Saint John (oldest city in Canada);
-The longest river is the Saint John River ( 670 km.long);
-The river splits the province from north to south;
-The Bay of Fundy between N.B. and Nova Scotia has the world's highest tides (15 m.
-Forests, mainly black spruce and fir, cover about 85 percent of N.B.
-N.B. is the main producer of lead, zinc, copper, and bismuth in Canada;
-Coal, potash, antimony, silver, natural gas and oil are also mined;
-There are fishing ports where more than fifty kinds of fish and shellfish are caught:
-Scallops, shrimp, herring, lobsters, snow crabs, mussels, etc.
-Lobster is the most valuable catch;
-The main industry is forestry;
-Paper, newspaper, magazines, tissue, wooden doors and windows are made;
-There are over 3000 farms (livestock, dairy, poultry, potatoes, berries);
-The main crop is potatoes. The Saint John River Valley is called the "Potato Belt."
FUN THINGS TO DO
Lighthouses are proud sentinels of these people’s past. Want to picnic or go birdwatching
on lighthouse grounds?
From a 1905 REO touring car at the Antique Automobile Museum to the secrets of the
Popes Museum in Grande-Anse, discover Newbrunswick thrilling historical treasures and
piece together its unique story.
Quiz on New-Brunswick
1. Where does the name Brunswick comes from? ________________________________
2. Which city is the oldest city in Canada? _____________________________________
3. What did Micmac and Malecite do for a living? _______________________________
4. What happened to the people who did not swear loyalty to England? ______________
5. What’s the main crop? ___________________________________________________
What is a travel agent?
What is a travel agency?
Next summer, Jamie is planning to go to New Brunswick. He wrote to a travel agent for
suggestions and this is the answer somebody left him on his answering machine.
- Read the information in the grid below.
- Listen to the message
- Place the information in chronological order, the order in which a series of events
happened: 1 being the first place to visit and 4 being the last.
- Write your answers.
Bay of Fundy
Acadian Historical Village
Prince Edward Island
“The small under the protection of the great”
Official flower: Lady's slipper
Official bird: Blue Jay
Prince Edward Island is one of the three Maritimes
provinces in the east of Canada. It is located in the gulf of
the St. Lawrence, on the Atlantic Ocean, at the north of
Nova Scotia and at the east of New Brunswick. It is separated from the North-American
continent by the strait of Northumberland.
The main attractions in PEI are Avonlea, Anne of Green Gables, Confederation Trail,
Confederation Bridge, P.E.I. National Park, Potato field. The green and gentle landscape
of Prince Edward Island is so inviting that visitors find themselves spending plenty of
vacation time in the great outdoors.
-The P.E.I. flag is divided into two sections.
-The gold lion is from Prince Edward's coat of arms.
-It is the royal lion of England.
-Below the lion are four oak trees on an island.
-It became the province's official flag in 1964.
-It is the smallest province (224 km. long);
-The Island was named "Prince Edward" in honor of the father of Queen Victoria in 1799;
-PEI became a province in 1873.
-P.E.I. is the home of 138,100 people(2005);
-Charlottetown is the largest city with about 39,000 people;
-The Island was the home of the Mi'kmaq (Micmac);
-About 75 percent are of Scottish and Irish origin.
-The first people to live on the Island were the Micmac;
-They moved from place to place living in huts of skin and bark;
-In the winter they hunted deer, in the summer they fished;
-Jacques Cartier discovered the island in 1534;
-In 1719 a French colony was formed;
-The English took over the island and drove the French farmers out.
THE LAND AND WATER
-The Confederation Bridge joins New Brunswick and PEI;
-The bridge was opened in 1997 and is almost 13 km long;
-Ferry boats travel from Nova Scotia to P.E.I.
-Prince Edward Island National Park has a large beach with reddish sand;
-There are over 90 sandy beaches for swimming and boating;
-The soil is red because it is made of red sandstone.
-Agriculture is the largest industry;
-About thirty percent of Canada's potatoes are grown in P.E.I.
-The second-largest industry is tourism;
-Fishing is the third-largest industry;
-Lobsters are caught in traps;
-About 10 million oysters a year are harvested for Canada and the world.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-Amusement park: Sandpit is the largest Amusement Park in Prince Edward Island,
boasting over 18 attractions. Sandpit features a huge rollercoaster, Can-AM go-kart track,
miniature golf, bumper boats, many classic family rides, and so much more!
-Water Parks: Shining water Family Fun Park, Magic Mountain Water Park
-Wax World of the Stars is one of the top attractions in Cavendish. Visit your favorite
celebrities. See how life-like our wax figures really are. Take your photo with Shrek and
Michael Jordan. See Julia Roberts, Jim Carrey, Tom Cruise…
Quiz on Prince Edward’s Island:
1. The Island was named in honor of ________________________________________.
2. What’s the name of the largest city? ________________________________________
3. 75% of the people are ______________ and ______________ origins.
4. What’s the name of the bridge that joins New Brunswick and PEI? ________________
5. Explain why the soil is red: _______________________________________________
6. What’s the largest industry? _______________________________________________
Newfoundland and Labrador
“Seek ye first the Kingdom of God”
Capital: St. John's
Official flower: Pitcher plant
Official bird: Atlantic Puffin
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador is composed of the
island of Newfoundland and the Eastern part of the area Labrador. It
is bordered, in the east and the south, by the Atlantic Ocean and, in
the west, by the gulf of the St. Lawrence and the province of
Quebec. The island of Newfoundland is located at the north of the
French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
Here, you will learn about this place called Newfoundland and
Labrador, Canada. Catch a glimpse of icebergs, whales, birds and
wildlife. Find hiking trails, parks, historic sites and scenic driving
routes. Search for maps, accommodations, tours, festivals and events, outfitters and
places to shop. Take this opportunity to explore this mysterious land. Let go of your
expectations. Prepare yourself to be lost, and found, in Newfoundland and Labrador.
-White represents the ice and snow;
-Blue is for the sea;
-Red is for human effort;
-The yellow line (arrow) represents confidence for a bright future;
-The two red triangles represent the island and mainland of the province;
-Blue triangles stand for the Commonwealth heritage;
-The provincial flag represents the past, present and future.
-Newfoundland is one of the oldest places in Canada;
-Nfld. is one of the four Atlantic provinces;
-Nfld. is surrounded by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Atlantic and Artic Ocean;
-The capital city and largest city is St. John's;
-About 516,000 people lived in Nfld/Labrador in 2005;
-People live in small fishing villages near the coast;
-Many are of British and Irish origin;
-Aboriginal ancestry: Micmac, Inuit, Innu and Metis;
-Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province in 1949.
-The first people were the Beothuk (now extinct) who hunted caribou and fished;
-Vikings were the first to visit Nfld . They were blown off course on the way to
-Five hundred years later the explorer John Cabot arrived ( 1497);
-He arrived on the feast day of St. John the Baptist and first called it St. John's Isle in
honour of the saint;
-He claimed the land for the King of England.
LAND AND WATER
-There are many bays and deep fiords along the coastlines of Nfld. and Labrador.
-Icebergs can be seen off the coastline.
-Nfld. is the main producer of iron ore in Canada. Steel is made from iron ore;
-Churchill Falls in Labrador is one of the largest hydro-electric power plants in the world;
-Main exports are oil, fish products, newsprint, iron ore and electricity;
-Overfishing caused a severe decline in the amount of fish in the Grand Banks;
-Titanic, a large passenger ship, sank in 1912 after hitting an iceberg south of Nfld.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-L'Anse Aux Meadow National Historic Site is truly "the end of the
world" for most American travellers. Miles of landscape, rocks
and mountains, flanked by seas are absolutely magnificent. It
is easy to imagine the Norse arriving here from Greenland 1000
-Norstead is a village which recreates a typical Norse port of
trade, which may be similar to the home port that the
Vikings departed from to reach L'Anse aux
Meadows. Costumed interpreters portray the villagers and
answer visitors' questions, as well as demonstrating skills such
as tablet weaving, Viking-era blacksmithing, and naalbinding
-Gros Morne National Park, you can hike to the top of Gros Morne
Quiz on Newfoundland
1. What is the capital city? __________________________________________________
2. Who were the first people to visit Newfoundland? _____________________________
3. Who did John Cabot claimed the land for? ___________________________________
4. What’s the name of the famous ship that sank after hitting an iceberg in 1912? ______
5. What’s the name of the largest hydro-electric power plants in the world? ___________
What are superstitions? ____________________________________________________
Are you superstitious? Yes NO
Do you have any superstitions? ______________________________________________
Let’s have a look at some superstitions from Newfoundland.
- Listen to the text.
- Find four (4) key words that give the essential idea of the text.
- Write these four words.
“Loyal she began, loyal she remains”
Official flower: White trillium
Official bird: Common Loon
Ontario, boarded at the north by Hudson Bay, in the east by Quebec,
the south by the Lakes, which constitute a natural border with the
United States (States of New York, Michigan and Minnesota), and in
the west by Manitoba.
No matter where you travel in the province, you'll discover a natural
wonder that rivals the best in the world.
-The name "Ontario" was first used for Lake Ontario. It meant "beautiful lake" or
"sparkling water" in the Iroquois language;
- Ontario became a province in 1867;
-It is the second-largest province;
- Toronto has a large financial district and the stock exchange.
-The first people were the Huron, Iroquois, Neutral, Ojibwa, Cree, Ottawa, Nipissin, and
-Ontario is the home of over 12 million people. (12,541,400 in 2005);
-The largest city is Toronto with 5.3 million people.(2005);
-Over half of the people in Toronto were born in other countries;
-Many are of Italian, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Indian, Polish and Caribbean origin.
-Loyalists fled the U.S. in 1781 and settled on the north shore of Lake Ontario;
-The land was divided into Upper Canada (Ont.) and Lower Canada (Que.);
-York (now Toronto) became the capital of Upper Canada;
-Ontario became a province in 1867.
WATER AND LAND
-Four of the five Great Lakes are in Ontario. (Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario)
-There are 250,000 lakes.
-Niagara Falls (a part of the Niagara River) is in Ontario.
RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY
-Mining: zinc, nickel, platinum, uranium, oil, natural gas, copper, gold, silver, iron ore;
-Main producer of nickel, cobalt, salt, and magnesium in Canada.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-Feel the awesome power of Niagara Falls as rushing river waters plunge over its mighty
brink. In one second Niagara Falls pours out enough water to fill two large swimming
-It's all about family fun at Ontario Place, where you'll find exhilarating waterslides,
exciting rides, pedal boats, mini putts, an arcade, restaurants and the world's first
permanent IMAX® theatre, the Cinesphere.
-The CN tower: The tallest tower in the world
-Virtual Hockey – Play Virtual Hockey at the Hockey Hall of Fame
-It's all happening at the Toronto Zoo, a half hour drive north of downtown Toronto. The zoo
is open every day except December 25th and has over 5,000 animals, making this one of the
world's best zoos.
-Paramount Wonderland – If you're ready to just let loose, check out the Paramount
Wonderland. A spectacularly large amusement park with over four dozen rides (including 10
IMPORTANT PEOPLE and EVENTS
-Wayne Gretsky the famous hockey player came from Brantford;
-Actor Jim Carrey was born in Ontario;
-Singer/songwriter Alanis Morissette was born in Ottawa.
Quiz on Ontario
1. The Iroquoians called Ontario "Kanadario" what does it mean? ___________________
2. What’s the largest city? __________________________________________________
3. Name the four great lakes that are in Ontario: _________________________________
4. Name one famous attraction: ______________________________________________
5. Name a famous person born in Ontario: _____________________________________
Justin meets Travis and they talk about Justin’s new job as a critic and the review he
made of the show presented at Marineland.
- Read the four (4) topics below.
- Listen to the conversation.
- Compare the opinions of Justin and Travis for each topic.
- For each topic, write the letter S if their opinions are similar or the letter D if
their opinions are different.
“Glorious and Free”
Official flower: Prairie crocus
Official bird: Great Gray Owl
Manitoba is the central part of the country, limited to north by the
Northwest Territories, to the North-East by Hudson Bay, the east by
Ontario, the south by Minnesota and North Dakota and to the west by
Manitoba combines all the best elements of a memorable vacation —
four distinct seasons of sunshine, nature untouched by the spoils of
modern life and the endless celebration of life and culture by people
who love opening their hearts to new friends.
-Manitoba's flag looks a lot like Canada's former flag, the Canadian Red Ensign;
-The Union Jack is in the upper left corner on a red background;
-The province's shield is on the right side of the flag;
- It became the official flag of Manitoba in 1966.
-The name Manitoba was first used for Lake Manitoba;
-In the Assiniboine language, it is Mini tobow meaning Lake of the Prairie;
-In Cree, it is Manitou bou for the place of the Great Spirit;
-Manitoba is larger than Japan and twice the size of the United Kingdom;
-Manitoba is the home of over a million people.(1,177.600 in 2005);
-Winnipeg is the largest city. About 706,900 people live there;
-Manitoba is home to many Metis and native peoples;
-Known for its cold dry winters and hot dry summers.
LAND and WATER
-Manitoba is known as the land of 100,000 lakes (Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis
and Lake Manitoba are three large lakes).
-Forests (pine, hemlock and birch) cover northern Manitoba.
-Manitoba has petroleum (used to make gasoline);
-Hydro-electric power is an important industry;
-There are different types of farming in southern Manitoba: growing wheat, barley, oats,
sunflowers, flax and canola.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-There are wonderful beaches within a short 1 hour drive to Winnipeg. You will find
white sand in Grand Beach, and dunes;
-If you are interested in fossils, then check out the Canadian
Fossil Discovery Centre in Morden, Manitoba. They have the
biggest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada;
-Manitoba's Provincial Parks offer some of the province’s
most inspiring, challenging and rewarding visitor experiences.
Quiz on Manitoba:
1. Where is Manitoba located? _______________________________________________
2. Manitoba is larger than which country? ______________________________________
3. Which city is the largest? _________________________________________________
4. How many lakes are located in Manitoba? ___________________________________
5. Name one important industry in Manitoba: ___________________________________
What is a main idea?
A main idea is larger, more important or more influential than others sentences. The
main idea in a piece of writing is the point the author is making about a topic.
Use the following steps to find the main idea:
- Preview: look for clues in the introduction
- Read: read the text looking for the general idea
- Focus: on individual information in the text
- Look for transition words: first, next, however, in addition and more
- Identify the most general statement
- Look for supporting evidence and discussion
- State the main idea for each paragraph in your own words
- Find the main idea of entire piece of writing by considering all of the points
Manitoba is a province with many unknown facts.
- Read the two texts below.
- In each text, find the sentence that contains the main idea.
- Write these sentences.
Hi! My name is John and I am from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Did you know that my
province was the fifth one to join the Canadian confederation in 1870?
One thing not many people know is that, in its early days, Manitoba was predominantly
a province inhabited by French people. However, over the years, the use of French in the
province would change. As I said, over a century ago, French was the first language, but
then, many settlers* arrived from Ontario with the construction of the CP railway. After
a few years, the English majority clearly outnumbered the French one; laws were
changed and French was no longer the official language. From that year on, French
could only be used in school if the number of students was significant.
Hi! My name is Michael and I am from Winnipeg, Manitoba. I am doing research on my
province for my History class. I have learned many things about commerce in y area
centuries ago. What caught my attention was all the travelling people would do to profit
from the trading business. Centuries ago, aboriginal people lived in the region near the
junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. They would walk for days to reach good
hunting grounds. They would hunt animals and use their pelts as clothing. Then, when
the first settlers* arrived, they would also hunt these animals but for commercial fur
trade. It was not long before traders from Europe would travel far and wide to profit
from the fur trade. In 1670, the London-based Hudson’s Bay company had the fur-
trading monopoly over most of Western Canada. Soon after, French-Canadian voyageurs
and English-speaking traders travelled from Winnipeg to trade furs in the southern
* settler: a person who establishes himself/herself in a new country or colony.
Text Main Idea
“From many people’s strength”
Official flower: Western red (Prairie) lily
Official bird: Sharp-tailed Grouse
Saskatchewan is limited to north by the Northwest Territories, to the east
by Manitoba, the south by the American States of North Dakota and
Montana, and with the west by Alberta.
Saskatchewan offers visitors endless freshwater
fishing and water-based recreation opportunities,
abundant wildlife, uncrowded parks, outdoor
adventures like canoeing and horseback riding, farm
vacations and amazing and accessible golf. Festive
towns and cities, and friendly, down to earth people,
whose prairie roots run deep, will make you feel right
-The Saskatchewan flag is divided into two equal parts;
-The green represents Saskatchewan's northern forests;
-The gold section is for the golden fields of grain;
-The provincial shield is in the top left corner;
-The Western Red Lily is on the right side of the flag;
-The Western Red Lily is Saskatchewan's floral emblem.
LAND AND WATER
-Saskatchewan means ``swift-flowing river`` in Cree language;
-Half is forest, one-third is farmland;
-Over 100,000 lakes, rivers, marshes;
-Athabasca Provincial Park has sand dunes 30 m. high;
-Main rivers: Assiniboine, North and South Saskatchewan and Churchill;
-Two largest cities are Regina ( the capital ) and Saskatoon.
-First people : Chipewyan (north) , Assiniboine (east), Blackfoot (west) and Cree.
-Metis (of mixed European and Aboriginal descent) were among the first settlers.
-People came from Germany, Ukraine, Scandinavia, Poland, Russia, Britain, France
-Population 990,930 (January, 2006)
-Earliest explorer - Henry Kelsey (1690);
-Samuel Hearne built trading posts;
-Trappers and fur traders arrived;
-Forts were built to maintain law and order;
-Settlers were encouraged to come for free farmland;
-Railroad was built across the southern part of the province;
-Became a province in 1905 with Regina as the capital.
-Produces 28 percent of Canada's grain;
-Grows over 54 percent of Canada's wheat crop;
-Forestry in northern Saskatchewan;
-Rich in minerals (potash, uranium, coal, oil and natural gas).
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-Climb306: One of North America's largest indoor rock climbing facilities. Fun for all
ages and skill levels.
-Eco-Party Dragonboat tours : Tour Wascana Lake in a Dragon Boat! Learn about the
lake and Wascana Park, see Regina from a different angle, and race a real dragon boat.
-The Herpetological Garden is not about tigers, great apes, or giant pandas. In fact their
focus is on herptiles ( Reptiles and Amphibians).
Quiz on Saskatchewan
1. What is the meaning of Saskatchewan in Cree language? ________________________
2. How high are the Athabasca Provincial Park’s dune? ___________________________
3. Name the two largest cities: _______________________________________________
4. Who built trading posts? _________________________________________________
5. In what year did Saskatchewan became a province? ____________________________
Saskatchewan has a variety of activities to please everyone.
- Read the four texts below.
- Look at the grid below.
- Associate each text with the appropriate place visited.
- Write your answers
Inside this great building, Stuart was walking through the half-silent crowd. People all
around him seemed to be interested in what they were looking at. They were quiet.
None of them had come here to meet and discuss. They were interested in discovering
natural records of life, and so was Stuart.
Pa walked on the unstable floor, trying to keep her balance. She enjoyed the view, as
the scenery was magnificent. Rarely had she seen such beauty and she truly liked this
ride, regardless of the cold and the humidity.
Richard hiked over the hill and admired the view from the top. He saw a small arch
and a couple getting married. He thought how weird it was to have a wedding here,
but he did not pay to much attention. John kept walking; he loves everything that has
to do with Mother Nature’s display of colors and scents.
Paul was sitting in his seat, watching it all go by in front of him. He had rarely seen
such a big event. The eleven thousand watts of sound was incredible. People beside
him were just as amazed. The pleasure was immense from watching the greatest
wonders that space pictures had to over.
A) Regina Floral Conservatory
B) Saskatchewan Science Centre / IMAX
C) Royal Saskatchewan Museum
D) Willow Island /
“Strong and Free”
Official flower: Wild rose
Official bird: Great horned owl
Official animal: Rocky Mountain Big Horn Sheep
Alberta, Western province of Canada, boarded at the north by the
Northwest Territories, at the east by Saskatchewan, the south by the
American State of Montana and in southwest and the west by the British
The province of Alberta is amazingly beautiful. There are five national
parks and over one hundred other parks. It is considered by many to be
hikers’ paradise. These areas are filled with abundant wildlife. However,
there are many precautions to be taken if you want to explore the wild
beauty of Alberta safely.
From natural wonders to man-made marvels. Shop (and play) at the largest
entertainment and shopping centre in the world, hike where the dinosaurs
once roamed, and experience life in the past complete with pioneers, cowboys, and
Aboriginal dancers. Below is a sampling of major attractions from the six tourism
THE PROVINCIAL FLAG
• The blue background represents the prairie skies;
• The Cross of St. George ( patron saint of England ) is at the top;
• Below it are the Rockies, foothills, prairies and wheat fields;
• All these represent the landscape of Alberta;
• It became the official provincial flag in 1968.
-The name "Alberta" is in honour of the daughter of Queen Victoria;
-It is the fourth-largest province;
-Edmonton (capital city) and Calgary are the largest cities;
-It is known as Canada's "energy province";
-More than half of the people live in Edmonton and Calgary.
LAND AND WATER
-There are icefields in Banff and Jasper National Parks: Ice fields are formed by a large
accumulation of snow which, through years of compression and freezing, turns into ice.
-The icefields help to fill the rivers;
-There are five national parks;
-Banff National Park is the oldest national park in Canada.
-Alberta has oil, natural gas, and coal;
-It is the main producer of coal in Canada. i.e. Coal is the largest source of fuel for the
generation of electricity world-wide;
-The province is also the main producer of oil and natural gas in Canada;
-Alberta sells the oil, natural gas and coal to other provinces and other countries;
-Forests cover over half of Alberta;
-There is good soil for growing crops like oats, canola and barley;
-The main crop is wheat. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
- One of the province's most popular attractions is Dinosaur Provincial Park, located in
the Alberta badlands, where a century of excavations have discovered the skeletons of
over 150 dinosaurs that once roamed the landscape 75 million years ago.
-Calgary stampede has bull riding, calf roping and wagon racing.
-West Edmonton Mall, the world’s largest mall. Home to over 800 stores and services,
world's largest indoor wave pool at 5 acres in size, world's largest parking lot with 20,000
free parking spaces, 18 hole mini-golf course, real submarines to ride in, casino, spa, 3
movie theatres, hotel and the list goes on and on. The roller coaster is rated number 1 in
the world for g-force.
Quiz on Alberta:
1. Where is Alberta? ______________________________________________________
2. Which cities are the largest (2)? ____________________________________________
3. What are Alberta’s principal industries? _____________________________________
4. What’s the name of the oldest park in Canada? ________________________________
5. Alberta is the second producer of which crop in Canada? ________________________
6. What is the province most popular attraction? ________________________________
- Read the two texts below.
- Read the list of topics below.
- Decide if the recommendations concerning these topics are similar or different.
- Write your answers.
Alberta Bear Country
There are many rules to follow while you
are in bear country. You should always
take good care of your garbage. Never
leave a trash bag containing food lying
around, keep it at a distance from your
tent. Even better, tie it up high in a tree.
Always wash your dirty dishes
immediately after you are done eating.
When you walk in the forest, make sure
that you always make a lot of noise.
Animals, especially bears, do not like to
be startled; they like to be left alone,
Never walk at night on off-trails. This
makes you vulnerable. Remember,
animals have better nocturnal eyesight
Be careful not to surprise a mother with
her baby cubs. Also, never get close to a
cub that seems abandoned. It is better if
you alert the forest ranger of its location.
The first thing you should know about
hiking in bear country is how to store
your food. You should keep it in an
airtight container, preferably close to your
tent because racoons are clever thieves.
Also, keep your dishes clean all the times
so the smell won’t attract bears.
Keep real quiet in the forest. If you make
noise all the time, you will never get to
see any wildlife. When you are in a
group, keep your conversation to a
Off trails are super cool, especially at
night. You will hear owls and maybe
encounter a raccoon or two although it is
quite difficult to see in the dark.
I should mention one last thing. If you
ever come across a baby bear, do not
approach it because the mother is never
too far behind. I strongly recommend you
leave the area quickly.
“Splendour without diminishment”
Official flower: Pacific dogwood
Official bird: Steller's Jay
British Colombia is limited to north by the Yukon Territory and the
Northwest Territories, to the east by Alberta, the south by Montana,
Idaho and the State of Washington, in the northwest by Alaska. The
peak of the Rocky Mountains forms the southern part of the Eastern
The excitement and energy are building as British Columbia,
home of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter
Games prepares to welcome the world! Experience BC’s
breathtaking scenery, exciting cities and resorts including
Vancouver, Victoria and Whistler, and do it your way. Enjoy a
stay in our hotels and resorts, backcountry cabins, ranches,
campsites, B&Bs and all approved and inspected
accommodations in between. Try our activities, from skiing,
golf, fishing, whale watching to wine tasting and dining. Learn
more about things to do in BC, including sightseeing trips,
adventure tours, attractions, driving routes, maps and great
THE PROVINCIAL FLAG :
-At the top is the flag of the United Kingdom since this province was once a British
-Below is a half sun on blue waves;
-The waves are for the Pacific Ocean off the B.C. coast;
-The setting sun represents the most westerly province;
-It became the official provincial flag in 1960.
-B.C. is the most western province in Canada and the third-largest;
-Victoria, the capital city is on Vancouver Island;
-Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada;
-B.C. is the home to over 4.2 million people. (2005 population);
-B.C. has the largest Chinese community in Canada;
-The top 10 languages spoken are English, Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin),
Punjabi, German, French, Tagalog, Spanish, Italian, Korean, and Dutch;
-Approximately 35,000 immigrants from around the world arrive each year.
LAND AND WATER:
-The Fraser River is one of the largest rivers in Canada;
-Both the Fraser and the Columbia River flow into the Pacific Ocean;
-Coastal Mountains and Rocky Mountains are two large mountain ranges.
-Forestry is the largest industry. Forest covers half of B.C.;
-B.C, has the largest and oldest trees in Canada;
-B.C.'s mountains, parks and beaches attract many tourists;
-B.C. has the largest fishing industry in Canada
(salmon, halibut, clams, cod, crab, oysters, rockfish, shrimp and herring);
-There are many orchards in the Okanagan Valley
( apples, cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums);
-The province is Canada's third-largest generator of hydro electricity;
-B.C. is Canada's second-largest natural gas producer;
-B.C. is the third-largest film and television production centre in North America (after
New York and Los Angeles).
FUN THINGS TO DO:
-Miniature Train and Children's Farmyard. There's a Halloween train in October.
In December, "Bright Nights" features a Christmas town, decorated with lights and
cheery displays, and the train runs at night.
-Skiing: Whistler Mountain and other ski resorts in B.C.
-Model Ships Museum – A wonderful collection of model ships, including models
of WWII submarines, local Canadian fishing ships, tugs and barges, historical
sailing ships, and fantasy ships, such as Jules Verne's Nautilus submarine.
Quiz on British Columbia:
1. Where is British Columbia? _______________________________________________
2. Where is located Victoria, the capital city? __________________________________
3. What is BC’s largest industry? ____________________________________________
4. B.C, has the largest and oldest __________ in Canada. _________________________
5. What do tourist do? _____________________________________________________
6. Which river is one of the largest in Canada? __________________________________
When you are travelling with others, it is important to choose activities that please
- Read the letter below.
- Read the description of activities.
- Determine which six (6) activities Derek and his sister would both enjoy.
- Write the number of the activities.
Dear Travel Agent,
My name is Derek and I’m from Kelowna, British Columbia. I have a younger sister and
it will soon be her birthday. I would like to take her to Vancouver for the weekend. The
problem is that I do not have a lot of money and we have different interests. We will
have to establish priorities and do only activities that we both like.
Personally, I love kayaking and canoeing, but my sister does not like outdoor activities
that have to do with water; she prefers to be on land. She likes skiing and I love
snowboarding. She is afraid of heights and that’s too bad because I would love to try
parachuting. Our common interests are educational activities, the arts and our love for
Could you please send me information on what might interest us?
1. The ocean surrounds Vancouver; there are many boat companies at the harbour
that offer tours around the island.
2. There is a sky ride that can take you all the way to the top of Grouse Mountain.
From up there, you have an absolutely amazing view of the area.
3. It is also possible to take an adventure tour in the surrounding mountains. The
trip includes bird watching, hiking and ever grizzly watching.
4. Another great activity is the White Water rafting excursion in the turquoise rivers
of British Columbia. It is only a short car-ride from downtown Vancouver. If you
like extreme sports, it is the place to go.
5. The best gold courses in the country are located in the Vancouver area. If you
love the sport or simply want to take a nice walk, this is worth the while.
6. From June 3 to September 26 is the Shakespeare festival on the beach. Plays can
be seen every day.
7. There is the Capilano suspended bridge in the park by the same name. Let’s see if
you are brave enough to walk over the river at an elevation of 230 feet. I can
guarantee the view is worth every shiver.
8. If you feel like walking, you must go to the Granville Island. It is an old factory
that his become a public market. There is also an art school and other little shops.
9. Science fans should go to the Science World. It is an unbelievable museum, filled
with exhibits for kids, science shows, and amazing demonstrations.
10. Stanley Park is the place to visit. It is the biggest green space in Vancouver. It is
also near the zoo and the best international attraction in British Columbia: the
Determine which six (6) activities Derek and his sister would both enjoy.
Write the number of the activities.
The order of the answers is not important.
“Nunavut, our strength”
Official flower: Arctic poppy
Nunavut is bordered in the east by the Northwest Territories, in the
north by the Arctic Ocean, the northeast and the east by Baffin Bay, in
the east by the strait of Davis and in the south by Quebec, Hudson Bay
Nunavut is an exciting arctic destination that offers a pristine, raw, non-
commercialized, and a truly "you and nature" experience. The Inuit
people are brilliant, industrious and innovative, and have survived here
for thousands of years. Now it's your turn!
-The white and gold stand for the land;
-Red is one of Canada's official colours;
-The inuksuk is a stone marker, they were made by the Inuit long ago to show the way for
-The marker and the North Star are guides to help people find their way.
-Nunavut means "our land" in Inuktitut;
-Nunavut became Canada's third territory on April 1, 1999;
-It is the largest territory and has one-fifth of the land in Canada;
-Baffin Island and Ellesmere Island are two large islands.
-Nunavut is the home to about 30,000 people. (2005);
-The Inuit are the aboriginal people who make up 85 percent of the population;
-Inuktitut is the language of the Inuit;
-English, French and Inuktitut are the languages spoken in Nunavut;
-The towns are very small and far away from each other;
-Airplanes bring supplies if towns can't be reached by road;
-On Baffin Island the Inuit still hunt and fish for survival.
-largest community in Nunavut; population 6000;
-Canada's most northern capital;
-Became capital of Nunavut on April 1, 1999;
-Iqaluit means the place of many fish;
-Winter activities: dog sledding, snowmobiling, ice-fishing;
-Was an airbase in the 1940s.
-The first people to live in Nunavut were the Inuit;
-They used to live in small hunting and fishing camps;
-Fur trading posts were set up in the 1700s;
-In 1870 the territories belonged to Canada;
-Inuit way of life changed. They forgot their native traditions;
-The Canadian government urged the Inuit to settle in communities;
-The Inuit requested their own territory.
LAND AND WATER
-The land and water are frozen most of the year;
-The Arctic waters are covered with ice floes;
-Icebergs break off from the glaciers and fall into the sea;
-In winter you can't tell where the land ends and the sea begins;
-There are also mountains and tundra;
-The soil is frozen. (Fruits and vegetables are flown in);
-It is a polar desert with very little snowfall.
-Tourism: People come to fish, hike, camp, hunt, to see the wildlife;
-Mining: copper, lead, silver, zinc, iron, gold and diamonds, oil and gas;
-Fishing: whitefish and Arctic char;
-Sale of Inuit arts and crafts (soapstone sculptures).
-The Inuit believe in taking care of the land and the wildlife;
-Wildlife includes muskoxen, caribou, polar bears, arctic foxes, whales and seals;
-They eat the meat of muskoxen, caribou, whales and seals. They also fish;
-Clothing is made from the furs of the muskoxen, polar bears, arctic foxes and seals.
In April the people of Iqaluit celebrate the coming of Spring. They have dog team and
snowmobile races and contests (hunting, fishing, igloo-building, harpoon-throwing).
FUN THINGS TO DO?
-Combine walrus watching with a little iceberg and ice floe photography for a Natural
-Glaciers, mountains, musk-ox, birds, polar bear, they can all be found in our Territorial
and National Parks. These remote, accessible parks receive around 2,000 visitors a year.
That’s one reason they remain unspoiled and untamed.
-Camping can be as soft or as rugged as you like. It is recommended that even
experienced campers hire a guide or outfitter.
-Whether a casual daytrip or a well-planned journey, canoe trips are spectacular.
-Iceberg watching: As the ice breaks up, icebergs arrive. White Mountains float on blue
-Learn about the culture: Drum dancers and throat singers tell the same stories of hunts,
travels, gods and beasts that were told a thousand years ago.
Quiz on Nunavut
1. What’s the language of Inuit? _____________________________________________
2. What does Nunavut means in Inuktitut? _____________________________________
3. What is the percentage of Inuit in Nunavut? __________________________________
4. What’s the name of the largest community? __________________________________
5. What is the population of the largest community? _____________________________
6. What winter activity can be done in Nunavut? ________________________________
7. What was set up in the 1700s? _____________________________________________
8. Icebergs break off from the __________ and fall into the ______.
9. What do people in Iqaluit do in April? ______________________________________
10. What would you like to visit in Nunavut? ___________________________________
Official flower: Mountain avens
Official bird: Gyrfalcon
The Northwest Territories are part of northern Canada. The N.W.T. lies
between the Yukon Territory and Nunavut. The Arctic Ocean is to the
north. The Northwest Territories is a land of contrasts. It is 1.17 million
square kilometers of mountains, forests and tundra threaded by wild,
clean rivers feeding thousands of pristine lakes.
Northwest Territories have many amazing travel activities where you can experience a
truly northern adventure vacation. The best Canada has to offer from canoeing, relaxing,
hunting and fishing.
-This colourful flag represents Canada's North;
-The blue in the flag stands for water;
-while the white is for the ice and snow;
-It became the official flag of the N.W.T in 1969.
-Second-largest of the three territories in Canada;
-Population - about 43,000 people (2005);
-Almost half are aboriginal (Dene, Inuvialuit and Metis);
-The largest community is the city of Yellowknife (the capital), population 20,000;
-Most people are living in the Mackenzie River Valley.
-The first people were the Dene and the Inuit;
-Dene lived along the Mackenzie Valley ten thousand years ago;
-The first Inuit may have crossed the Bering Strait about five thousand years ago;
-Alexander Mackenzie discovered the Mackenzie River in 1789;
-Fur trading posts were built along the river;
-Communities grew around the trading posts;
-Yukon, Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, parts of Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec were
once part of N.T.W.
-In 1870 the area became Canada's first territory.
LAND AND WATER
-Mackenzie River is the longest river in Canada;
-Great Bear Lake is eighth-largest in the world;
-Great Slave Lake is the deepest lake in Canada and tenth-largest in the world;
-Part of the N.W.T. has trees like black spruce, white spruce, birch, poplar.(taiga)
-Mining gold, zinc, iron ore, lead, silver and diamonds (near Lac
-NWT is home to Canada’s first diamond mine;
-Oil and natural gas exploration;
-Hunting and trapping of beaver, lynx, fox, marten, muskrat,
-Tourism - people come to see the wildlife and natural beauty.
FUN THINGS TO DO:
The best Canada has to offer - from canoeing pristine waters
to viewing a dazzling northern lights display - from relaxing at a
remote wilderness lodge to hunting and fishing in an unspoiled
-Water Activities: Mighty Rivers, majestic lakes, the vast untamed waterways of the
Northwest Territories offer unrivalled paddling experiences.
-Sport Fishing: Legendary fishing awaits you in the land of the midnight sun. For a dream
angling adventure, join us in Canada's Northwest Territories.
-Northern Lights: Experience awesome displays of the aurora borealis from the comfort
of a winter lodge or a remote wilderness lake.
-Wildlife Viewing: See wildlife in the pristine wilderness. Bring your camera and ready
yourself for an unforgettable adventure.
Quiz on North West territories
1. Where do most people live? _______________________________________________
2. Who were the first people? _______________________________________________
3. Who discovered the Mackenzie River? ______________________________________
4. What is the name of the longest river in Canada? ______________________________
5. What is the name of the deepest lake in Canada? ______________________________
Official flower: Fireweed
Official bird: Common Raven
The Yukon Territory is bordered in north by the sea of Beaufort (Arctic
Ocean), in the east by the Northwest Territories, in the south by British
Colombia and at the west by the American State of Alaska.
According to legend, Yukon's land has been peopled since a
mythological creature named Crow created the world. Yukon First
Nations include the Southern and Northern Tutchone, Tlingit, Tagish,
Kaska, Tanana, Han and Gwitchin people. The Inuvialuit peoples' traditional hunting
grounds include northern Yukon. Respect for the land, its creatures and the forces of
nature, combined with a rich oral tradition, form the foundations of the Yukon First
The main colours of the Yukon flag are green, white and blue;
Green is for forests, white for snow, and blue for water;
The coat of arms is in the centre of the flag;
The floral emblem (fireweed) is under the shield.
-The Yukon Territory became part of Canada in 1898;
-The word "Yukon" means "Great River";
-The smallest territory;
-Name : from the Native word "Yu-kun-ah" meaning Great
-Population about 31,587 (2005);
-Over 70 percent live in Whitehorse, the capital city (23,511 people);
-About 24 percent of the people are Aboriginal (2001 census);
-There are fourteen First Nations, speaking eight different languages.
-They hunted, fished and trapped to survive;
-In 1840 British fur trader and explorer Robert Campbell arrived;
-Forts were built so the Hudson's Bay Company could trade for furs with the trappers..
-By 1899 the gold was almost gone so people left the Yukon;
-Building of the Alaska highway in 1942 brought hundreds of workers;
-The highway (1,520 miles or 2,446 km) was constructed in eight months.
LAND AND WATER
-The Yukon River is 3,520 km (2,200 miles) long;
-Part of the land is "tundra" : rocky, moss, tough grasses, small willow shrubs grow
-Soil is frozen so growing crops is difficult;
-Part of the land is covered with forests.
-People visit the Yukon to hike, raft, camp, rock climb, fish, see wildlife, and hunt;
-Tourism provides many jobs for people;
-The largest industry is mining (gold, lead, zinc and silver);
-Beaver, lynx, wolverine, muskrat, marten and fox are trapped and the furs are sold.
FUN THINGS TO DO IN THE YUKON:
-The Yukon enjoys some of the liveliest and predictable displays of aurora borealis in the
circumpolar North. You can experience Yukon’s winter activities such as dog sledding or
snowshoeing by day and spend your nights watching the enchanting northern lights in the
peaceful solitude of a Yukon winter night.
-Come face-to-face with a seven-foot grizzly at the MacBride Museum of Yukon History.
Quiz on Yukon
1. Where is Yukon Territory? _______________________________________________
2. What does Yukon Mean? _________________________________________________
3. Why did they build forts? ________________________________________________
4. Why do people visit Yukon? ______________________________________________
5. How long is the Yukon River? _____________________________________________
Each province has its festival, but the Yukon has one like no other.
- Read the text.
- Read the five questions below.
- Find the answers to the questions.
- Write the answers.
Yukon – Festival
There is a festival in every province, but not many are as special as the Dawson City
Music Festival. It is regarded to many as the summer equivalent of the Frostbite Music
Festival in February. These are over ten major festivals in this territory, but Dawson City
is the real place to be for musicians of the small northern community. It is a place for
newcomers but also for well-established popular Canadian artists. Every kind of music
can be heard all over the city, from rock to traditional. Even churches become concert
halls, as the acoustics in their buildings are fantastic.
The festival takes place during the second half of July, at the height of the tourist season.
Every year, people from all over Canada, the United States and even Europe come to this
festival. Because of the geographical position of the Yukon, the sun never sets. During
the summer, it never gets dark; there is an ever-present brightness for every single
There is a lot more than just music going on. There are games for kids and crafts for
adults. There is fun for the entire family; everyone will find something that pleases them.
Come and join the adventure!
Answer the questions in complete sentences.
1. What is the Dawson City Music Festival compared to?
2. Why can we say that there is a mixture of artists?
3. Why are there so many people at the festival?
4. What is so special about the geographical position of Yukon?
5. Name two (2) other activities you can do at the summer festival?
Show and Tell
Explain the best trip in Canada you had in your life and the worst one.
Where did you go? ________________________________________________________
When did you go? ________________________________________________________
What did you like the most?
What did you hate the most?
Over 200,000 people from other countries immigrate to Canada each year. Nearly 20
percents of Canadians have come from somewhere else. Many become Canadian
Citizens. Why do they come here?
Reason people say they come to Canada: Canada is a peaceful country; everyone has
equal rights. Women are treated as equal as men; there is freedom of speech in Canada.
We can say what we think, even if others disagree.
How would you describe Canada to an immigrant?
Are you proud to be a Canadian? Why?
Create a poster of a province or territory.
It must include a picture and a text (15 to 25 words) for each category listed in the
- See your teacher’s poster for an example.
Tic when it’s done (√)
Name of the province or territory
Fun things to do