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  • Notes:
    For goods and services to survive in the marketplace, effective promotion is needed to inform, persuade, and remind potential buyers of a product.
  • Notes:
    Promotional strategy is a plan for using promotion effectively.
    Competitive advantage is one or more unique aspects of an organization that cause target consumers to patronize that firm rather than competitors.
  • Notes:
    As Exhibit 16.1 shows, the marketing manager determines the goals of the promotional strategy in light of the firm’s overall goals for the marketing mix.
    Using the overall goals, marketers combine the elements of the promotional strategy into a coordinated plan.
    This plan becomes an integral part of the marketing strategy for reaching the target market. The main function of promotional strategy is to convince target customers that the goods and services offered provide a competitive advantage over the competition.
  • Notes:
    The main function of a marketer’s promotional strategy is to convince the target market that the goods and services offered provide a competitive advantage.
    A competitive advantage is the set of unique features of a company and its products that are perceived as significant and superior over the competition. These features are listed on this slide.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss companies and products that demonstrate a competitive advantage based on the features shown above.
  • Online: McDonald’s
    How is McDonald's encoding messages at its Web site in order to communicate its marketing message? To whom is its message designed to appeal? Do you think the approach will be effective at improving sales of food products and/or increasing brand loyalty? Why or why not?
    Notes:
    Promotional strategy is closely related to the process of communications. As humans we assign meaning to feelings, ideas, facts, attitudes, and emotions.
    When a company develops a new product, changes an existing one, or tries to increase sales, it must communicate its selling message to potential customers.
  • Notes:
    Communication can be divided into two major categories:
    Interpersonal communication is direct, face-to-face communication between two or more people.
    Mass communication refers to communicating a concept or message to larger audiences, usually through a mass medium such as television or newspapers.
    When a company advertises, it does not know the consumers personally, nor is it able to respond immediately to reactions to the advertising message. Instead the marketing manager must wait and see how people are reacting to the mass-communicated promotion. Any clutter from competitors’ messages or other distractions can reduce the effectiveness of the mass communication effort.
  • Notes:
    Marketers are both senders and receivers of messages. As senders, marketers inform, persuade, and remind the target market to adopt courses of action.
    As receivers, marketers attune themselves to the target market in order to develop and adapt messages, and spot new communication opportunities.
    Marketing communication is a two-way process.
  • Notes:
    Marketing communication is a two-way process, as shown in Exhibit 16.2.
    The sender originates the message.
    Encoding is the conversion of the sender’s ideas and thoughts into a message, usually words or signs.
    Transmission of a message requires a channel—some communication medium. Reception occurs when the message is detected by the receiver. Transmission may be hindered because of noise—anything that interferes with, distorts, or slows down the transmission of information.
    Decoding is the interpretation of the language and symbols sent. Proper match between the message to be conveyed and the target market’s attitude is the job of the marketing manager. Differences in culture, age, social class, education, and ethnicity can lead to miscommunication. Marketers targeting consumers in foreign countries must also worry about translation and miscommunication issues.
    The receiver’s response to a message is direct feedback to the source. Since mass communicators are cut off from direct feedback, they rely on market research or analysis of viewer perceptions for indirect feedback.
  • Notes:
    The Internet and related technologies are having an impact on marketing communication including the promotion mix. The rise of blogging has created a new way for marketers to manage their image, connect with consumers, and generate product interest and desire.
  • Notes:
    Promotion seeks to modify behavior and thoughts in some way. It also strives to reinforce existing behavior.
    Promotion has three basic tasks: it can inform the target audience, persuade the target audience, or remind the target audience. Often a marketer will try to accomplish two or more of these tasks at the same time.
    The informing phase of promotion seeks to convert an existing need into a want or to stimulate interest in a new product. It is more prevalent during the early stages of the product life cycle.
    Persuasive promotion is designed to stimulate a purchase or an action. It becomes the main promotion goal when the product enters the growth stage of its life cycle.
    Reminder promotion is used to keep the product/brand name in the public’s mind. It is effective during the maturity cycle.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Name products/brands and discuss the stage of their product life cycle. Categorize the type of promotion—informative, reminder, or persuasive-- that is used in the product/brand promotional mix.
  • Notes:
    Most promotional strategies use several components of promotion, which may include advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and personal selling to reach the target market.
    The more emphasis is placed on a particular promotional element, the more important that element is considered to be in the overall promotional mix.
    A discussion of each of the promotional mix elements follows.
  • Notes:
    Almost all companies use some form of advertising, ranging from a newspaper classified ad to a multimillion-dollar campaign.
  • Notes:
    Media choices are plentiful and fragmented. In addition to the traditional advertising media, new methods are being used to reach consumers.
    Internet advertising is being increasingly used as a vital component. Banner ads, viral marketing, and interactive promotions are all ways to reach the target audience.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Some consumers and lawmakers feel that consumer privacy is being violated with Internet advertising methods. Discuss this as a class. Refer to the “Ethics in Marketing” box.
  • Notes:
    Many organizations spend large amounts of money to build a positive public image.
    Public relations help an organization communicate with stockholders, customers, suppliers, government, employees, and the community.
  • Notes:
    Public relations is used to maintain a positive image, as well as the functions shown on this slide.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss current examples of publicity regarding organizations.
  • Notes:
    Personal selling is a purchase situation involving a personal, paid-for communication between two people in an attempt to influence each other.
    Traditional methods of personal selling include a planned presentation to one or more prospective buyers for the purpose of making a sale.
  • Notes:
    Traditional methods of personal selling include a planned presentation to one or more prospective buyers. The seller tries to persuade the buyer to accept a point of view or take action. Frequently, the traditional view of personal selling creates a win-lose outcome at the expense of the buyer.
    Relationship selling emphasizes a win-win outcome and the accomplishment of mutual objectives that benefit both buyer and salesperson in the long-term. The goal is a long-term, committed relationship based on trust and customer loyalty.
    Personal selling is increasingly dependent on the Internet to attract potential buyers seeking information.
  • Notes:
    Sales promotion is generally a short-run tool used to stimulate immediate increases in demand.
    Sales promotion is used to improve the effectiveness of other ingredients in the promotion mix, especially advertising and personal selling.
    Online
    Nabisco
    Nabisco lists its promotions on its Web site. What do you think the advantages and disadvantages of this technique are? What changes, if any, would you suggest?
  • Notes:
    Sales promotion can be aimed at end consumers, trade customers, or a company’s employees.
    A major promotional campaign might use several of the tools shown on this slide, along with the other elements of the promotion mix.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss a few recent product releases. What sales promotion techniques were used to complement the other components of the marketing mix? What techniques make sales promotion efforts effective on college campuses?
  • Notes:
    The four elements of the promotional mix differ in their ability to affect the target audience. Exhibit 16.3 summarizes these differences.
  • Notes:
    The goal of any promotion is to get someone to buy a good or service, or take some action. A classic model for reaching promotional goals is called the AIDA concept—attention, interest, desire, and action—the stages of consumer involvement.
    This model proposes that consumers respond to marketing messages in a cognitive--thinking, affective--feeling, and conative--doing sequence.
  • Notes:
    For example, advertising is most useful in gaining attention for goods. In contrast, personal selling reaches fewer people at first. Salespeople are more effective at creating customer interest, in creating desire, and taking action.
    Public relations is best at gaining attention for a company, a good or service. Sales promotion’s greatest strength is in creating strong desire and purchase intent (action).
  • Notes:
    Promotional mixes vary a great deal from one product and one industry to the next.
    Advertising and personal selling are used to promote goods and services, supplemented by sales promotion. Public relations helps develop a positive image for the product and the organization. A firm may choose not to use all four promotional elements, or it may choose to use them in varying degrees.
    This slide shows the factors affecting the promotion mix chosen by a firm. Subsequent slides describe the key points of each factor.
  • Notes:
    The Product Life Cycle is a factor in designing a promotion mix, as shown in Exhibit 16.4.
    In the introduction stage, the basic goal of promotion is to inform the target audience of product availability. Advertising and public relations inform the target audience, while sales promotion encourages early trial. Personal selling gets retailers to carry the product.
    During the growth stage, advertising and public relations continue to be important, although sales promotion can be reduced because customers need fewer incentives to purchase. The promotional strategy is to emphasize the product’s differential competitive advantage. Persuasive promotion is used to build and maintain brand loyalty. Personal selling has succeeded in obtaining adequate distribution for the product.
    In the maturity stage, competition becomes fiercer, and persuasive and reminder advertising are more strongly emphasized. Sales promotion comes back into focus to try to increase market share.
    As the product enters the decline stage, all promotion, especially advertising, is reduced. Nevertheless, personal selling and sales promotion efforts may be maintained, particularly at the retail level.
  • Notes:
    For a routine buying decision such as the purchase of toothpaste, the most effective promotional tools are advertising and especially sales promotion.
    For buying decisions that are not routine or complex, advertising and public relationships help establish awareness.
    In contrast, consumers making complex decisions need large amounts of information, and personal selling is the most effective tool. Print ads are also effective for conveying large amounts of information.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Consider recent purchases of routine and complex products. What promotion tool(s) were effective to reach the buyer and influence the purchase decision?
  • Notes:
    When funds are available to permit a mix of promotional elements, a firm will try to optimize its return on promotion dollars while minimizing the cost per contact.
    The cost per contact is high for personal selling, public relations, and sales promotions. On the other hand, the cost per contact is low for national advertising since it reaches a large number of people.
    There is a trade-off among the funds available, the number of people in the target market, the quality of communication needed, and the relative costs of the promotional elements.
  • Notes:
    Manufacturers may use aggressive personal selling and trade advertising to convince a wholesaler/retailer to carry and sell their merchandise. This is known as a push strategy. The wholesaler, in turn, pushes the merchandise forward by persuading the retailer to handle the goods. The retailer uses advertising and other forms of promotion to convince customers to buy the “pushed” products.
    At the other end is a pull strategy, which stimulates consumer demand to obtain product distribution. The manufacturer uses a pull strategy by focusing promotional efforts on end consumers and opinion leaders. The wholesaler then places an order for the “pulled” merchandise from the manufacturer. Consumer demand pulls the product through the channel of distribution.
    A company typically uses a mix of push and pull strategies.
    The Push and Pull strategies are diagrammed in Exhibit 16.5.
    Discussion/Team Activity:
    Discuss products and/or industries that utilize push and/or pull strategies in their promotion mix.
  • P 4

    1. 1. MERCADEO Capitulo 16: Planificación promocional para la ventaja competitiva Escrito por: Amit Shah, Frostburg State University Diseñado por: Eric Brengle, B-books, Ltd. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 1
    2. 2. Resultado del Aprendizaje RA1 Discutir el papel de las promociones en el mercadeo combinado RA2 Describir el proceso de comunicación RA3 Explicar el objetivo de la promoción Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 2
    3. 3. Resultado del Aprendizaje RA4 Discuta los elementos de la mezcla promocional RA Discuta el concepto AIDA y su relación con la promoción RA Discutir el concepto de comunicaciones integradas de Mercadeo RA7 Describir los factores que afectan a la mezcla promocional 5 6 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 3
    4. 4. El rol de las promociones en el mercadeo combinado RA1 Discuta el rol de las promociones En el mercadeo combinado. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 4
    5. 5. El rol de las promociones Las comunicaciones de mercadeo que informan, persuaden, y recuerdan a los compradores potenciales de un producto, con el fin de influir en su opinión o provocar una respuesta. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 5
    6. 6. El rol de la promocion Promociones estratégicas - Un plan para el uso óptimo de los elementos de promoción: publicidad, relaciones públicas, venta personal, producción y ventas. Ventajas Competitivas - Uno o más de los aspectos únicos de una organización que los consumidores hacen que frecuentan esa empresa en lugar de los competidores. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 6
    7. 7. El rol de las promociones en la mezcla de mercadeo Objetivos Objetivos generales generales De mercadeo De mercadeo Mezcla de mercadeo Mezcla de mercadeo •• Producto Producto •• Lugar Lugar •• Promoción Promoción •• Precio Precio Mezcla de Mezcla de Promociones Promociones •• Publicidad Publicidad •• Relaciones Relaciones Publicas Publicas •• Promociones Promociones •• Ventas personales Ventas personales Mercado Mercado 7 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    8. 8. Ventajas Competitivas Cualidades altas de producto Cualidades altas de producto Desarrollo rápido Desarrollo rápido Precios bajos Precios bajos Excelente servicio Excelente servicio Características unicas Características unicas 8 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. RA1 Resultado del Aprendizaje El rol de las promociones en la combinación de mercadeo Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 9
    10. 10. Comunicación de Mercadeo RA2 Describa el proceso de comunicacion Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 10
    11. 11. Comunicación El proceso por el cual cambiamos y compartimos nuestros significados a través de un conjunto común de símbolos. http://www.mcdonalds.com Online Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 11
    12. 12. Comunicación en el Mercadeo Categorías de Categorías de Comunicación Comunicación Comunicación Comunicación Interpersonal Interpersonal Comunicación Comunicación Personal Personal Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 12
    13. 13. Comunicación en el mercadeo Como remitentes Como receptores  Informar  Desarrollar el mensaje  Persuadir  Adaptar el mensaje  Recordar  Detectar nuevas oportunidades de comunicación Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 13
    14. 14. El proceso de comunicación Escuchar Escuchar Remitente Remitente Mensaje Mensaje escondido escondido Canal del Canal del mensaje mensaje Decodificar Decodificar El mensaje El mensaje Receptor Receptor Canal de Canal de realimentación realimentación Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 14
    15. 15. El impacto de las paginas de Internet Paginas corporativas- Patrocinado por una empresa o una de sus marcas y mantenido por uno o más de los empleados de la compañía. Paginas no corporativas Independiente y no está asociada con los esfuerzos de mercadeo de cualquier empresa o marca en particular. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 15
    16. 16. RA2 Resultado del Aprendizaje El proceso de Comunicacion Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 16
    17. 17. Los objetivos de la Promoción RA3 Explique los objetivos de la promoción. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 17
    18. 18. Objetivos de la Promoción Informar Informar PLC Etapas: Etapas Introducción Al crecimiento temprano Recordar Recordar Objetivo de Objetivo de La La audiencia audiencia PLC Etapas: Madurez temprana PLC Etapas: Madurez Persuadir Persuadir Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 18
    19. 19. Informar Promoción Informativa  Aumentar el interés  Explicar como trabaja el producto  Proponer nuevos usos  Construir la imagen de la empresa Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 19
    20. 20. Persuadir Promoción de Persuasión  Fomentar el cambio de marca  Cambiar las percepciones de los clientes de los atributos del producto  Influir en la decisión de compra inmediata  Persuadir a los clientes llamar Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 20
    21. 21. Recordar Promoción de recordatorio  Recordar a los clientes que el producto puede ser necesario  Recuerde a los clientes donde comprar productos  Mantener la conciencia de los clientes Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 21
    22. 22. La mezcla promocional RA4 Discuta los elementos de una Mezcla promocional. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 22
    23. 23. La mezcla promocional Combinación de herramientas de promoción Utilizadas para llegar al mercado objetivo y cumplir con las metas generales de la organización. publicidad relaciones públicas promoción de Ventas ventas personales Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 23
    24. 24. Publicidad Cualquier forma impersonal (unidireccional) Comunicación Pagada con la que el patrocinador O empresa se identifica. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 24
    25. 25. Medios Publicitarios Medios Publicitarios Medios Publicitarios Tradicionales Tradicionales         Nuevos Nuevos Medios Publicitarios Medios Publicitarios Television Radio Periodicos Revistas Libros Correos electronicos Vallas Tarjetas de presentacion      Internet Banners Mercadeo Viral E- mail Videos Interactivos Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 25
    26. 26. Relaciones Publicas Es la función de mercadeo que evalúa las actitudes del público, identifica áreas dentro de la organización que el público pueda estar interesado, y ejecuta un programa de acción para ganar la comprensión y aceptación del público. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 26
    27. 27. La función de las relaciones publicas • Mantener una imagen positiva • Educar al público acerca de los objetivos de la empresa • Introducir nuevos productos • Apoyar el esfuerzo de ventas • Generar publicidad favorable Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 27
    28. 28. Ventas personales Una situación que implica una compra personal y pagada para la comunicación entre dos personas en un intento de influir en los demás. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 28
    29. 29. Ventas Personales Venta tradicional Venta tradicional Relación de Relación de Venta Venta Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 29
    30. 30. Promoción de Ventas Actividades de Mercadeo: Aparte de la venta personal, la publicidad y las relaciones públicas que-estimular la compra de los consumidores y la eficacia distribuidor. http://www.nabiscoworld.com Online Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 30
    31. 31. Promoción de Ventas Muestras Gratis Muestras Gratis Concursos Concursos Primas Primas Ferias Ferias Regalos de Vacaciones Regalos de Vacaciones Cupones Cupones Consumidor Consumidor final final Empleados de Empleados de La compañoa La compañoa Tiendas y Tiendas y profesionales profesionales 31 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    32. 32. Características de los elementos de la mezcla promocional Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 32
    33. 33. RA4 Resultado del Aprendizaje Elementos de la Mezcla promocional Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 33
    34. 34. Objetivos promocionales y el concepto AIDA RA5 Discutir el concepto AIDA y su relación con la mezcla promocional. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 34
    35. 35. El concepto AIDA (Atención, Interés, Deseo, Acción) – Modelo que describe el proceso para el logro de los objetivos de promoción en términos de etapas de participación del consumidor con el mensaje. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 35
    36. 36. El concepto AIDA Action Desire Interest Attention Conative (doing) Affective (feeling) Cognitive (thinking) 36 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    37. 37. RA5 Resultado del Aprendizaje El concepto AIDA Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 37
    38. 38. Comunicación integrada de mercadeo RA6 Discuta el concepto de comunicación Integrada de Mercadeo Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 38
    39. 39. Comunicación Integrada de Mercadeo La coordinación cuidadosa de todos los mensajes de promoción para garantizar la coherencia de los mensajes en cada punto de contacto donde una empresa se ​encuentra con el consumidor. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 39
    40. 40. Crecimiento y Popularidad IMC • Proliferación de las miles de opciones de medios • La fragmentación del mercado de masas • Fases de gasto en publicidad en favor de las técnicas de promoción que generen una respuesta inmediata Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 40
    41. 41. RA6 Resultado del Aprendizaje Comunicación Integrada de Mercadeo Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 41
    42. 42. Factores que influyen en la mezcla promocional RA7 Describa los factores que influyen En la mezcla promocional. Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 42
    43. 43. Factores que afectan la elección dela mezcla promocional Naturaleza del Producto Naturaleza del Producto Etapa de PLC Etapa de PLC Factores del mercado Factores del mercado Tipos de decisiones de compra Tipos de decisiones de compra Fomentar Fomentar Una estrategia para dar empuje Una estrategia para dar empuje Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 43
    44. 44. Ventas ($) Fases de ciclo de vida del producto Madurez Introduccion Decline Crecimiento Tiempo prepresentación publicidad, publicidad luminosa El uso intensivo de la publicidad y de relaciones públicas para crear conciencia, la promoción de ventas para el juicio Publicidad, relaciones públicas, lealtad a la marca, la venta personal para la distribución Anuncios de aumento, promoción de ventas, venta personal y recordatorios; persuasivos Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved AD / PR descenso, la promoción de ventas limitado, la venta personal para la distribución 44
    45. 45. Características del mercado como objetivo Publicidad Publicidad Por ... • Mercado muy dispersos • Compradores informados • Lealtad a la marca repeticion de compras Promociones Promociones Menos personal Menos personal vendiendo vendiendo Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 45
    46. 46. Tipos de decisiones de compras Rutina Rutina Ni rutina, ni Ni rutina, ni complejos complejos Complejos Complejos Publicidad Promociones Publicidad Relaciones Publicas Personal de Venta Publicidad Impresa 46 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    47. 47. Fondos Disponibles • Compensaciones con los fondos disponibles • Número de personas en el mercado de destino • Calidad de comunicación necesaria • Los costos relativos de los elementos de promoción 47 Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved
    48. 48. Empuje y estire de estrategias Estrategias de Empuje El fabricante El fabricante Promueve al Promueve al mayorista mayorista El mayorista El mayorista Promueve al Promueve al minorista minorista El minorista El minorista Promueve a los Promueve a los consumidores consumidores El consumidor El consumidor Le compra al Le compra al minorista minorista Los pedidos al fabricante Estrategia de Estire El fabricante El consumidor El minorista le El mayorista le El fabricante El consumidor El minorista le El mayorista le Promueve a los Le exige productos Demanda producto Demanda producto Promueve a los Le exige productos Demanda producto Demanda producto consumidores Al minorista Al mayorista Al fabricante consumidores Al minorista Al mayorista Al fabricante Los pedidos al fabricante Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 48
    49. 49. RA7 Resultados del Aprendizaje Factores que afectan la combinación promocional Copyright 2010 by Cengage Learning Inc. All Rights Reserved 49

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