 Myopia- pigment dispersion, open angle  glaucoma (?) Hyperopia- small disc, angle closure  glaucoma
• Tuberous sclerosis• Neurofibromatosis• Sturge weber syndrome• TAO
•   Juvenile xanthogranuloma•   Oculodermal melanocytosis•   Axenfeld rieger syndrome•   Orbital varices•   CCF
 RAPD Corectopia, ectropion uveae
•   Black adrenochrome deposits•   Conjunctival injection•   Dec tear production•   Foreshortening of the conjunctival for...
•   Haab striae•   PED•   Microcystic epithelial edema•   Krukenberg spindle•   Exfoliation material•   KP•   Guttae•   “ ...
•   Van Herick method•   Iris bombé•   Heterochromia•   Iris atrophy•   Transillumination defects•   Neovascularization•  ...
1. diagnostic- identify abnormal angle  structures and estimate the width of the AC2. Surgical- LTP, goniotomy Visualize ...
DIRECT GONIOSCOPY             INDIRECT GONIOSCOPY   Koeppe, Barkan-Hoskins,      Goldmann, Zeiss, Susman,    Swan Jacob ...
   Goldmann-       needs coupling agent       Stabilizes the globe       Clearest visualization of the AC       Usefu...
   Koeppe     Useful for fundus exam     Useful in patients with nystagmus or irregular     cornea
 Angular width of the angle recess peripheral iris contour Insertion of the iris root
   Pressure is applied to the cornea aqueous    humor forced into AC     Appositional closure- (+) force opening     S...
 Scleral spur and schwalbe’s line- most  consistent Superior quadrant- narrowest Inferior quadrant- widest Pigmentatio...
 Faint red line in the posterior TM Episcleral venous pressure > IOP Hypotony Elevated episcleral venous pressure
IRIS PROCESS                         PAS   Open and lacy                  More solid or sheet-like   Follows the normal...
   Increases with age   Darkly pigmented iris   PDS   PES   Malignant melanoma   trauma   Uveitis/inflammation   S...
PDS                        PES   Uniform pigmentation      Patchy pigmentation   Finer pigment             (+) sampaol...
   Wide ciliary body band   Increased prominence    of the scleral spur   Torn iris process   Variation of ciliary fac...
   Early glaucomatous changes     Loss of axons,blood vessels and glial cells
MECHANICAL THEORY                 ISCHEMIC THEORY   Direct compression of            Decresed optic nerve    axonal fibe...
DIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE       INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE   Small pupil                Uncooperative patients,   Detection of...
   Hruby lens, 60, 78 or 90 D lens     Can detect subtle changes in ONH     High magnification, excellent illumination,...
1.   Generalized enlargement of the cup2.   Focal enlargement of the cup3.   Superficial splinter hemorrhage4.   Loss of N...
Cup disc ratio   Measure vertical and horizontal      diameter   Large disc- large cup    ▪ Eg myopia, aging, blacks   ...
 Notching or narrowing of the rim Inferior and superior temporal poles
   Linear red streak on or near the disc   Usually located inferotemporally   May clear over weeks to months– localized...
 Red- free illumination N- plush, refractile appearance Thinning, less visible Diffuse > focal
• Tissue between the cup and border• Orange or pink• ISNT rule• More translucent in glaucoma
   Alpha zone-     irregular hyper and hypopigmentation of the RPE     Temporal crescent seen in myopia     Seen in no...
   Nasalization of vessels   Laminar dot sign   Bayoneting   Baring of circumlinear vessels   Narrowing of peripapill...
 Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy Scanning laser polarimetry Optical coherence tomography
 Measures differential light sensitivity or the  ability of the subject to distinguish a stimulus  light from background ...
 1. short wavelength automated perimetry-  blue- yellow perimetry 2. Frequency- doubling technology- uses a  low spatial...
KINETIC                        STATIC   Moving stimulus of            Non moving stimuli of    fixed intensity and size ...
 Traquair’s Island of vision Island of sight surrounded by sea of darkness
   Nasal= 60   Superior= 60   Inferior= 70   Temporal= 90   Blind spot= 10- 20 temporally
   Almost always localized   Respects the horizontal meridian   Begins nasal to the blind spot   almost always detecta...
   Generalized depression   Paracentral scotoma   arcuate-/Bjerrum scotoma   Nasal step   Altitudinal defect   Tempo...
   Relative or absolute    visual loss within 10 of    fixation
   10- 20 from fixation
   Relative depression of    one horizontal    hemifield compared    with the other
   Near complete loss of    the superior or inferior    VF   Advanced GON
1.   Fixation2.   Stimulus luminance3.   Size of stimulus4.   Presentation time5.   Patient refraction6.   Pupil size7.   ...
   Numerical-     threshold for all points checked   Grey scale-     decreasing sensitivity is represented by darker  ...
   Pattern deviation     Adjusted for any generalized depression in the     overall field   Probability values     P i...
   Fixation losses-     indicate steadiness of gaze during the test   False positives-     detected when a stimulus is...
   False negatives-     detected by presenting a stimulus much brighter        than threshold at a location where sensit...
 Mean deviation- measure of overall field loss Pattern standard deviation- measure of focal  loss or variability within ...
   Miosis- decreases threshold sensitivity in the    peripheral field and increases variability in    the central field ...
1.   Optic disc less cupped than expected for the     degree of VF loss2.   Pallor> cupping3.   Progression of VF loss is ...
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
Gluacoma clinical evaluation
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Gluacoma clinical evaluation

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Gluacoma clinical evaluation

  1. 1.  Myopia- pigment dispersion, open angle glaucoma (?) Hyperopia- small disc, angle closure glaucoma
  2. 2. • Tuberous sclerosis• Neurofibromatosis• Sturge weber syndrome• TAO
  3. 3. • Juvenile xanthogranuloma• Oculodermal melanocytosis• Axenfeld rieger syndrome• Orbital varices• CCF
  4. 4.  RAPD Corectopia, ectropion uveae
  5. 5. • Black adrenochrome deposits• Conjunctival injection• Dec tear production• Foreshortening of the conjunctival fornices and scarring• Bleb• Episcleral vessel dilation• staphyloma
  6. 6. • Haab striae• PED• Microcystic epithelial edema• Krukenberg spindle• Exfoliation material• KP• Guttae• “ beaten bronze” appearance
  7. 7. • Van Herick method• Iris bombé• Heterochromia• Iris atrophy• Transillumination defects• Neovascularization• LENS – Phacodonesis – PSC
  8. 8. 1. diagnostic- identify abnormal angle structures and estimate the width of the AC2. Surgical- LTP, goniotomy Visualize the anterior chamber Eliminates tear- air interface Prevents total internal reflection
  9. 9. DIRECT GONIOSCOPY INDIRECT GONIOSCOPY Koeppe, Barkan-Hoskins,  Goldmann, Zeiss, Susman, Swan Jacob Possner done under EUA (supine)  clinic setting (sitting) may examine eye  one eye at a time simultaneously  needs slit lamp needs handheld  confusing mirror image biomicroscope, light source direct image
  10. 10.  Goldmann-  needs coupling agent  Stabilizes the globe  Clearest visualization of the AC  Useful for LTP Zeiss, Posner, Sussman-  Four- mirror goniolens  No need for coupling agent  Useful for indentation gonioscopy
  11. 11.  Koeppe  Useful for fundus exam  Useful in patients with nystagmus or irregular cornea
  12. 12.  Angular width of the angle recess peripheral iris contour Insertion of the iris root
  13. 13.  Pressure is applied to the cornea aqueous humor forced into AC  Appositional closure- (+) force opening  Synechial closure- remain closed  Partial synechial closure- partially open/ closed
  14. 14.  Scleral spur and schwalbe’s line- most consistent Superior quadrant- narrowest Inferior quadrant- widest Pigmentation- most marked in the inferior angle
  15. 15.  Faint red line in the posterior TM Episcleral venous pressure > IOP Hypotony Elevated episcleral venous pressure
  16. 16. IRIS PROCESS PAS Open and lacy  More solid or sheet-like Follows the normal  Composed of iris curve of the angle stroma Structures visible in the  Obliterate the angle open space b/n recess processes
  17. 17.  Increases with age Darkly pigmented iris PDS PES Malignant melanoma trauma Uveitis/inflammation Surgery hyphema
  18. 18. PDS PES Uniform pigmentation  Patchy pigmentation Finer pigment  (+) sampaolesi line
  19. 19.  Wide ciliary body band Increased prominence of the scleral spur Torn iris process Variation of ciliary face width and angle depth in different quadrants
  20. 20.  Early glaucomatous changes  Loss of axons,blood vessels and glial cells
  21. 21. MECHANICAL THEORY ISCHEMIC THEORY Direct compression of  Decresed optic nerve axonal fibers perfusion Distortion of the LC plates  Intraneural ischemia Interruption of axoplasmic flow Death of RGC
  22. 22. DIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE INDIRECT OPHTHALMOSCOPE Small pupil  Uncooperative patients, Detection of NFL media opacity, high myope No stereosopic detail  Can detect ON cupping but less pronounced with slit lamp method  Magnification- is inadequate
  23. 23.  Hruby lens, 60, 78 or 90 D lens  Can detect subtle changes in ONH  High magnification, excellent illumination, stereoscopic view  Quantitative measurement of the diameter of the disc ▪ 60D= x 1 ▪ 78D= x 1.1 ▪ 90D= x 1.3
  24. 24. 1. Generalized enlargement of the cup2. Focal enlargement of the cup3. Superficial splinter hemorrhage4. Loss of NFL5. Translucency of the neuroretinal rim6. Developmenmt of vessel overpass7. Asymmetry of cupping b/n patient’s eyes8. Peripapillary atrophy ( beta zone)
  25. 25. Cup disc ratio  Measure vertical and horizontal diameter  Large disc- large cup ▪ Eg myopia, aging, blacks  N- < 0.3  5% - 0.6  Asymmetry of >0.2 -?
  26. 26.  Notching or narrowing of the rim Inferior and superior temporal poles
  27. 27.  Linear red streak on or near the disc Usually located inferotemporally May clear over weeks to months– localized notching of rim and VF loss NTG more likely to have hges Prognostic sign for development or progression of VF loss
  28. 28.  Red- free illumination N- plush, refractile appearance Thinning, less visible Diffuse > focal
  29. 29. • Tissue between the cup and border• Orange or pink• ISNT rule• More translucent in glaucoma
  30. 30.  Alpha zone-  irregular hyper and hypopigmentation of the RPE  Temporal crescent seen in myopia  Seen in normal subjects Beta zone  Choriocapillaries and RPE loss  Choroidal vesels and sclera visible- white appearance  More common in glaucoma patients
  31. 31.  Nasalization of vessels Laminar dot sign Bayoneting Baring of circumlinear vessels Narrowing of peripapillary retinal veseels Pale and excavated cup in advanced stages
  32. 32.  Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy Scanning laser polarimetry Optical coherence tomography
  33. 33.  Measures differential light sensitivity or the ability of the subject to distinguish a stimulus light from background illumination Assess the visual field 1. Identify abnormal visual field 2. Quantitative assessment of normal or abnormal fields to guide follow- up care
  34. 34.  1. short wavelength automated perimetry- blue- yellow perimetry 2. Frequency- doubling technology- uses a low spatial frequency sinusoidal grating undergoing rapid phase reversal flicker  Simulates M cells 3. Visually evoked cortical potentials and electroretinography- assess RGC function
  35. 35. KINETIC STATIC Moving stimulus of  Non moving stimuli of fixed intensity and size varying intensity Simple confrontation,  Henson, Octopus, tangent screen, Lister Humphrey perimeter, Goldmann  automated perimeter manual
  36. 36.  Traquair’s Island of vision Island of sight surrounded by sea of darkness
  37. 37.  Nasal= 60 Superior= 60 Inferior= 70 Temporal= 90 Blind spot= 10- 20 temporally
  38. 38.  Almost always localized Respects the horizontal meridian Begins nasal to the blind spot almost always detectable within the central 30 Structural loss precedes VF loss 50% RNFL loss before VF defect develops
  39. 39.  Generalized depression Paracentral scotoma arcuate-/Bjerrum scotoma Nasal step Altitudinal defect Temporal wedge
  40. 40.  Relative or absolute visual loss within 10 of fixation
  41. 41.  10- 20 from fixation
  42. 42.  Relative depression of one horizontal hemifield compared with the other
  43. 43.  Near complete loss of the superior or inferior VF Advanced GON
  44. 44. 1. Fixation2. Stimulus luminance3. Size of stimulus4. Presentation time5. Patient refraction6. Pupil size7. Wavelength of background and stimulus
  45. 45.  Numerical-  threshold for all points checked Grey scale-  decreasing sensitivity is represented by darker tones  Each change in grey scale tone is equivalent to 5 dB Total deviation-  deviation of the patient’s result from age matched controls
  46. 46.  Pattern deviation  Adjusted for any generalized depression in the overall field Probability values  P indicates the significance of the defects  < 5%, < 2%, < 1%, and < 0.5%  The lower the P- greater clinical significance
  47. 47.  Fixation losses-  indicate steadiness of gaze during the test False positives-  detected when a stimulus is accompanied by a sound  Trigger happy patients  Grey scale print out appears pale  > 33%- unreliable
  48. 48.  False negatives-  detected by presenting a stimulus much brighter than threshold at a location where sensitivity has already been recorded  Indicates inattention or tiredness  May also be an indicator of disease severity  Grey scale print out has a clover- leaf shape  > 33% unreliable
  49. 49.  Mean deviation- measure of overall field loss Pattern standard deviation- measure of focal loss or variability within the field taking into account any generalized depression in the hill of vision
  50. 50.  Miosis- decreases threshold sensitivity in the peripheral field and increases variability in the central field Lens opacities Uncorrected refractive error Lens rim Ptosis Inadequate retinal adaptation
  51. 51. 1. Optic disc less cupped than expected for the degree of VF loss2. Pallor> cupping3. Progression of VF loss is excessive4. Pattern of VF loss is uncharacteristic for glaucoma5. Location of VF loss does not correspond to the location of cupping or thinning of neural rim
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