Canada Student Booklet


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Canada Student Booklet

  1. 1. Name: _________________________________ Town: _________________________________ Province: ______________________________ Country: _______________________________ Continent: _____________________________ 1
  2. 2. Canada “The True North Strong and Free” Today, travelling has never been so easy. However, rare are Canadians who can claim having visited our entire country because it is so vast. In fact, over five thousand kilometres separate our two coasts. In the LES, you will discover new things about Canada, at a glance. You will hear, read and write about cultural, historical and unusual facts about your majestic country. Canada is a huge country in the continent of North America. Canada is the second biggest country in the world after Russia. Canada is comprised of 3,849,675 square miles (9,976,140 square km); it is the second-largest country in the world (Russia is first at 17,075,200 sq km). This huge country borders the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the United States of America. Canada has over 151,480 miles (243,791 km) of coastline. Most of Canada's human population lives along its southern border. The Capital: The capital of Canada is the city of Ottawa, which is in the province of Ontario, located above the Great Lakes. Provinces and Territories: Canada has 10 provinces and 3 territories (the capital of each is shown in parentheses): Alberta (Edmonton), British Columbia (Victoria), Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown), Manitoba (Winnipeg), New Brunswick (Fredericton), Nova Scotia (Halifax), Nunavut (Iqaluit), Ontario (Toronto), Quebec (Quebec City), Saskatchewan (Regina); Newfoundland and Labrador (St. John's), Northwest Territories (Yellowknife), and Yukon Territory (Whitehorse). Geography: Canada's land ranges from fertile agricultural plains in the south to freezing tundra in the north. The southwest of Canada (British Columbia) has a mild climate. Cold winters characterize most of the rest of Canada. The magnetic North Pole is within 2
  3. 3. Nunavut. Mountains: Parts of Canada are very mountainous. The tallest mountain in Canada is the Yukon's Mount Logan, which is 19,850 feet (6050 m) tall. Canada has many mountain ranges, including the Appalachians, Torngats, and Laurentians in the eastern regions, the Rocky, Coastal, and Mackenzie ranges in the western regions, and Mount St. Elias and the Pelly Mountains in the northern country. Lakes: Canada has about two million lakes. The biggest lakes are (in order by their surface area): Lake Huron [36,000 sq. km of Lake Huron's 59,600 sq. km are in Canada], Lake Great Bear [31,328 sq. km], Lake Superior [of which 28,700 sq. km of Lake Superior's 82,100 sq. km are in Canada], Lake Great Slave [also the deepest lake, with a depth of 614 m], Lake Winnipeg, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The 2,000,000 lakes cover about 7.6% of Canada's land. Rivers: The longest river in Canada is the Mackenzie River, which is 2,635 miles (4241 km) long. It runs through the Northwest Territories. Other large and important rivers are the St. Lawrence River (1,900 miles = 3058 km long), the Yukon River, the Columbia River (partly in the USA), the Nelson River, the Churchill River, and the Fraser River. Canada's Flag The Canadian flag is red and white; these are the official colors of Canada. The flag features a red maple leaf with eleven points. The maple leaf is a symbol of Canada. The flag is twice as wide as it is tall. This flag was officially adopted on February 15, 1965. 1. What are the official colors of Canada? ________________ and _________________. 2. What type of leaf is featured in Canada's flag ? _______________________________ 3. How many points are on the leaf? __________________________________________ 4. When was this flag officially adopted? ______________________________________ 3
  4. 4. National Anthem Listen to the Canadian National Anthem and read the lyrics. Lyrics of O Canada O Canada! Our home and native land! True patriot love in all thy sons command. With glowing hearts we see thee rise, The True North strong and free! From far and wide, O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. God keep our land glorious and free! O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. O Canada, we stand on guard for thee. 4
  5. 5. Map of Canada and flags of every provinces and territories 5
  6. 6. Draw a map in the school yard, bring the students outside with the map in hand and tell them where to go. i.e.: Go on Ontario Travel to the second province Hop in your card and drive to Manitoba Take the plane and fly to Newfoundland Bike across Canada to go to British Columbia Label Canadian Provinces and Territories Read about the Canadian provinces and territories, then label the map below. 6
  7. 7. Alberta - a province in southwestern Canada, between British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Nunavut - a territory in northern Canada east British Columbia - a province in of the Northwest Territories, bordering the southwestern Canada, by the Pacific Arctic Ocean and Hudson Bay. Ocean. Ontario - a province in southern Canada Manitoba - a province in southern between Manitoba and Quebec, bordering Canada, between Saskatchewan and Hudson Bay. Ontario, bordering Hudson Bay. Prince Edward Island - an island province New Brunswick - a province in just north of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. southeastern Canada that is east of Quebec - a province in southern Canada, east Quebec and west of Nova Scotia. of Ontario, bordering Hudson Bay. Newfoundland and Labrador - a Saskatchewan - a province in southern province that is northeast of Quebec. Canada, between Alberta and Manitoba. Northwest Territories - a territory in Yukon Territory - a territory in northwestern northern Canada between the Yukon and Canada, by the Pacific Ocean and Alaska. Nunavut. Nova Scotia - a province in southeastern Canada that is east of New Brunswick. Canada: Geographic Features Quiz 7
  8. 8. 1. What ocean forms Canada's western border? _________________________________ 2. What ocean forms Canada's eastern border? __________________________________ 3. What ocean lies north of Canada? __________________________________________ 4. What is the name of the enormous Canadian bay that almost divides Canada in two? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 5. What is the name of the country that borders Canada to the south? ________________ 6. What is the name of the Bay that separates part of Canada from Greenland? _________ 7. What is the name of the southeastern Canadian gulf that opens to the Atlantic Ocean? _______________________________________________________________________ _ 8. What is the name of the large river that flows north into the Beaufort Sea? __________ 9. What is the name of the long lake in south-central Canada? ______________________ 10. What is the name of the tallest peak in Canada? It is located in western Canada, near Alaska. _________________________ 8
  9. 9. Nova Scotia “One defends and the other conquers” Capital: Halifax Official flower: Mayflower (also called trailing arbutus) Official bird: Osprey Canada’s seacoast Nova Scotia is one of the three Maritime Provinces. It is surrounded by the Bay of Fundy, the strait of Northumberland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the northwest, in the west by the province of New Brunswick, in the northeast by Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador, and in the east, the south and the west by the Atlantic Ocean. FACTS: -Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin; -Nova Scotia became a province in 1867; -Second-smallest province (P.E.I. is the smallest); -Capital city and largest city - Halifax - population 375,000 (estimated 2005); -Halifax is an international seaport and transportation center. THE PEOPLE -There are 937,900 people living in Nova Scotia.(2005); -Many people live in or close to Halifax; -Most of the communities are along the coast; -First people were the Micmac and Abenaki; -People came from Britain, Western Europe, and Southern Europe; -One-quarter of the people are of British origin; -N.S. also has Canada's oldest African-Canadian community. HISTORY -Micmac lived there. They hunted, fished, gathered plants and berries; -French settlers arrived in 1605; -A French settlement named Port Royal was built in 1605; -The area was turned over to the British after a war; -French colonists were forced to leave; -Some went back to France while others went to the U.S. 9
  10. 10. WATER AND LAND -The Bay of Fundy is between N.S. and N.B. -Most of the province is covered with forests and lakes. -There are 3000 lakes in this province. RESOURCES/INDUSTRY -The main mineral is coal (used for making electricity). -Scallops, crabs, clams, cod, haddock, pollock, herring, salmon, and haddock are fished. -Lobsters from N.S. are eaten all across Canada. FUN THINGS TO DO: Nova Scotia is proud of its exciting and engaging history. Nova Scotia attractions are eclectic and exciting – from the urban attractions of the Halifax Citadel and Pier 21, to the rural provincial parks and sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List. There’s a lot to celebrate in Nova Scotia – and many attractions to help you. On Cape Breton Island, the Cabot Trail is breathtaking. -The Miner's Museum in Glace Bay is incredible and tells the story of mining in the province from the perspective of the miner -In Halifax, Pier 21 tells the stories of many immigrants to Canada who came into the country through the famous Pier 21. It is well worth a visit. -The Martime Museum of the Atlantic in the historic properties is a great place and has some fascinating exhibits on both the Titanic and the Halifax Explosion -Peggy's Cove is a great tourist destination and has a pretty lighthouse; there is also a restaurant and several gift shops close by; don't miss the view of the picturesque cove. Quiz on Nova Scotia 1. What does Nova Scotia means in Latin? ____________________________________ 2. What is the most important fact about Halifax? _______________________________ 3. Where are located most of the communities? _________________________________ 4. How many lakes are in this province? _______________________________________ 5. N.S. also has Canada's oldest African-Canadian community. True False 6. The main mineral we can find in Nova Scotia is: ________________________ 10
  11. 11. Oral Comprehension Step through a doorway in time to discover historic landmarks. Did you know that NS attracts tourists more than any other provinces? Instructions: - Read the questions below. - Listen to the text - Link every question with the right answer. - Write your answers. Canada’s Seacoast 1. What historic site is located in Louisbourg? ___ 2. What historic site is situated in Halifax? ___ 3. Where is the home of the famous Bluenose? ___ 4. Where is Alexander Graham Bell museum? ___ 5. What is the Cabot trail? ___ A) Citadel B) Lunenburg C) Fortress of Louisbourg D) Canada’s great ocean highway E) Baddeck 11
  12. 12. New Brunswick “Hope was Restored” Capital: Fredericton Official flower: Purple violet Official bird: Black-capped Chickadee New Brunswick, a maritime province in the east of Canada, connected to Nova Scotia, is boarded at the east by Prince Edward Island, at the west by the American State of Maine and in the northwest by Quebec. Here, the world’s highest tides rise and fall the height of a four-storey building, twice a day, every day. That’s just the beginning of the wonder waiting in New Brunswick… a place where rivers stretch from breathtaking to beautiful. Where you will be fascinated by the fragile beauty of coastal dunes… or inspired by the Appalachians, some of the oldest mountains on the planet! There’s a world of Natural Wonders waiting for you in New Brunswick! FLAG: -The royal lion of England is on the top of the flag and shield; -The bottom has a sailing ship which shows the province; once relied on the shipping and shipbuilding industry; -It became the official flag of New Brunswick in 1965. FACTS: -The name "Brunswick" was in honor of King George of England whose family came from the House of Brunswick; -New Brunswick became a province in 1867; -It is the third-smallest province; -N.B. is the home of about 752,000 people.(2005) ; -The largest city is Saint John; -Other major cities are Fredericton (the capital city) and Moncton; -Many people are of French, British, Scottish and Irish origin. 12
  13. 13. HISTORY -The first people to live in N.B. include the Micmac and Maliseet-Passamaquaddy (Malecite); -The Micmac and Malecite hunted and fished and were guides for the French explorers; -In 1604 Samuel de Champlain and the French arrived; -The French called the east coast area Acadia; -Acadia became an English colony in 1713; -Some of the people would not swear loyalty to England. Their homes were burned and they were sent away. Some went to Louisiana (U.S.A.); -American settlers founded the city of Saint John (oldest city in Canada); -The longest river is the Saint John River ( 670 km.long); -The river splits the province from north to south; -The Bay of Fundy between N.B. and Nova Scotia has the world's highest tides (15 m. high); -Forests, mainly black spruce and fir, cover about 85 percent of N.B. RESOURCES/INDUSTRY -N.B. is the main producer of lead, zinc, copper, and bismuth in Canada; -Coal, potash, antimony, silver, natural gas and oil are also mined; -There are fishing ports where more than fifty kinds of fish and shellfish are caught: -Scallops, shrimp, herring, lobsters, snow crabs, mussels, etc. -Lobster is the most valuable catch; -The main industry is forestry; -Paper, newspaper, magazines, tissue, wooden doors and windows are made; -There are over 3000 farms (livestock, dairy, poultry, potatoes, berries); -The main crop is potatoes. The Saint John River Valley is called the "Potato Belt." FUN THINGS TO DO -LIGHTHOUSES Lighthouses are proud sentinels of these people’s past. Want to picnic or go birdwatching on lighthouse grounds? -MUSEUMS From a 1905 REO touring car at the Antique Automobile Museum to the secrets of the Popes Museum in Grande-Anse, discover Newbrunswick thrilling historical treasures and piece together its unique story. Quiz on New-Brunswick 1. Where does the name Brunswick comes from? ________________________________ 2. Which city is the oldest city in Canada? _____________________________________ 3. What did Micmac and Malecite do for a living? _______________________________ 4. What happened to the people who did not swear loyalty to England? ______________ 13
  14. 14. _______________________________________________________________________ _ 5. What’s the main crop? ___________________________________________________ What is a travel agent? _______________________________________________________________________ _ _______________________________________________________________________ _ What is a travel agency? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ __ Attractions Next summer, Jamie is planning to go to New Brunswick. He wrote to a travel agent for suggestions and this is the answer somebody left him on his answering machine. Instructions: - Read the information in the grid below. - Listen to the message - Place the information in chronological order, the order in which a series of events happened: 1 being the first place to visit and 4 being the last. - Write your answers. 14
  15. 15. Tourist Attractions Order Bay of Fundy Shediac Magic Mountain Acadian Historical Village 15
  16. 16. Prince Edward Island “The small under the protection of the great” Capital: Charlottetown Official flower: Lady's slipper Official bird: Blue Jay Prince Edward Island is one of the three Maritimes provinces in the east of Canada. It is located in the gulf of the St. Lawrence, on the Atlantic Ocean, at the north of Nova Scotia and at the east of New Brunswick. It is separated from the North-American continent by the strait of Northumberland. The main attractions in PEI are Avonlea, Anne of Green Gables, Confederation Trail, Confederation Bridge, P.E.I. National Park, Potato field. The green and gentle landscape of Prince Edward Island is so inviting that visitors find themselves spending plenty of vacation time in the great outdoors. FLAG: -The P.E.I. flag is divided into two sections. -The gold lion is from Prince Edward's coat of arms. -It is the royal lion of England. -Below the lion are four oak trees on an island. -It became the province's official flag in 1964. FACTS: -It is the smallest province (224 km. long); -The Island was named "Prince Edward" in honor of the father of Queen Victoria in 1799; -PEI became a province in 1873. THE PEOPLE -P.E.I. is the home of 138,100 people(2005); -Charlottetown is the largest city with about 39,000 people; -The Island was the home of the Mi'kmaq (Micmac); -About 75 percent are of Scottish and Irish origin. 16
  17. 17. HISTORY -The first people to live on the Island were the Micmac; -They moved from place to place living in huts of skin and bark; -In the winter they hunted deer, in the summer they fished; -Jacques Cartier discovered the island in 1534; -In 1719 a French colony was formed; -The English took over the island and drove the French farmers out. THE LAND AND WATER -The Confederation Bridge joins New Brunswick and PEI; -The bridge was opened in 1997 and is almost 13 km long; -Ferry boats travel from Nova Scotia to P.E.I. -Prince Edward Island National Park has a large beach with reddish sand; -There are over 90 sandy beaches for swimming and boating; -The soil is red because it is made of red sandstone. RESOURCES/INDUSTRY -Agriculture is the largest industry; -About thirty percent of Canada's potatoes are grown in P.E.I. -The second-largest industry is tourism; -Fishing is the third-largest industry; -Lobsters are caught in traps; -About 10 million oysters a year are harvested for Canada and the world. FUN THINGS TO DO: -Amusement park: Sandpit is the largest Amusement Park in Prince Edward Island, boasting over 18 attractions. Sandpit features a huge rollercoaster, Can-AM go-kart track, miniature golf, bumper boats, many classic family rides, and so much more! -Water Parks: Shining water Family Fun Park, Magic Mountain Water Park -Wax World of the Stars is one of the top attractions in Cavendish. Visit your favorite celebrities. See how life-like our wax figures really are. Take your photo with Shrek and Michael Jordan. See Julia Roberts, Jim Carrey, Tom Cruise… Quiz on Prince Edward’s Island: 1. The Island was named in honor of ________________________________________. 2. What’s the name of the largest city? ________________________________________ 3. 75% of the people are ______________ and ______________ origins. 4. What’s the name of the bridge that joins New Brunswick and PEI? ________________ 5. Explain why the soil is red: _______________________________________________ 6. What’s the largest industry? _______________________________________________ 17
  18. 18. Newfoundland and Labrador “Seek ye first the Kingdom of God” Capital: St. John's Official flower: Pitcher plant Official bird: Atlantic Puffin The province of Newfoundland and Labrador is composed of the island of Newfoundland and the Eastern part of the area Labrador. It is bordered, in the east and the south, by the Atlantic Ocean and, in the west, by the gulf of the St. Lawrence and the province of Quebec. The island of Newfoundland is located at the north of the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Here, you will learn about this place called Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Catch a glimpse of icebergs, whales, birds and wildlife. Find hiking trails, parks, historic sites and scenic driving routes. Search for maps, accommodations, tours, festivals and events, outfitters and places to shop. Take this opportunity to explore this mysterious land. Let go of your expectations. Prepare yourself to be lost, and found, in Newfoundland and Labrador. FLAG: -White represents the ice and snow; -Blue is for the sea; -Red is for human effort; -The yellow line (arrow) represents confidence for a bright future; -The two red triangles represent the island and mainland of the province; -Blue triangles stand for the Commonwealth heritage; -The provincial flag represents the past, present and future. FACTS: -Newfoundland is one of the oldest places in Canada; -Nfld. is one of the four Atlantic provinces; -Nfld. is surrounded by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Atlantic and Artic Ocean; -The capital city and largest city is St. John's; -About 516,000 people lived in Nfld/Labrador in 2005; -People live in small fishing villages near the coast; 18
  19. 19. -Many are of British and Irish origin; -Aboriginal ancestry: Micmac, Inuit, Innu and Metis; -Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province in 1949. HISTORY -The first people were the Beothuk (now extinct) who hunted caribou and fished; -Vikings were the first to visit Nfld . They were blown off course on the way to Greenland; -Five hundred years later the explorer John Cabot arrived ( 1497); -He arrived on the feast day of St. John the Baptist and first called it St. John's Isle in honour of the saint; -He claimed the land for the King of England. LAND AND WATER -There are many bays and deep fiords along the coastlines of Nfld. and Labrador. -Icebergs can be seen off the coastline. RESOURCES/INDUSTRY -Nfld. is the main producer of iron ore in Canada. Steel is made from iron ore; -Churchill Falls in Labrador is one of the largest hydro-electric power plants in the world; -Main exports are oil, fish products, newsprint, iron ore and electricity; -Overfishing caused a severe decline in the amount of fish in the Grand Banks; -Titanic, a large passenger ship, sank in 1912 after hitting an iceberg south of Nfld. FUN THINGS TO DO: -L'Anse Aux Meadow National Historic Site is truly "the end of the world" for most American travellers. Miles of landscape, rocks and mountains, flanked by seas are absolutely magnificent. It is easy to imagine the Norse arriving here from Greenland 1000 years ago -Norstead is a village which recreates a typical Norse port of trade, which may be similar to the home port that the Vikings departed from to reach L'Anse aux Meadows. Costumed interpreters portray the villagers and answer visitors' questions, as well as demonstrating skills such as tablet weaving, Viking-era blacksmithing, and naalbinding -Gros Morne National Park, you can hike to the top of Gros Morne Mountain. Quiz on Newfoundland 1. What is the capital city? __________________________________________________ 2. Who were the first people to visit Newfoundland? _____________________________ 19
  20. 20. 3. Who did John Cabot claimed the land for? ___________________________________ 4. What’s the name of the famous ship that sank after hitting an iceberg in 1912? ______ 5. What’s the name of the largest hydro-electric power plants in the world? ___________ What are superstitions? ____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___ Are you superstitious? Yes NO Do you have any superstitions? ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___ Superstitions Let’s have a look at some superstitions from Newfoundland. Instructions: - Listen to the text. - Find four (4) key words that give the essential idea of the text. - Write these four words. ●________________________________________ ●________________________________________ ●________________________________________ ●________________________________________ 20
  21. 21. Ontario “Loyal she began, loyal she remains” Capital: Toronto Official flower: White trillium Official bird: Common Loon Ontario, boarded at the north by Hudson Bay, in the east by Quebec, the south by the Lakes, which constitute a natural border with the United States (States of New York, Michigan and Minnesota), and in the west by Manitoba. No matter where you travel in the province, you'll discover a natural wonder that rivals the best in the world. FACTS: -The name "Ontario" was first used for Lake Ontario. It meant "beautiful lake" or "sparkling water" in the Iroquois language; - Ontario became a province in 1867; -It is the second-largest province; - Toronto has a large financial district and the stock exchange. THE PEOPLE -The first people were the Huron, Iroquois, Neutral, Ojibwa, Cree, Ottawa, Nipissin, and Algonquin; -Ontario is the home of over 12 million people. (12,541,400 in 2005); -The largest city is Toronto with 5.3 million people.(2005); -Over half of the people in Toronto were born in other countries; -Many are of Italian, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Indian, Polish and Caribbean origin. HISTORY 21
  22. 22. -Loyalists fled the U.S. in 1781 and settled on the north shore of Lake Ontario; -The land was divided into Upper Canada (Ont.) and Lower Canada (Que.); -York (now Toronto) became the capital of Upper Canada; -Ontario became a province in 1867. WATER AND LAND -Four of the five Great Lakes are in Ontario. (Superior, Huron, Erie, Ontario) -There are 250,000 lakes. -Niagara Falls (a part of the Niagara River) is in Ontario. RESOURCES AND INDUSTRY -Mining: zinc, nickel, platinum, uranium, oil, natural gas, copper, gold, silver, iron ore; -Main producer of nickel, cobalt, salt, and magnesium in Canada. FUN THINGS TO DO: -Feel the awesome power of Niagara Falls as rushing river waters plunge over its mighty brink. In one second Niagara Falls pours out enough water to fill two large swimming pools. -It's all about family fun at Ontario Place, where you'll find exhilarating waterslides, exciting rides, pedal boats, mini putts, an arcade, restaurants and the world's first permanent IMAX® theatre, the Cinesphere. -The CN tower: The tallest tower in the world -Virtual Hockey – Play Virtual Hockey at the Hockey Hall of Fame -It's all happening at the Toronto Zoo, a half hour drive north of downtown Toronto. The zoo is open every day except December 25th and has over 5,000 animals, making this one of the world's best zoos. -Paramount Wonderland – If you're ready to just let loose, check out the Paramount Wonderland. A spectacularly large amusement park with over four dozen rides (including 10 roller coasters). IMPORTANT PEOPLE and EVENTS -Wayne Gretsky the famous hockey player came from Brantford; -Actor Jim Carrey was born in Ontario; -Singer/songwriter Alanis Morissette was born in Ottawa. Quiz on Ontario 1. The Iroquoians called Ontario "Kanadario" what does it mean? ___________________ 2. What’s the largest city? __________________________________________________ 3. Name the four great lakes that are in Ontario: _________________________________ 22
  23. 23. 4. Name one famous attraction: ______________________________________________ 5. Name a famous person born in Ontario: _____________________________________ Marineland Justin meets Travis and they talk about Justin’s new job as a critic and the review he made of the show presented at Marineland. Instructions - Read the four (4) topics below. - Listen to the conversation. - Compare the opinions of Justin and Travis for each topic. - For each topic, write the letter S if their opinions are similar or the letter D if their opinions are different. 23
  24. 24. Topics S or D Whales Accent Crowd Surprise 24
  25. 25. Manitoba “Glorious and Free” Capital: Winnipeg. Official flower: Prairie crocus Official bird: Great Gray Owl Manitoba is the central part of the country, limited to north by the Northwest Territories, to the North-East by Hudson Bay, the east by Ontario, the south by Minnesota and North Dakota and to the west by Saskatchewan. Manitoba combines all the best elements of a memorable vacation — four distinct seasons of sunshine, nature untouched by the spoils of modern life and the endless celebration of life and culture by people who love opening their hearts to new friends. FLAG : -Manitoba's flag looks a lot like Canada's former flag, the Canadian Red Ensign; -The Union Jack is in the upper left corner on a red background; -The province's shield is on the right side of the flag; - It became the official flag of Manitoba in 1966. FACTS: -The name Manitoba was first used for Lake Manitoba; -In the Assiniboine language, it is Mini tobow meaning Lake of the Prairie; -In Cree, it is Manitou bou for the place of the Great Spirit; -Manitoba is larger than Japan and twice the size of the United Kingdom; -Manitoba is the home of over a million people.(1,177.600 in 2005); -Winnipeg is the largest city. About 706,900 people live there; -Manitoba is home to many Metis and native peoples; -Known for its cold dry winters and hot dry summers. 25
  26. 26. LAND and WATER -Manitoba is known as the land of 100,000 lakes (Lake Winnipeg, Lake Winnipegosis and Lake Manitoba are three large lakes). -Forests (pine, hemlock and birch) cover northern Manitoba. RESOURCES/INDUSTRIES -Manitoba has petroleum (used to make gasoline); -Hydro-electric power is an important industry; -There are different types of farming in southern Manitoba: growing wheat, barley, oats, sunflowers, flax and canola. FUN THINGS TO DO: -There are wonderful beaches within a short 1 hour drive to Winnipeg. You will find white sand in Grand Beach, and dunes; -If you are interested in fossils, then check out the Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre in Morden, Manitoba. They have the biggest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada; -Manitoba's Provincial Parks offer some of the province’s most inspiring, challenging and rewarding visitor experiences. Quiz on Manitoba: 1. Where is Manitoba located? _______________________________________________ 2. Manitoba is larger than which country? ______________________________________ 3. Which city is the largest? _________________________________________________ 4. How many lakes are located in Manitoba? ___________________________________ 5. Name one important industry in Manitoba: ___________________________________ What is a main idea? A main idea is larger, more important or more influential than others sentences. The main idea in a piece of writing is the point the author is making about a topic. Use the following steps to find the main idea: - Preview: look for clues in the introduction - Read: read the text looking for the general idea - Focus: on individual information in the text - Look for transition words: first, next, however, in addition and more - Identify the most general statement 26
  27. 27. - Look for supporting evidence and discussion - State the main idea for each paragraph in your own words - Find the main idea of entire piece of writing by considering all of the points Manitoba is a province with many unknown facts. Instructions: - Read the two texts below. - In each text, find the sentence that contains the main idea. - Write these sentences. Text one Hi! My name is John and I am from Winnipeg, Manitoba. Did you know that my province was the fifth one to join the Canadian confederation in 1870? One thing not many people know is that, in its early days, Manitoba was predominantly a province inhabited by French people. However, over the years, the use of French in the province would change. As I said, over a century ago, French was the first language, but then, many settlers* arrived from Ontario with the construction of the CP railway. After a few years, the English majority clearly outnumbered the French one; laws were changed and French was no longer the official language. From that year on, French could only be used in school if the number of students was significant. Text two Hi! My name is Michael and I am from Winnipeg, Manitoba. I am doing research on my province for my History class. I have learned many things about commerce in y area centuries ago. What caught my attention was all the travelling people would do to profit from the trading business. Centuries ago, aboriginal people lived in the region near the junction of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. They would walk for days to reach good hunting grounds. They would hunt animals and use their pelts as clothing. Then, when the first settlers* arrived, they would also hunt these animals but for commercial fur trade. It was not long before traders from Europe would travel far and wide to profit from the fur trade. In 1670, the London-based Hudson’s Bay company had the fur- trading monopoly over most of Western Canada. Soon after, French-Canadian voyageurs and English-speaking traders travelled from Winnipeg to trade furs in the southern regions. * settler: a person who establishes himself/herself in a new country or colony. Text Main Idea ______________________________________________________________ 1 ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2 ______________________________________________________________ 27
  28. 28. Saskatchewan “From many people’s strength” Capital: Regina Official flower: Western red (Prairie) lily Official bird: Sharp-tailed Grouse Saskatchewan is limited to north by the Northwest Territories, to the east by Manitoba, the south by the American States of North Dakota and Montana, and with the west by Alberta. Saskatchewan offers visitors endless freshwater fishing and water-based recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, uncrowded parks, outdoor adventures like canoeing and horseback riding, farm vacations and amazing and accessible golf. Festive towns and cities, and friendly, down to earth people, whose prairie roots run deep, will make you feel right at home. FLAG : -The Saskatchewan flag is divided into two equal parts; -The green represents Saskatchewan's northern forests; -The gold section is for the golden fields of grain; -The provincial shield is in the top left corner; -The Western Red Lily is on the right side of the flag; -The Western Red Lily is Saskatchewan's floral emblem. LAND AND WATER -Saskatchewan means ``swift-flowing river`` in Cree language; -Half is forest, one-third is farmland; -Over 100,000 lakes, rivers, marshes; -Athabasca Provincial Park has sand dunes 30 m. high; 28
  29. 29. -Main rivers: Assiniboine, North and South Saskatchewan and Churchill; -Two largest cities are Regina ( the capital ) and Saskatoon. THE PEOPLE -First people : Chipewyan (north) , Assiniboine (east), Blackfoot (west) and Cree. -Metis (of mixed European and Aboriginal descent) were among the first settlers. -People came from Germany, Ukraine, Scandinavia, Poland, Russia, Britain, France -Population 990,930 (January, 2006) HISTORY -Earliest explorer - Henry Kelsey (1690); -Samuel Hearne built trading posts; -Trappers and fur traders arrived; -Forts were built to maintain law and order; -Settlers were encouraged to come for free farmland; -Railroad was built across the southern part of the province; -Became a province in 1905 with Regina as the capital. ECONOMY -Produces 28 percent of Canada's grain; -Grows over 54 percent of Canada's wheat crop; -Forestry in northern Saskatchewan; -Rich in minerals (potash, uranium, coal, oil and natural gas). FUN THINGS TO DO: -Climb306: One of North America's largest indoor rock climbing facilities. Fun for all ages and skill levels. -Eco-Party Dragonboat tours : Tour Wascana Lake in a Dragon Boat! Learn about the lake and Wascana Park, see Regina from a different angle, and race a real dragon boat. -The Herpetological Garden is not about tigers, great apes, or giant pandas. In fact their focus is on herptiles ( Reptiles and Amphibians). Quiz on Saskatchewan 1. What is the meaning of Saskatchewan in Cree language? ________________________ 2. How high are the Athabasca Provincial Park’s dune? ___________________________ 3. Name the two largest cities: _______________________________________________ 4. Who built trading posts? _________________________________________________ 5. In what year did Saskatchewan became a province? ____________________________ 29
  30. 30. Place visited Saskatchewan has a variety of activities to please everyone. Instructions: - Read the four texts below. - Look at the grid below. - Associate each text with the appropriate place visited. - Write your answers Text 1 Inside this great building, Stuart was walking through the half-silent crowd. People all around him seemed to be interested in what they were looking at. They were quiet. None of them had come here to meet and discuss. They were interested in discovering natural records of life, and so was Stuart. Text 2 Pa walked on the unstable floor, trying to keep her balance. She enjoyed the view, as the scenery was magnificent. Rarely had she seen such beauty and she truly liked this ride, regardless of the cold and the humidity. Text 3 Richard hiked over the hill and admired the view from the top. He saw a small arch and a couple getting married. He thought how weird it was to have a wedding here, but he did not pay to much attention. John kept walking; he loves everything that has to do with Mother Nature’s display of colors and scents. Text 4 Paul was sitting in his seat, watching it all go by in front of him. He had rarely seen such a big event. The eleven thousand watts of sound was incredible. People beside him were just as amazed. The pleasure was immense from watching the greatest wonders that space pictures had to over. 30
  31. 31. Associate each place visited to its text. 31
  32. 32. Places visited Text # A) Regina Floral Conservatory B) Saskatchewan Science Centre / IMAX Theatre C) Royal Saskatchewan Museum D) Willow Island / Boat Tours 32
  33. 33. Alberta “Strong and Free” Capital: Edmonton Official flower: Wild rose Official bird: Great horned owl Official animal: Rocky Mountain Big Horn Sheep Alberta, Western province of Canada, boarded at the north by the Northwest Territories, at the east by Saskatchewan, the south by the American State of Montana and in southwest and the west by the British Colombia. The province of Alberta is amazingly beautiful. There are five national parks and over one hundred other parks. It is considered by many to be hikers’ paradise. These areas are filled with abundant wildlife. However, there are many precautions to be taken if you want to explore the wild beauty of Alberta safely. From natural wonders to man-made marvels. Shop (and play) at the largest entertainment and shopping centre in the world, hike where the dinosaurs once roamed, and experience life in the past complete with pioneers, cowboys, and Aboriginal dancers. Below is a sampling of major attractions from the six tourism regions. THE PROVINCIAL FLAG • The blue background represents the prairie skies; • The Cross of St. George ( patron saint of England ) is at the top; • Below it are the Rockies, foothills, prairies and wheat fields; • All these represent the landscape of Alberta; • It became the official provincial flag in 1968. FACTS: -The name "Alberta" is in honour of the daughter of Queen Victoria; 33
  34. 34. -It is the fourth-largest province; -Edmonton (capital city) and Calgary are the largest cities; -It is known as Canada's "energy province"; -More than half of the people live in Edmonton and Calgary. LAND AND WATER -There are icefields in Banff and Jasper National Parks: Ice fields are formed by a large accumulation of snow which, through years of compression and freezing, turns into ice. -The icefields help to fill the rivers; -There are five national parks; -Banff National Park is the oldest national park in Canada. RESOURCES -Alberta has oil, natural gas, and coal; -It is the main producer of coal in Canada. i.e. Coal is the largest source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide; -The province is also the main producer of oil and natural gas in Canada; -Alberta sells the oil, natural gas and coal to other provinces and other countries; -Forests cover over half of Alberta; -There is good soil for growing crops like oats, canola and barley; -The main crop is wheat. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada. FUN THINGS TO DO: - One of the province's most popular attractions is Dinosaur Provincial Park, located in the Alberta badlands, where a century of excavations have discovered the skeletons of over 150 dinosaurs that once roamed the landscape 75 million years ago. -Calgary stampede has bull riding, calf roping and wagon racing. -West Edmonton Mall, the world’s largest mall. Home to over 800 stores and services, world's largest indoor wave pool at 5 acres in size, world's largest parking lot with 20,000 free parking spaces, 18 hole mini-golf course, real submarines to ride in, casino, spa, 3 movie theatres, hotel and the list goes on and on. The roller coaster is rated number 1 in the world for g-force. Quiz on Alberta: 1. Where is Alberta? ______________________________________________________ 2. Which cities are the largest (2)? ____________________________________________ 3. What are Alberta’s principal industries? _____________________________________ 4. What’s the name of the oldest park in Canada? ________________________________ 5. Alberta is the second producer of which crop in Canada? ________________________ 6. What is the province most popular attraction? ________________________________ 34
  35. 35. Bear Country Instructions: - Read the two texts below. - Read the list of topics below. - Decide if the recommendations concerning these topics are similar or different. - Write your answers. Alberta Bear Country 35
  36. 36. Park A There are many rules to follow while you are in bear country. You should always take good care of your garbage. Never leave a trash bag containing food lying around, keep it at a distance from your tent. Even better, tie it up high in a tree. Always wash your dirty dishes immediately after you are done eating. When you walk in the forest, make sure that you always make a lot of noise. Animals, especially bears, do not like to be startled; they like to be left alone, undisturbed. Never walk at night on off-trails. This makes you vulnerable. Remember, animals have better nocturnal eyesight than humans. Be careful not to surprise a mother with her baby cubs. Also, never get close to a cub that seems abandoned. It is better if you alert the forest ranger of its location. Park B The first thing you should know about hiking in bear country is how to store your food. You should keep it in an airtight container, preferably close to your tent because racoons are clever thieves. Also, keep your dishes clean all the times so the smell won’t attract bears. Keep real quiet in the forest. If you make noise all the time, you will never get to see any wildlife. When you are in a group, keep your conversation to a minimum. Off trails are super cool, especially at night. You will hear owls and maybe encounter a raccoon or two although it is quite difficult to see in the dark. I should mention one last thing. If you ever come across a baby bear, do not approach it because the mother is never too far behind. I strongly recommend you leave the area quickly. 36
  37. 37. British Columbia “Splendour without diminishment” Capital: Victoria Official flower: Pacific dogwood Official bird: Steller's Jay British Colombia is limited to north by the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by Alberta, the south by Montana, Idaho and the State of Washington, in the northwest by Alaska. The peak of the Rocky Mountains forms the southern part of the Eastern limit. 37
  38. 38. The excitement and energy are building as British Columbia, home of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games prepares to welcome the world! Experience BC’s breathtaking scenery, exciting cities and resorts including Vancouver, Victoria and Whistler, and do it your way. Enjoy a stay in our hotels and resorts, backcountry cabins, ranches, campsites, B&Bs and all approved and inspected accommodations in between. Try our activities, from skiing, golf, fishing, whale watching to wine tasting and dining. Learn more about things to do in BC, including sightseeing trips, adventure tours, attractions, driving routes, maps and great escapes. THE PROVINCIAL FLAG : -At the top is the flag of the United Kingdom since this province was once a British colony; -Below is a half sun on blue waves; -The waves are for the Pacific Ocean off the B.C. coast; -The setting sun represents the most westerly province; -It became the official provincial flag in 1960. FACTS: -B.C. is the most western province in Canada and the third-largest; -Victoria, the capital city is on Vancouver Island; -Vancouver is the third largest city in Canada; -B.C. is the home to over 4.2 million people. (2005 population); -B.C. has the largest Chinese community in Canada; -The top 10 languages spoken are English, Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin), Punjabi, German, French, Tagalog, Spanish, Italian, Korean, and Dutch; -Approximately 35,000 immigrants from around the world arrive each year. LAND AND WATER: -The Fraser River is one of the largest rivers in Canada; -Both the Fraser and the Columbia River flow into the Pacific Ocean; -Coastal Mountains and Rocky Mountains are two large mountain ranges. RESOURCES/INDUSTRIES : -Forestry is the largest industry. Forest covers half of B.C.; -B.C, has the largest and oldest trees in Canada; -B.C.'s mountains, parks and beaches attract many tourists; -B.C. has the largest fishing industry in Canada (salmon, halibut, clams, cod, crab, oysters, rockfish, shrimp and herring); -There are many orchards in the Okanagan Valley ( apples, cherries, peaches, apricots, and plums); -The province is Canada's third-largest generator of hydro electricity; -B.C. is Canada's second-largest natural gas producer; -B.C. is the third-largest film and television production centre in North America (after New York and Los Angeles). 38
  39. 39. FUN THINGS TO DO: -Miniature Train and Children's Farmyard. There's a Halloween train in October. In December, "Bright Nights" features a Christmas town, decorated with lights and cheery displays, and the train runs at night. -Skiing: Whistler Mountain and other ski resorts in B.C. -Model Ships Museum – A wonderful collection of model ships, including models of WWII submarines, local Canadian fishing ships, tugs and barges, historical sailing ships, and fantasy ships, such as Jules Verne's Nautilus submarine. Quiz on British Columbia: 1. Where is British Columbia? _______________________________________________ 2. Where is located Victoria, the capital city? __________________________________ 3. What is BC’s largest industry? ____________________________________________ 4. B.C, has the largest and oldest __________ in Canada. _________________________ 5. What do tourist do? _____________________________________________________ 6. Which river is one of the largest in Canada? __________________________________ When you are travelling with others, it is important to choose activities that please everyone. Instructions: - Read the letter below. - Read the description of activities. - Determine which six (6) activities Derek and his sister would both enjoy. - Write the number of the activities. Dear Travel Agent, My name is Derek and I’m from Kelowna, British Columbia. I have a younger sister and it will soon be her birthday. I would like to take her to Vancouver for the weekend. The problem is that I do not have a lot of money and we have different interests. We will have to establish priorities and do only activities that we both like. Personally, I love kayaking and canoeing, but my sister does not like outdoor activities that have to do with water; she prefers to be on land. She likes skiing and I love snowboarding. She is afraid of heights and that’s too bad because I would love to try parachuting. Our common interests are educational activities, the arts and our love for animals. 39
  40. 40. Could you please send me information on what might interest us? Thank you. Derek Thompson Activities 1. The ocean surrounds Vancouver; there are many boat companies at the harbour that offer tours around the island. 2. There is a sky ride that can take you all the way to the top of Grouse Mountain. From up there, you have an absolutely amazing view of the area. 3. It is also possible to take an adventure tour in the surrounding mountains. The trip includes bird watching, hiking and ever grizzly watching. 4. Another great activity is the White Water rafting excursion in the turquoise rivers of British Columbia. It is only a short car-ride from downtown Vancouver. If you like extreme sports, it is the place to go. 5. The best gold courses in the country are located in the Vancouver area. If you love the sport or simply want to take a nice walk, this is worth the while. 6. From June 3 to September 26 is the Shakespeare festival on the beach. Plays can be seen every day. 7. There is the Capilano suspended bridge in the park by the same name. Let’s see if you are brave enough to walk over the river at an elevation of 230 feet. I can guarantee the view is worth every shiver. 8. If you feel like walking, you must go to the Granville Island. It is an old factory that his become a public market. There is also an art school and other little shops. 9. Science fans should go to the Science World. It is an unbelievable museum, filled 40
  41. 41. with exhibits for kids, science shows, and amazing demonstrations. 10. Stanley Park is the place to visit. It is the biggest green space in Vancouver. It is also near the zoo and the best international attraction in British Columbia: the aquarium. Activities Determine which six (6) activities Derek and his sister would both enjoy. Write the number of the activities. The order of the answers is not important. Activities Nunavut “Nunavut, our strength” Capital: Iqaluit 41
  42. 42. Official flower: Arctic poppy Nunavut is bordered in the east by the Northwest Territories, in the north by the Arctic Ocean, the northeast and the east by Baffin Bay, in the east by the strait of Davis and in the south by Quebec, Hudson Bay and Manitoba. Nunavut is an exciting arctic destination that offers a pristine, raw, non- commercialized, and a truly "you and nature" experience. The Inuit people are brilliant, industrious and innovative, and have survived here for thousands of years. Now it's your turn! FLAG: -The white and gold stand for the land; -Red is one of Canada's official colours; -The inuksuk is a stone marker, they were made by the Inuit long ago to show the way for travelers; -The marker and the North Star are guides to help people find their way. FACTS: -Nunavut means "our land" in Inuktitut; -Nunavut became Canada's third territory on April 1, 1999; -It is the largest territory and has one-fifth of the land in Canada; -Baffin Island and Ellesmere Island are two large islands. THE PEOPLE -Nunavut is the home to about 30,000 people. (2005); -The Inuit are the aboriginal people who make up 85 percent of the population; -Inuktitut is the language of the Inuit; -English, French and Inuktitut are the languages spoken in Nunavut; -The towns are very small and far away from each other; -Airplanes bring supplies if towns can't be reached by road; -On Baffin Island the Inuit still hunt and fish for survival. PLACES IQALUIT (ee-kha-lu-eet) -largest community in Nunavut; population 6000; -Canada's most northern capital; -Became capital of Nunavut on April 1, 1999; -Iqaluit means the place of many fish; -Winter activities: dog sledding, snowmobiling, ice-fishing; -Was an airbase in the 1940s. HISTORY -The first people to live in Nunavut were the Inuit; -They used to live in small hunting and fishing camps; -Fur trading posts were set up in the 1700s; 42
  43. 43. -In 1870 the territories belonged to Canada; -Inuit way of life changed. They forgot their native traditions; -The Canadian government urged the Inuit to settle in communities; -The Inuit requested their own territory. LAND AND WATER -The land and water are frozen most of the year; -The Arctic waters are covered with ice floes; -Icebergs break off from the glaciers and fall into the sea; -In winter you can't tell where the land ends and the sea begins; -There are also mountains and tundra; -The soil is frozen. (Fruits and vegetables are flown in); -It is a polar desert with very little snowfall. INDUSTRY -Tourism: People come to fish, hike, camp, hunt, to see the wildlife; -Mining: copper, lead, silver, zinc, iron, gold and diamonds, oil and gas; -Fishing: whitefish and Arctic char; -Sale of Inuit arts and crafts (soapstone sculptures). WILDLIFE -The Inuit believe in taking care of the land and the wildlife; -Wildlife includes muskoxen, caribou, polar bears, arctic foxes, whales and seals; -They eat the meat of muskoxen, caribou, whales and seals. They also fish; -Clothing is made from the furs of the muskoxen, polar bears, arctic foxes and seals. TRADITION: In April the people of Iqaluit celebrate the coming of Spring. They have dog team and snowmobile races and contests (hunting, fishing, igloo-building, harpoon-throwing). FUN THINGS TO DO? -Combine walrus watching with a little iceberg and ice floe photography for a Natural Geographic adventure. -Glaciers, mountains, musk-ox, birds, polar bear, they can all be found in our Territorial and National Parks. These remote, accessible parks receive around 2,000 visitors a year. That’s one reason they remain unspoiled and untamed. -Camping can be as soft or as rugged as you like. It is recommended that even experienced campers hire a guide or outfitter. -Whether a casual daytrip or a well-planned journey, canoe trips are spectacular. -Iceberg watching: As the ice breaks up, icebergs arrive. White Mountains float on blue seas. -Learn about the culture: Drum dancers and throat singers tell the same stories of hunts, travels, gods and beasts that were told a thousand years ago. Quiz on Nunavut 43
  44. 44. 1. What’s the language of Inuit? _____________________________________________ 2. What does Nunavut means in Inuktitut? _____________________________________ 3. What is the percentage of Inuit in Nunavut? __________________________________ 4. What’s the name of the largest community? __________________________________ 5. What is the population of the largest community? _____________________________ 6. What winter activity can be done in Nunavut? ________________________________ 7. What was set up in the 1700s? _____________________________________________ 8. Icebergs break off from the __________ and fall into the ______. 9. What do people in Iqaluit do in April? ______________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 10. What would you like to visit in Nunavut? ___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _ Northwest Territories 44
  45. 45. Capital: Yellowknife Official flower: Mountain avens Official bird: Gyrfalcon The Northwest Territories are part of northern Canada. The N.W.T. lies between the Yukon Territory and Nunavut. The Arctic Ocean is to the north. The Northwest Territories is a land of contrasts. It is 1.17 million square kilometers of mountains, forests and tundra threaded by wild, clean rivers feeding thousands of pristine lakes. Northwest Territories have many amazing travel activities where you can experience a truly northern adventure vacation. The best Canada has to offer from canoeing, relaxing, hunting and fishing. FLAG: -This colourful flag represents Canada's North; -The blue in the flag stands for water; -while the white is for the ice and snow; -It became the official flag of the N.W.T in 1969. FACTS: -Second-largest of the three territories in Canada; -Population - about 43,000 people (2005); -Almost half are aboriginal (Dene, Inuvialuit and Metis); -The largest community is the city of Yellowknife (the capital), population 20,000; -Most people are living in the Mackenzie River Valley. HISTORY -The first people were the Dene and the Inuit; -Dene lived along the Mackenzie Valley ten thousand years ago; -The first Inuit may have crossed the Bering Strait about five thousand years ago; -Alexander Mackenzie discovered the Mackenzie River in 1789; -Fur trading posts were built along the river; -Communities grew around the trading posts; -Yukon, Nunavut, Alberta, Saskatchewan, parts of Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec were once part of N.T.W. -In 1870 the area became Canada's first territory. 45
  46. 46. LAND AND WATER -Mackenzie River is the longest river in Canada; -Great Bear Lake is eighth-largest in the world; -Great Slave Lake is the deepest lake in Canada and tenth-largest in the world; -Part of the N.W.T. has trees like black spruce, white spruce, birch, poplar.(taiga) RESOURCES -Mining gold, zinc, iron ore, lead, silver and diamonds (near Lac de Gras); -NWT is home to Canada’s first diamond mine; -Oil and natural gas exploration; -Hunting and trapping of beaver, lynx, fox, marten, muskrat, polar bear; -Tourism - people come to see the wildlife and natural beauty. FUN THINGS TO DO: The best Canada has to offer - from canoeing pristine waters to viewing a dazzling northern lights display - from relaxing at a remote wilderness lodge to hunting and fishing in an unspoiled land. -Water Activities: Mighty Rivers, majestic lakes, the vast untamed waterways of the Northwest Territories offer unrivalled paddling experiences. -Sport Fishing: Legendary fishing awaits you in the land of the midnight sun. For a dream angling adventure, join us in Canada's Northwest Territories. -Northern Lights: Experience awesome displays of the aurora borealis from the comfort of a winter lodge or a remote wilderness lake. -Wildlife Viewing: See wildlife in the pristine wilderness. Bring your camera and ready yourself for an unforgettable adventure. Quiz on North West territories 1. Where do most people live? _______________________________________________ 2. Who were the first people? _______________________________________________ 3. Who discovered the Mackenzie River? ______________________________________ 4. What is the name of the longest river in Canada? ______________________________ 5. What is the name of the deepest lake in Canada? ______________________________ Yukon 46
  47. 47. Capital: Whitehorse Official flower: Fireweed Official bird: Common Raven The Yukon Territory is bordered in north by the sea of Beaufort (Arctic Ocean), in the east by the Northwest Territories, in the south by British Colombia and at the west by the American State of Alaska. According to legend, Yukon's land has been peopled since a mythological creature named Crow created the world. Yukon First Nations include the Southern and Northern Tutchone, Tlingit, Tagish, Kaska, Tanana, Han and Gwitchin people. The Inuvialuit peoples' traditional hunting grounds include northern Yukon. Respect for the land, its creatures and the forces of nature, combined with a rich oral tradition, form the foundations of the Yukon First Nations culture. FLAG : The main colours of the Yukon flag are green, white and blue; Green is for forests, white for snow, and blue for water; The coat of arms is in the centre of the flag; The floral emblem (fireweed) is under the shield. FACTS: -The Yukon Territory became part of Canada in 1898; -The word "Yukon" means "Great River"; -The smallest territory; -Name : from the Native word "Yu-kun-ah" meaning Great River. THE PEOPLE -Population about 31,587 (2005); -Over 70 percent live in Whitehorse, the capital city (23,511 people); -About 24 percent of the people are Aboriginal (2001 census); -There are fourteen First Nations, speaking eight different languages. 47
  48. 48. HISTORY -They hunted, fished and trapped to survive; -In 1840 British fur trader and explorer Robert Campbell arrived; -Forts were built so the Hudson's Bay Company could trade for furs with the trappers.. -By 1899 the gold was almost gone so people left the Yukon; -Building of the Alaska highway in 1942 brought hundreds of workers; -The highway (1,520 miles or 2,446 km) was constructed in eight months. LAND AND WATER -The Yukon River is 3,520 km (2,200 miles) long; -Part of the land is "tundra" : rocky, moss, tough grasses, small willow shrubs grow -Soil is frozen so growing crops is difficult; -Part of the land is covered with forests. RESOURCES -People visit the Yukon to hike, raft, camp, rock climb, fish, see wildlife, and hunt; -Tourism provides many jobs for people; -The largest industry is mining (gold, lead, zinc and silver); -Beaver, lynx, wolverine, muskrat, marten and fox are trapped and the furs are sold. FUN THINGS TO DO IN THE YUKON: -The Yukon enjoys some of the liveliest and predictable displays of aurora borealis in the circumpolar North. You can experience Yukon’s winter activities such as dog sledding or snowshoeing by day and spend your nights watching the enchanting northern lights in the peaceful solitude of a Yukon winter night. -Come face-to-face with a seven-foot grizzly at the MacBride Museum of Yukon History. Quiz on Yukon 1. Where is Yukon Territory? _______________________________________________ 2. What does Yukon Mean? _________________________________________________ 3. Why did they build forts? ________________________________________________ 4. Why do people visit Yukon? ______________________________________________ 5. How long is the Yukon River? _____________________________________________ 48
  49. 49. Each province has its festival, but the Yukon has one like no other. Instructions: - Read the text. - Read the five questions below. - Find the answers to the questions. - Write the answers. Yukon – Festival There is a festival in every province, but not many are as special as the Dawson City Music Festival. It is regarded to many as the summer equivalent of the Frostbite Music Festival in February. These are over ten major festivals in this territory, but Dawson City is the real place to be for musicians of the small northern community. It is a place for newcomers but also for well-established popular Canadian artists. Every kind of music can be heard all over the city, from rock to traditional. Even churches become concert halls, as the acoustics in their buildings are fantastic. The festival takes place during the second half of July, at the height of the tourist season. Every year, people from all over Canada, the United States and even Europe come to this festival. Because of the geographical position of the Yukon, the sun never sets. During the summer, it never gets dark; there is an ever-present brightness for every single concert. There is a lot more than just music going on. There are games for kids and crafts for adults. There is fun for the entire family; everyone will find something that pleases them. Come and join the adventure! 49
  50. 50. Festival Answer the questions in complete sentences. 1. What is the Dawson City Music Festival compared to? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 2. Why can we say that there is a mixture of artists? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. Why are there so many people at the festival? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. What is so special about the geographical position of Yukon? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 5. Name two (2) other activities you can do at the summer festival? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 50
  51. 51. Show and Tell Explain the best trip in Canada you had in your life and the worst one. Where did you go? ________________________________________________________ When did you go? ________________________________________________________ What did you like the most? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ What did you hate the most? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ Discussion Over 200,000 people from other countries immigrate to Canada each year. Nearly 20 percents of Canadians have come from somewhere else. Many become Canadian Citizens. Why do they come here? Reason people say they come to Canada: Canada is a peaceful country; everyone has equal rights. Women are treated as equal as men; there is freedom of speech in Canada. We can say what we think, even if others disagree. How would you describe Canada to an immigrant? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ Are you proud to be a Canadian? Why? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 51
  52. 52. _______________________________________________________________________ ____ Create a poster of a province or territory. It must include a picture and a text (15 to 25 words) for each category listed in the checklist below. - See your teacher’s poster for an example. Tic when it’s done (√) Pictures Texts 52
  53. 53. Name of the province or territory Flag Geography Language Capital city Symbols Industries Food Animals Temperature Fun things to do Other... 53
  54. 54. 54