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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • I discovered in Gizeh plateau, Egypt, a huge HUMAN FACE image, very near of the Sphinx of Gizeh (Aerial Stern photography). http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/giza-rostro.html



    GIZA EN EGIPTO; IMAGEN DE ROSTRO (FOTO AEREA) Resaltaba al iluminar el sol al ponerse. Ahora han hecho un enorme traslado de arena y desapareció. ¿Es culpa mía?
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  • My solution:
    The pyramids were built by raising megaliths have the corresponding counterweight on the opposite side also obviously be placing a pair of rollers on the top edge of each day the ramp slope was more slippery. Some scuff marks left by the strings, are still visible today.
    http://webspace.webring.com/people/or/ramonetriu/giza.html

    SPANISH LANGUAGE
    Las pirámides las construyeron elevando megalitos gracias a disponer del correspondiente contrapeso en el lado opuesto, además, obviamente, de ir colocando un par de rodillos en el borde cada día más alto de la pendiente que tenía la rampa más deslizante. Algunas huellas dejadas por las rozaduras de las cuerdas, aún son actualmente visibles.
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  • Raymond Tieu, Period 1

Full Egypt Presentation Full Egypt Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Ancient EgyptBeginning in 3200 B.C. Ancient Egypt was a time of pharaohs, conquest, and great architectural growth. By: Elizabeth Davis, Lilly Day, Mae Stark, Raymond Tieu
  • Introduction to Ancient Egypt • The geography of Egypt had a strong impact on the way the Egyptian Civilization rose. • In Egypt it was believed, at the end of one’s life, they had the possibility to go on to live another life. Many customs were formed because of this idea of the afterlife, and as a result, the Egyptian culture was born. • The New Kingdom of Egypt truly became strong when the chariot riding Hyksos were driven out. In the following years, religion, art, and governing ideas grew and developed. But poor leadership and relentless invaders left the Egyptians struggling to hold on to the remains of their once great empire. • As the decline of Egypt approaches, the Nubians step in as the guardians of Egyptian culture. They form a Kush Empire based on the Egyptian customs.
  • The Geography of Egypt • The Nile – The longest river in the world, stretching for over 4,100 miles. – Annually floods in July, and in October, the water would go back down, leaving behind fertile black mud which was very important for the food supply of the Egyptians. – Created a cycle: flood, plant, harvest (repeat) – The Egyptians worshiped the Nile like a god. – The Nile was reliable system of transportation, because it naturally flows north, but the wind blows south, making it possible to travel in both directions – The Nile flooded regularly, but how much it flooded changed. – Too little flooding, people could starve because of the lack of silt, too much flooding could result in property being destroyed. View slide
  • • Egypt is located in Northern Africa, between the First Cataract and the Mediterranean Sea. – Upper Egypt: To the south – Lower Egypt: To the north, on the Nile Delta Region • The Desert isolated Egypt, however, this was a good thing because it kept Egypt out of many wars in the early history, though it also prevented trade, for a time. • By 3200 B.C., Egyptians were coming into contact with the people of Mesopotamia. By 2000 B.C., Egyptians were traveling on the Nile to the southern lands of Nubia and Kush Egypt’s Location and Trade View slide
  • QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Kingdom of Egypt • Before Egypt united into a kingdom, farming villages were the first to exist. • By 3200 B.C. - Individual villages were united, and then separated into two groups, Lower Egypt or Upper Egypt. • 3100 B.C. - Menes united all of Egypt. He wore a crown that was a combination of the white crown of upper Egypt, and the red crown of Lower Egypt. • Menes established his capital, Memphis, which was located where Upper and Lower Egypt met.
  • Crowns of Egypt Crown of Upper Egypt Crown of Lower Egypt Joint crown of Upper and Lower Egypt Blue War Crown The Sphinx is 240 feet long, and 66 feet tall with the legs. It was built to remind Egyptians that the pharaohs had extraordinary powers, and these powers were from nature, as well as from the gods.
  • Pharaohs In Egypt • The Egyptians thought that their kings were gods. Because of this way of thinking, the Egyptian pharaohs were the center of the army, religion, and government, making the Egyptians live under a Theocracy. • The Pharaohs were thought to live forever, and their “ka” (spirit) wouldkeep governing Egypt, even if the body had died. The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom built magnificent pyramids as tombs for their pharaohs • The pyramids also represented Egypt’s stable economy. By having the pyramids built, it meant that the Egyptians had the leadership, and government organization needed to build such magnificent structures.
  • QuickTimeªanda TIFF(Uncompressed)decompressor areneededtoseethispicture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Egyptian Culture Religion and Life • In Egypt it was believed, at the end of one’s life, they had the possibility to go on to live another life. Many customs were formed because of this idea of the afterlife, and as a result, the Egyptian culture was born. • Because of their convenient geographic location, nature worked greatly in Egypt’s favor. The Nile helped Egyptians greatly and allowed them to view life in an optimistic way. When the Nile receded it left the earth wet and clay-like. Egyptians took this substance and created numerous useful and fanciful objects. • Egyptians were polytheistic; in total they worshiped over 2,000 gods and goddesses. Two of their most important gods were Ra, the god of the sun, and Horus, the god of light. To pay tribute to their major deities, the Egyptians built enormous temples of worship. There is an Egyptian myth where Horus gives up his right eye in battle, because of this the Eye of Horus has come to represent strength, vigor, and self- sacrifice.
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The After Life • Egyptians believed in the after life, they thought that throughout one’s life they were to do only good deeds because once it came time for their death- they would be judged. It was deemed that if their heart was heavier than a feather it was full of sin- and their soul would then be devoured. If it were lighter, they would gain eternal life. • Because the time of death was so vital to the Egyptian culture, people of all classes planned for their burials. Because of their wealth, Egypt’s kings and queens built vast tombs (such as pyramids) to hold their bodies in, those of lower class built smaller tombs for the same purpose.
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompresso are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Mummification • The Egyptians believed in mummification- preserving the body in death in order to keep the soul alive.The innards were taken out of the body and stored in canopic jars, these were placed in the tomb as well as the body, which was wrapped in cloth and placed in a coffin. Inside the coffin jewelry, cosmetics, clothing and food were placed- these were items people could use in their after life. Artwork was also placed in the tombs to make them more attractive. • The Embalmers were priests who had been trained in the process of mummification, in order to perform the ritual they had to be versed in both surgery and spiritual precision. The entire preservation of one’s body took 70 days to complete!
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Life in Egyptian Society • Egyptian society formed a pyramid: Top- king, queen, and royal family Middle- other members of upper class; landowners; government officials; priests; army commanders Next Tier- middle class; merchants; artisans Bottom- lower class (largest); peasant farmers; unskilled workers; slaves • Ones class was not set in stone, if one gained the skills of reading and writing they could seek higher positions in society. This meant that middle and lower classes could become higher class, and even slaves could earn their freedom. Women were also given some of the same rights as men; they could own and trade property, propose marriage or file for divorce- and if this happened they were given land. Priests or Priestesses functioned as stand- in’s for the current pharaoh, and at any time they could take control over the order of
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Egyptian Writing • Egyptians developed a very important writing system; this was called hieroglyphics- it allowed them to communicate with one another on another level. • The pictures they created stood for sounds and ideas- similar to the alphabet we use today. • Egyptians also found papyrus reeds by the Nile, they would split the reeds open, dampen them, and once dried they would use them as sheets of paper.A type of modern Hieroglyphics is called “rebus”. A rebus is a picture puzzle that gives a message when sounded out. For Example: QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. = I LOVE
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Science and Technology Inventions in Math and Science • The Egyptians created a numerical system that allowed them to add, subtract, and count. The architects of the time also used this system to help them make calculations for pyramids and palaces. • The calculations assisted the architects in being the first to create stone columns in houses, palaces and temples. • A calendar was created to help them chart when the Nile would flood next. They realized that a bright star called the Sirius appeared before each flood- based on this star they divided the year into 365 days; 12 months- 30 days each and then they added five holidays for rest. • Medicine was broken down into two parts: medical writing and hands on work. The writings contained magical charms and chants, while the doctors also knew how to take a pulse, create a splint for someone injured, make treatments for wounds and fevers and sometimes they would perform surgery.
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Chariot Riders Invade Egypt • The Old Kingdom ended in 2180 B.C. when the power the pharaohs held declined; this marked the beginning of a weak time for the Egyptians called the First Intermediate Period. • The Middle Kingdom (2080-1640 B.C.) followed, and the strong pharaohs over took Egypt once more restoring societies law, order, trade, transportation and public projects.
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Middle Kingdom Declines; Hyksos Invade Egypt • When the strength of the pharaohs dwindled and the Middle Kingdom declined, a new form of rulers came to power. • In 1640 B.C. the middle kingdom’s prosperity ended when a new assembly of Asian wanderers, called the Hyksos, moved across the Isthmus of Suez and entered Egypt, riding on horse-pulled chariots. • The Hyksos were the “rulers of the uplands,” and shortly after entering Egypt they gained control and ruled from 1640-1570 B.C. (the Second Intermediate Period.) The Hyksos introduced the horse and chariot way of transportation into Egypt as well as the compound bow. They also improved battle axes, and advanced
  • The New Kingdom of Egypt The New Kingdom of Egypt truly became strong when the chariot riding Hyksos were driven out. In the following years, religion, art, and governing ideas grew and developed. But poor leadership and relentless invaders left the Egyptians struggling to hold on to the remains of their once great empire.
  • Change In Government Tactics • Ahmose à Ahmose was the first pharaoh of the New Kingdom, and he was the first to completely banish the chariot-riding Hyksos that threatened Egypt. • Thutmose I à Thutmose I expanded the Egyptian empire through conquest and warfare. • Queen Hatshepsut à Queen Hapshetsut believed in the power of trade and economics above warfare, so throughout her reign, there was almost no military action. She allowed the kingdom to grow economically by trading with the surrounding countries and empires. • Thutmose III à Thutmose III was an exceptional military planner. After the years of peace during Hapshetsut’s reign, many captured groups rebelled. Thutmose reclaimed these groups by governing his military effectively, with strategy as opposed to brute force. As a FUN FACT! Thutmose III was also known for his love of building obelisks, which are tall monuments with pointed tops, not unlike the Washington Memorial. Did you know one of Thutmose’s obelisks sits in NYC’s Central Park?
  • Change In Art and Spirituality • Amenhotep III à Amenhotep encouraged a new form of art to the Egyptians; realism. Instead of being painted to look perfect, the pharaohs were painted as they looked. Special attention was paid to detail and colors. 1800 BC - Before Amenhotep III Carving of Hapshepsut after her death. Amenhotep III
  • Change In Art and Spirituality • Akhenaton à Akhenaton was a very intellectual and very spiritual man. He believed in one god, Aten, the sun god, which wasn’t very popular because most still believed in many gods. Along with attempting to spread this idea of monotheism, which was obviously bootless, Akhenaton wasn’t a very effective ruler either. He didn’t get much accomplished besides his religious ideas that he spread to the rest of the area. • Nefertitià Akhenaton’s wife. Akhenaton and Nefertiti
  • 19th Dynasty and Ramses II • The Nineteenth Dynasty lasted from 1295-1186 BC, and one pharaoh in particular held prominence, and was remembered. • Ramses II represented many things to the Egyptians; an efficient warrior, an architectural revolutionary, and a loved pharaoh. • Ramses II formed a well organized army, with specialized jobs and strategetic placement of troops. He headed these troops, showing no mercy on his foes, particularily the Hittites. His tenacity in this matter led to a peace treaty between the two sworn enemies. • In celebration of his great victory, Ramses II loved to put his name on all architecture he possibly could. He wrote his name over the names of past pharaohs in old temples, and he constructed numerous temples and monuments in his own honor. It is safe to say he was a very egotistical man.
  • • Rameses III ruled from 1187-56 BC. • Military stability crumbled due to Trojan Wars and fall of Mycenae. The Middle East was coming apart because of warfare and rebellion, which messed up the Egyptian economy, since people couldn’t trade with them. • The Sea People obliterated Hittites, and led many attacks on the Egyptians, never doing much harm. • The Libyans attacked Egypt, hoping to conquer,but they were easily defeated with the military expertise of Rameses III. • Three years later, the Sea People returned with a vengeance and swept into Lower Egypt. The Egyptians fought back and eventually pushed them back out. • After Rameses III’s death, however, the empire crumbled due to weakness after the wars and internal squabbling. Princes rose to power in separate divisions, all wanting power. Egypt became a land of independent kingdoms, and she was unable to protect herself when the Libyans returned. Rameses III and The End Of Egypt
  • The Kush Empire Egyptian armies have occupied Kush for a time but the Kushnite would conquer the Nile after the decline of Egypt around 1000 B.C. Nubia will now establish its own Kushnite dynasty. It became a mix of Nubian and the Egyptian practices as the cultures blended. The People Of Nubia- The Nile served as a trade corridor as well as a route for goods and ideas to flow back and forth. >Kerma was the first Nubian kingdom that arose shortly around 200 b.c. >The Kushnites built pyramids that were smaller than those of egypt and they were shaped differently. >The Kushnites spoke their own language and created a alphabet based on the Egyptians. >They worshiped their Nubian gods as well as Egyptian gods. The kings were buried in chambers larger than pyramids of Egypt. > Kerma created pottery unlike any other and were sold at high costs
  • Egypt and Nubia interact For centuries, Egypt ruled Kush and Nubia, the Egyptians greatly influenced the people. The Kushnite princes learned a great deal from the Egyptians, adopting to their customs, their styles and even their language. The Kushnie nobles adopted the Egyptian way of building pyramids, they made them with steeper sides.The didn’t conquer The Egyptians for their resources, but to protect and restore the Egyptian values. Piankhi Takes The Throne A Kushite King, Piankhi conquered the Libyan dynasty in 751 B.C He united the North an South f The Nile Valley and restored Egypt. He Created a monument to represent his victory and triumph. In 761 B.C The Assyrians took over Egypt and forced the Kushnites to flee their land. Fun Facts! During the A.D. 500's, most Nubians were converted to Christianity.
  • The Golden Age Of Meroe As the Kushnites suffered defeat from the Assyrians, they face no other choice but to fall into security of a city called Meroe. Wealth of Meroe The Kush had a rich natural resource in iron ore and many other goods. They played a great role in the trading between Africa, Arabia, and India Merchants would load up and transport their goods to the Red Sea where they traded their spearheads and iron tools for luxurious goods from India and Arabia. The Pharaohs would live rich and die with a copious amount of goods for their afterlife
  • Egypt, In All of its Glory [the conclusion] Ancient Egypt has proved to be one of the most unique and advanced early civilizations. They have created massive structures, a unique type of government and developed a way to use their geography to their advantage. Their interesting culture has spread to be one of the most fascinating and indescribable. The Egyptians created hieroglyphics, a writing system that is carved into a stone. The developed a good sense of science and technology as well. Their idea of death is a gateway to another life. Ancient Egypt is one of the most amazing early civilizations in history.
  • Mae’s Bibliography • Digital Image<http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/places/images/ga/egypt_sphinx-pyramids.jpg> • Digital Image <http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/pyramids-of-giza-and-the-great-sphinx-? <landmark.htm/printable> • Digital Image <http://chica-pumuckl.blogspot.com/2008/04/cats-on-tour-through-egypt-river-nile.html> • Digital Image <http://www.photoatlas.com/photo/egypte_nile_desert.jpg> • Digital Image <http://lh3.ggpht.com/jsprasanna/SB8y- j7x94I/AAAAAAAACG8/60RPRyNKJhI/s400/IMG_5921.JPG> • Digital Image <http://pixdaus.com/index.php?pageno=3&tag=egypt&sort=tag?> • Digital Image <http://www.egyptologyonline.com/pharaoh's_crowns.htm> • Digital Image <http://www.globaltravpack.com/images/Egypt%20vacation.jpg> • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, and Larry S. Krieger. World History : Patterns of Interaction. Evanston: McDougal Littell Incorporated, 2006. • “Pharaoh's Royal Crowns.” Egyptologyonline. The Astra CorporationLimited. 15 November 2008 <http://www.egyptologyonline.com/pharaoh's_crowns.htm>
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Lilly’s Bibliography Websites and Books • Website <http://history-world.org/hyksos.htm> • Website <http://www.greatscott.com/hiero/hiero_over.html> • Website <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/> • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, and Larry S. Krieger. World History : Patterns of Interaction. Evanston: McDougal Littell Incorporated, 2006. 36-40. Links for Photos • Digital Image <http://www.crystalinks.com/ra1.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.rainbowcrystal.com/egypt/E-116horus.jpg> • Digital Image <http://dmallisk.net/images/WeighHeart8.gif> • Digital Image <http://historylink101.net/images/anubis_mummification.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.curriki.org/xwiki/bin/download/Coll_cmytko/CanopicJarinformation/canopic.jpg> • Digital Image <http://z.hubpages.com/u/188181_f260.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.yourparanormal.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/kheops-pyramid.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.ctlibrarians.org/events/roundtables/childrens4/wdsr/docs/hieroglyphics.jpg> • Digital Image<http://www.bitwisemag.com/images/illustrations/wilf/3/egyptian_numbers.gif> • Digital Image <http://go-passport.grolier.com/map?id=mh00137&pid=go> • Digital Image <http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/ancienttech/images/chariot.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.suziemanley.com/backtrack/images/chariot.jpg> • Digital Image <http://www.travel-destination-pictures.com/data/media/28/te-paki-sand-dunes_89.jpg>
  • Elizabeth’s Bibliography • Digital image. Flickr. 22 Nov. 2008 <http://farm1.static.flickr.com/81/246961896_95a2964a0e.jpg?v=0>. • Digital image. IArtifact. 20 Sept. 2007. 13 Nov. 2008 <http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pics/hatshepsut.jpg>. • Digital image. IArtifact. 20 Sept. 2007. 13 Nov. 2008 <http://www.icentre.com/theartifact/pimages/913.jpg>. • Digital image. IArtifact. 20 Sept. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 <http://www.eyelid.co.uk/pics/tiy1a.jpg>. • Digital image. 22 Nov. 2008 <http://www.gtomessiah.com/graphics/hyksos_ahmose.jpg>. • Digital image. 22 Nov. 2008 <http://www.gtomessiah.com/graphics/hyksos_ahmose.jpg>. Fletcher, Katharine and Eric. • Digital image. 2007. 23 Nov. 2008 <http://www.chesleyhouse.com/egypt2007/img/wd_sunrisebanner.jpg>. • McGuire, Marcie, ed. "New Kingdom (1567-1085 B.C.)." 2004. University of Missouri. 15 Nov. 2008 <http://cdis.missouri.edu/exec/data/courses2/6567/lesson01/commentary07.asp>. • Millmore, Mark, comp. Discovering Ancient Egypt. 13 Nov. 2008 <http://www.---eyelid.co.uk/>. • Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, and Larry S. Krieger. World History : Patterns of Interaction. Evanston: McDougal Littell Incorporated, 2006.
  • QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Raymond’s Bibliography •Ikram, Salima. "Egypt, Ancient." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 24Nov. 2008 <http://worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar175060>. •Digital Image. <http://flickr.com/photos/jbparker/1518389138/> •Digital Image. <http://flickr.com/photos/brooklyn_museum/2674987906/> •Digital Image. <http://flickr.com/photos/joanot/2022337968/> •Digital Image. <http://www.beyondknown.com/en/index.php/mysteries/48-history-and -archeology/22-the-great-pyramids-of-egypt.html> •MacDonald, Kevin C. "Kush." World Book Online Reference Center. 2008. 24 Nov. 2008 <http://worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar306025>. •Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, and Larry S. Krieger. World History : Patterns of Interaction. Evanston: McDougal Littell Incorporated, 2006.