The state's flag shall be as follows:
(a) It shall be green.
(b) Its width shall be equal to two-thirds of it's length.
(c) The words "There is but one God and Mohammed is
His Prophet" shall be inscribed in the center with a
drawn sword under it. The statute shall define the rules
pertaining to it.
People of various cultures have lived in the peninsula over
a span of more than 5,000 years. The Dilmun
culture, along the Persian Gulf coast, was
contemporaneous with the Sumerians and ancient
Egyptians, and most of the empires of the ancient world
traded with the states of the peninsula. Except for a few
major cities and oases, the harsh climate historically
prevented much settlement of the Arabian Peninsula.
First Saudi State
established in the year 1744 (1157 A.H.)
when leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab
settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud
agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to
cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions.
The House of Saud with other allies rose to become the
dominant state in Arabia controlling most of the Najd, but
not either coast.
This Saudi state lasted for about seventy-five years.
Second Saudi State
The state lasted until 1891 when it succumbed to the Al
Rashid dynasty of Ha'il. In 1902 Ibn Saud reconquered
Riyadh, the first of a series of conquests leading to the
creation of the modern nation state of Saudi Arabia in
Third Saudi state
founded by the late King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud (known
internationally as Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud).
In 1902 Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud captured Riyadh, the Al-Saud
dynasty's ancestral capital, from the rival Al-Rashid family.
Continuing his conquests, Abdul Aziz subdued Al-Hasa, the rest
of Nejd, and the Hijaz between 1913 and 1926.
On January 8, 1926 Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud became the King of
On January 29, 1927 he took the title King of Nejd (his previous
Nejdi title was Sultan).
By the Treaty of Jedda, signed on May 20, 1927, the United
Kingdom recognized the independence of Abdul Aziz's realm
(then known as the Kingdom of Hijaz and Nejd).
In 1932, these regions were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia. The discovery of oil on March 3, 1938 in Dhahran
transformed the country.
Abd al-Aziz Bin Abd al-Rahman al-Faysal Al Sa'ud
LEGAL SYSTEM Islamic Law (Shari’ah)
King. The Saudi Arabian Basic Law mandates that the
throne remains in the possession of the sons and
descendants of the kingdom’s founder.
Divided into 13 provinces. Each province is governed
by a prince or member of the royal family.
Saudi Arabia has no formal constitution.
However, by Royal Decree in 1992, the King
implemented the BASIC LAW of GOVERNANCE.
• Informal Constitution, articulates
the government's rights and
responsibilities, was established
by royal decree in 1992.
• Formal ConstitutionQur’an and
Rule passes to the sons of the founding King, Abd
al-Aziz Bin Abd al-Rahman al-Faysal Al Sa'ud, and to
their children's children. The most upright among them
is to receive allegiance in accordance with the principles
of the Holy Koran and the Tradition of the Venerable
The King chooses the Heir Apparent and relieves him of
his duties by Royal order.
(d) The Heir Apparent is to devote his time to his duties
as an Heir Apparent and to whatever missions the King
entrusts him with.
(e) The Heir Apparent takes over the powers of the King
on the latter's death until the act of allegiance has been
o Government in Saudi Arabia derives power from the Holy Koran
and the Prophet's tradition.
Article 8 [Government Principles]
o Government in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is based on the
premise of justice, consultation, and equality in accordance with
the Islamic Shari'ah.
The King is also the prime minister, chief of state, the
head of government, and commander in chief of the
military of Saudi Arabia.
The monarchy is hereditary, so there are no elections for
The King's Cabinet, or Council of Ministers, is appointed
by the King every four years, and includes many family
members. There are 22 government ministries that are
part of the Cabinet.
This is made up of a Consultative Council (also known
as Majlis as-Shura or Shura Council) advises the King
on issues that are important to Saudi Arabia
The Consultative Council currently consists of 150
members appointed by the King for a four-year
Based on their experience, members are assigned to
committees. There are 12 committees that deal with
human rights, education, culture, information, health and
social affairs, services and public utilities, foreign
affairs, security, administration, Islamic affairs, economy
and industry, and finance.
In September 2011, King Abdullah announced that
women would have the right to be appointed to the
And, in January 2013, the King appointed 30 women to
serve four-year terms on the Council, following passing
of a law stating that women should constitute at least
20% of the Council's membership.
No legislature in Saudi Arabia.
Laws originate from the Council of Ministers of Majlis Al-
The King governs with the assistance and advice of the
Council of Ministers (Cabinet) = composes of 22 ministry
The Council drafts resolution which are binding upon a
majority vote of the members, but enactment of the
resolution is dependent upon ratification by the King’s
The country is governed and justice is administered
according to Islamic law.
The Saudi court system consists of three main parts. The
largest is the Shari’ah Courts, which hear most cases in
the Saudi legal system.
The Shari’ah courts are organized into several
categories: Courts of the First Instance (Summary and
General Courts), Courts of Cassation and the Supreme
by supervising the
Trial courts: general
courts (outside the
summary court) and
(minor and civil and
Supplementing the Shari’ah courts is the Board of
Grievances, which hears cases that involve the
government. The third part of the Saudi court system
consists of various committees within government
ministries that address specific disputes, such as labor
Justice is administered by a system of religious courts
whose judges are appointed by the King on the
recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council.
The independence of the judiciary is protected by law.
The King acts as the highest court of appeal and has the
power to pardon