The Ripple Effect: Using Math, Science and Technology to Learn about Water Resources and Conservation, Audit Curriculum I
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The Ripple Effect: Using Math, Science and Technology to Learn about Water Resources and Conservation, Audit Curriculum I Document Transcript

  • 1. Draft Learning About Water Resources and Conservation Grade 5 An Integrated Curriculum of Math, Science & Technology 2500 Shadywood Road Excelsior, MN 55331 952-471-9773 www.freshwater.org 1
  • 2. Draft It is amazing to think about, but if you live in the Twin Cities area, your body is 65 to 70% Mississippi River water – because that is the source of your drinking water. If you live in Duluth or other places in the arrowhead, you drink Lake Superior. Most Minnesotans fill their bodies with groundwater that is pumped up from private or municipal wells. Because it is necessary for life, it is important to know where water comes from, and where it goes after we use it. And since the Earth only has a limited quantity of water, it is important to think about ways to save and protect this vital fluid. This standards-based multidisciplinary unit of study incorporates science, technology and math as students explore real world problems and the following concepts:  How much fresh water is available on Earth?  The Water Cycle: Where does your water come from? Where does it go?  How much water does it take to wash your hands?  Water Investigation: How much water do you use every day?  Detecting Wasted Water: How can we all conserve water? 2
  • 3. Draft How much fresh water is available on the Earth? Grade 5 Subjects Math & Science Objective Students will use a model and their math skills to learn that the amount of freshwater available for human use is very limited. Concepts Models can be used to represent natural phenomenon such as the amount of water available for living things. There is a finite amount of water on Earth and less than 1% is fresh water available for human use. Lesson Overview Scientists often use models to investigate or to explain difficult concepts. In this activity students will use small objects such as paper clips or milliliters of water to represent amounts of water contained in oceans, frozen in glaciers or icebergs, trapped underground and flowing as fresh surface water. Standards Subject Standard Benchmark Nature of Science & Science is a way of Different models can be Engineering knowing about the natural used to represent natural (5.1.1.1.4) world. phenomena & these models have limitations about what they can explain. Math Number & Operation Read, write, represent & Recognize & generate (5.1.2.4) compare fractions & equivalent decimals and decimals; convert between fractions. fractions & decimals & use in real-world situations. Earth & Space Science: To maintain & improve Identify renewable & non- Human Interactions with existence, humans interact renewable resources found Earth Systems (5.3.4.1.1) with & influence Earth in Minnesota. Describe how Systems. they are used. Time 45-60 minutes Skills Sorting Data recording Comparing decimals & fractions 3
  • 4. Draft Interpreting Critical thinking Vocabulary Model Set Decimals Fractions Percentages States of Matter Resources Materials  Student Data sheets  Set of 1,000 objects (pennies, paper clips, etc.)*  Poster board or Butcher paper squares approx. 30‖x30‖*  Wire cutter (to snip a single paper clip)  Black fine-point (optional) *One for each group of students Background Information Water is life. It is amazing to think about, but if you live in the Twin Cities area, your body is 65 to 70% Mississippi River water – because that is the source of your drinking water. If you live in Duluth or other places in the arrowhead, you drink Lake Superior. Most Minnesotans fill their bodies with groundwater that is pumped up from private or municipal wells. We live in the ―Land of 10,000 Lakes‖ and the birthplace of one of the world’s great rivers, the Mississippi. The Earth’s water supply may seem boundless but there is a limited amount, especially of fresh water to meet the needs of humans, plants and other animals. About 97% of all water is contained in oceans. A sub set of all water: Fresh water is only 3% of the total water supply. But 2% of all water is fresh but frozen in glaciers and icebergs. That leaves only 1% of all water that is fresh liquid water—but 0.98% of this water is trapped underground, some in areas too deep to pump. Thus, only 0.02% of all water is fresh water available for our use. This activity will set the stage for students to later examine their personal water use and may help them recognize why drinkable water is so valuable – and why conservation is so important. Directions Part #1 Discussion: Engage students in a discussion of the abundance, location and value of water.  Where do we find water on the Earth? (Oceans, Rivers, Lakes, Glaciers, icebergs, Rain, Groundwater) 4
  • 5. Draft  Look at a globe or map. Where is most of the water?  Do you think we have plenty of fresh water on the Earth?  Do you think water is as valuable as gold or silver? (Accept any student answers. Then, you may want to ask the question again at the end of the lesson.) Part #2: 1. This activity may be done as a single class demonstration or the students may be divided into small groups with each group having a set of objects to manipulate. One thousand (1,000) small objects will be used to represent all the water on Earth. 2. These objects may be any of the following:  Paper clips – which can be purchased from an office supply store in a pack of 10 boxes, each containing 100 clips, for less than $5.00.  Pennies – rolls acquired from the bank.  Other small sorting objects you may have on hand. Round objects such as beads or marbles are not recommended because they may roll off the sorting area. 3. Gather students around a poster board or piece of butcher paper that will serve as a surface for sorting. In the center of the sorting area, place a pile of 1,000 paper clips (or other objects). 4. Tell students the 1,000 paper clips represent all the water on Earth. The Oceans contain 97% of all water. Only 3% of all water is fresh water. (All water represents a ―Set‖. Ocean water and fresh water are ―sub sets.‖ Frozen glacier water and groundwater are sub sets of the Fresh water sub set.) 5. Ask students to create two piles of clips. One pile represents ocean water. One pile represents fresh water. Hint: Which pile will be easiest to count out? 6. How many paper clips must be in the ―Oceans‖ pile (or sub set) to represent 97%? (970 paper clips.) How do you write this number as a fraction? (970/1,000) As a decimal? (0.970) Label this pile ―Oceans.‖ 7. How many paper clips must be in the ―Fresh water‖ pile (or sub set) to represent 3%? (30 paper clips) How do you represent this number as a fraction? (30/1,000) As a decimal? (0.030) 6. Ask students to focus on the pile (sub set) of 30 clips that represent fresh water. 7. Of all the water on Earth, 2% is fresh water not available for use because it is frozen in glaciers or icebergs. How many paper clips must be moved from the fresh water a pile to represent the sub set of frozen fresh water? (20) Write this number as a fraction. (20/1,000) As a decimal. (0.002) Label the pile ―Glaciers & Icebergs.‖ 9. About 1% of all the water on Earth is liquid fresh water. How many clips should be left in this pile. (10) Write the number as a decimal (0.001) and a fraction. (10/1,000) NOTE: We have rounded the number 0.98% to 1% 5
  • 6. Draft 10. Of all the liquid water, most is groundwater. Only about .0002 or .02% of this water is on the Earth’s surface in rivers, streams and lakes. And a smaller amount is in the air, soil, plants and animals – even in us. NOTE: For simplicity you may want to use <1%. 11. What part of one paper clip would be used to represent this very small amount of water. Clip a small piece off a single paper clip to represent usable fresh water. Wrap Up Discussion  Ask for student reactions.  Are they surprised at what they have discovered?  Why do they think we tend to place so little value on our water?  Students may be somewhat alarmed by the realization that freshwater is in such limited supply. Assure them that in the next few lessons, they will learn how they can easily learn to conserve water and protect this precious resource. Optional If you have access to a 1,000 ml graduated container and several smaller containers you can measure out amounts of water (970 ml, 20ml 10ml and a drop of water) for display. (Coloring the water with blue food color makes small amounts easier to see. References For additional information about water: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthhowmuch.html. 6
  • 7. Draft Student Data Sheet Name ____________________________ How much fresh water is available on the Earth? Scientists sometimes use models to explain concepts. We are going to create a small model to demonstrate the amount of water on our planet. We will use 1,000 paper clips (or we could use 1,000 ml of water) to represent all the water on Earth. Fact #1: Of all the water on Earth, 97% is in the salty oceans. Write this number as a fraction to the thousandth place. _____________________ Write this number as a decimal. _____________________ Fact #2: Only 3% of all the water on Earth is fresh water. Write this number as a fraction to the thousandth place. _____________________ Write this number as a decimal. _____________________ Fact #3: Of all the fresh water on Earth, 2% is frozen in glaciers or icebergs. Write this number as a fraction to the thousandth place. _____________________ Write this number as a decimal. _____________________ Fact #4: Of all the fresh water on Earth, only about 1% is liquid water and much of it is under ground too deep to pump. Write this number as a fraction to the thousandth place. _____________________ Write this number as a decimal. _____________________ What do you think? What did you learn about the amount of fresh water on Earth available to meet the needs of all the plants and animals – including people? 7
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  • 9. Draft The Water Cycle Connects Us All: Where does water come from? Where does it go? Grade 5 Subjects Life Science Concepts Earth’s plants and animals are all a part of the water cycle. Waters of the Earth are continually recycled as states of matter change. The sun powers the water cycle through the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation & precipitation. Objectives Students will work in groups to set up demonstrations and observe changes of state within the water cycle: evaporation and condensation, and transpiration in plants. Standards Subject Standard Benchmark Life Science: Natural systems have parts Describe a natural system in Interdependence in Living that interact to maintain the Minnesota in terms of Systems living system. relationships among living (5.4.2.1.1)) & non-living parts. Nature of Science & Scientific inquiry requires Plan an appropriate Engineering: Practice of identification of scientific investigation Science assumptions, use of critical using systematic (5.1.1.2.1.) thinking & consideration of observation to answer a alternative explanations. question. Vocabulary Recycle Water Cycle Evaporation Transpiration Condensation Precipitation States of Matter Background Information 9
  • 10. Draft Water, water, everywhere – but not a continuously new supply! Water on our planet is used over and over again in a cycle of continual evaporation, transpiration, condensation and precipitation, which is powered by the sun. Water you drink today may have quenched the thirst of a dinosaur millions of years ago. It may have traveled in clouds, splashed down during a thunderstorm, oozed through a muddy swamp, floated the ocean tide, been trapped underground or frozen in an iceberg. One of the unique properties of water is that within the Earth’s normal temperature range, it can exist as a solid, a liquid and a gas. This unique property, and the sun’s energy, make the water cycle possible. Earth’s plants and animals are all a part of the water cycle too! Plants absorb water through their roots, use it in the food-making process and then transpire it out their leaves. In addition to all our commercial and household uses, we drink our ice water, perspire and respire. Even the moisture from our bodies returns water to the cycle. Directions – Day 1 Time: 30 – 40 min. Materials Drinking glass of water Poem, You’d Be Surprised Where Your Drink of Water Has Been Droppers (1/group) Petri dishes or saucers (2/group) Small beaker or jar of water (1/group) Sandwich bag (1/group) Review of the Water Cycle Although students learned the water cycle in 4th grade, the poem is a fun way to review. Read the Water Cycle poem aloud and then direct students to set up two simple experiments that demonstrate evaporation and condensation. The poem is designed to capture student imagination and realize how the water cycle is vital to their existence. (Note: Students may not know a few of the terms in the poem, but they will get the idea.) 1. While holding the drinking glass, read the poem, “The Water Cycle Connects Us All”. Then, for a little drama, take a sip of water. 2. As a follow up you may use an excellent 3.5-minute online Water Cycle Cartoon Video produced by Scholastic. It can be projected on your smart board. Find it at the link: ht t p:/ / t eacher.scholast ic.com/ act ivit ies/ st udyjams/ wat er_ cycle/ 2. Now students are ready to set up their investigation. Divide students into small groups. Provide each group with a small beaker or jar of water, two Petri dishes or flat saucers and a sandwich bag. Desks should be clear of all books and paper. 3. Ask students how water can do all the things described in the poem. How can water travel to all those places? 10
  • 11. Draft 4. Ask students to carefully dip the tip of one finger in the water container so they get one tiny drop. Hold the finger up without moving. What will happen to the drop? 5. Introduce the term, Evaporation. The heat from their fingers is evaporating the water. Where is the water going? How can they speed up evaporation to dry their finger? (By blowing on fingers.) Wind is another factor that speeds evaporation. Investigation: Evaporation and Condensation 6. Distribute Student Data page #1 which contains instructions. Students will work in small groups to investigate processes in the water cycle. 7. The Petri dish and the jar with the baggie may be set up at the same time. If this activity is set up in the morning and sun is bright, observations can be made later in the day. HINT: If you do not have a sunny window, a gooseneck lamp can be used to provide heat representing the sun. Jar showing condensation of water inside the plastic bag. The few drops of water in the Petri dish will evaporate quickly. You may wish to have students experiment by placing some dishes in a dark cabinet or in a refrigerator, to see if evaporation rates are faster in the sun’s heat. Day 2 Investigation: Transpiration and Condensation Materials Stalks of celery with leaves (one stalk for each set up) Note: Make a fresh cut at the top and bottom of each stalk Jars or beakers (one for each celery stalk) Water with Food coloring (red or blue) Make a strong, bright solution Plastic sandwich bags (1/group) Student Data page 2 Knife (for your use only) Directions 1. Introduction: Living things are part of the water cycle too. Forests, cattails in wetlands and algae beds in the oceans contribute large amounts of moisture back into the air – and we do too! 2. To help students recognize their bodies are a small part of the water cycle ask them to hold the palms of their hands up close to their mouth and exhale softly. Do they feel a little moisture 11
  • 12. Draft form on their palm? They have just released a bit of water vapor into the air. With every breath a little moisture is sent into the air. Just think, their breath may soon be floating in the clouds above your school! 3. Distribute Student Data page #2. Direct students to read instructions and obtain their equipment. 4. Demonstrate how to slip some leaves inside the baggie and zip it shut. The leaves should be left attached to the stalk. 5. See student data page #2 for instructions on setting up celery, colored water and the bag on the leaf. Before giving celery to students you should make a fresh cut on the top and bottom of each celery stalk. This promotes water uptake by the celery. Food color lets students see that the plant has taken in the water. The photo on the left provides evidence that the colored water has traveled up through the stem and reached the leaves. Students can observe that Transpiration has occurred as water vapor is released from the leaves trapped in the bag. The water vapor condenses to liquid when it contacts the surface of the bag. The photo on the right shows condensation that is occurring inside the plastic bag. Additional Resources US EPA-Wat er Cycle Animat ion ht t p:/ / www.epa.gov/ climat echange/ kids/ wat er_ cycle_ version2 .ht ml USGS-diagrams ht t p:/ / ga.wat er.usgs.gov/ edu/ wat ercycle.ht ml Windows to the Universe-Wat er Cycle Diagram ht t p:/ / www.windows.ucar.edu/ t our/ link=/ eart h/ Wat er/ wat er_ cycle.ht ml CLOUD DANCE, by Thomas Locker WATER DANCE, by Thomas Locker THE SNOWFLAKE – A WATER CYCLE STORY, by Neil Waldman WATER WORDS – RHYMED & DEFINED, by Barbra McKinney A DROP OF WATER A book of Science & Wonder, by Walter Wick 12
  • 13. Draft Student Data Page 1 Name ________________________ Date _____________________ Investigating the Water Cycle Evaporation: the process of changing from a liquid to a gas. Water, heated by the sun, rises from oceans, rivers, lakes, or even puddles to form water vapor, an invisible gas floating in the air. Condensation: the process of changing from a gas to a liquid. Water vapor cools as it rises in the air. When the vapor touches dust particles or pollution high in the sky the vapor forms water droplets in fog or clouds. This process is called condensation. Part #1.  Gather your equipment: 1 Dropper (1/group) 2 Petri dishes or saucers (2/group) 1 Small beaker or jar of water (1/group) 1 Sandwich bag  Add 6 drops of water in each Petri dish or saucer. Place one dish on a sunny windowsill. Place the other in a cabinet. Observe from time to time.  What do you think will happen?  Observations: Part #2.  Cover your beaker or jar of water by slipping the sandwich bag over the top of the beaker. Place the beaker on a sunny windowsill next to your Petri dish.  What do you think will happen? 13
  • 14. Draft  What are you observations for each container?  Conclusion: Did evaporation or condensation occur in either container? How do you know? Explain your answer. 14
  • 15. Draft Student Data Page 2 Name ________________________ Date _____________________ Investigating Plants in the Water Cycle Part #3. Transpiration and Condensation Plants, especially big trees, or algae in the oceans, or cattails in a pond, release large amounts of water vapor into the air. This process is called transpiration. In first or second grade you learned that plants take water from the soil to make food and to grow. But what happens to the water when plants are through with it? To demonstrate Transpiration you will need the following materials: 1 jar or beaker 1 stalk of celery with leaves attached 1 small plastic sandwich bag Water with red or blue food coloring 1. Fill the container half full of colored water. 2. Select a clump of leaves on the celery stalk and carefully slip the baggie over a cluster of leaves. Zip the baggie closed as far as possible against the leaf stem. (Be sure to leave the leaves attached to the stem.) 3. Place the celery stalk upright in the colored water. 4. Set the container in a sunny spot on the windowsill or place it under a bright light. 5. What do you think will happen? Write your hypothesis here. 6. Make observations from time to time. Record what you notice. 7. Explain your observations by describing the processes that occurred. 15
  • 16. Draft Assessment/Review The Water Cycle Use the vocabulary below to label the processes in the water cycle. Evaporation: the process of changing from a liquid to a gas. Water rises from oceans, rivers, lakes, or even puddles to form water vapor floating in the air. Water vapor: the gaseous form of water. Evaporation is faster when conditions are warm or windy. Condensation: the process of changing from a gas to a liquid. Water vapor in the air cools and condenses to form water droplets in fog, dew or clouds. Precipitation: any form of water falling from the clouds, such as raining, snowing, sleeting or hailing. Transpiration: water released to the atmosphere by plants. Plants absorb water, use it in photosynthesis and then return the water to the atmosphere usually through their leaves. Water Cycle: the cycle in which water on the Earth is constantly changing states of matter as through evaporation, condensation, transpiration and precipitation. Water can be stored in the oceans, lakes or underground for long periods of time. 16
  • 17. Draft The Water Cycle Connects Us All You’d be surprised where your drink of water has been! The glass of water you’re about to drink Deserves a second thought, I think, For Avogadro, oceans, & those you follow Are all involved in every swallow. … The water in you is between & betwixt, And having traversed is thoroughly mixed, So someone quenching a future thirst Could easily drink what you drank first! The water you are about to taste No doubt represents a bit of the waste From prehistoric beast and bird – A notion you may find absurd. The fountain spraying in the park Could well spout bits from Joan of Arc, Or Adam, Eve, and all their kin; You’d be surprised where your drink has been. Just think! The water you cannot retain Will some day hence return as rain, Or be beheld as the purest dew, Though long ago it passed through you! By Dr. Verne Rockcastle 17
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  • 19. Draft How much water is used to wash your hands at school? Grade 5 Subjects Math & Science Concepts Use of appropriate tools to measure the volume of water used in hand washing. Determination of the class mean, median & range. Reflection on how water use has an impact on water supply. Overview Students will work in teams, using containers to catch and measure the volume of water flowing from a faucet as hand washing is simulated by singing the Happy Birthday song. Students will average the data collected by each team to achieve a mean to use for estimation of amount of water used in hand washing at the school. Standards Subject Standard Benchmark The Nature of Science & Science is a way of Recognize that when Engineering: Practice of knowing about the natural scientific investigations are Science world, is done by replicated they generally (5.1.1.1.2) individuals & groups, is produce the same results, & characterized by empirical when results differ criteria & skeptical review. significantly, it is important to investigate what caused differences. (measurement errors, equipment failure, uncontrolled variables, etc.) The Nature of Science & Tools & math help Use appropriate tools & Engineering: Interactions scientists techniques in gathering, among science, technology, analyzing & interpreting engineering, math & society data. (5.1.3.4.1) Math: Data Analysis Display & interpret data; Know & use definitions of (5.4.1.1) determine mean, median & the mean, median & range. range. Use a spreadsheet. Time: 45 minutes 19
  • 20. Draft Vocabulary Data Mean Median Range Estimate Prediction Unit of measurement Spreadsheet Volume Background Information This activity is designed to set the stage for the ―water audit‖ students will make in the next two lessons. On the water audit spreadsheet, students will encounter average water use estimates that have been derived by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in order to analyze and regulate water use and conservation measures in various water delivery systems such as faucets, showerheads, toilets, dishwashers, washing machines and lawn sprinklers. The students will simulate this EPA process of finding an average for their class use of water by collecting individual data for hand washing. In this lesson, measurements by student teams will be averaged to achieve a mean or ―class number‖ for the amount of water used when washing hands. This number can then be used to estimate water use by the entire student body. Students gain better understanding of the terms, mean, median and range. As student compare variations in the measurements, they can also consider factors in their procedure that affect the results (such as how fast they sing). Materials  Buckets (1/group, see information below.)  Measuring Cups for volume measurement (optional, see above)  Student data sheets Directions Preparing for the activity: 1. Consider logistics of your faucets and the size of the containers in which students will collect faucet water. Procedures will vary according to the type of hand washing facilities as well as the size and depth of the sinks.  Hardware stores carry gallon or half-gallon plastic containers that are calibrated for measurement. Recycled plastic one-gallon ice cream buckets work well for this activity if used with measuring cups.  Do your faucets have a timed shut-off valve or low-flow fixtures? If so, this is a perfect opportunity to discuss the reasons why – to save water, and to cut down on cost. With this faucet, students will need to time how long the automated flow lasts as well as the amount of water collected. 20
  • 21. Draft  In some schools, the ―trough-type‖ sinks located in the hallway outside of the bathrooms may make water collection easy, because they will have enough depth to accommodate a gallon or half-gallon bucket which should be able to hold 15 seconds of flowing water. (It takes approximately 15 seconds to sing Happy Birthday, and the volume of water collected will be about ½ gallon).  Individual bathroom sinks may not be deep enough to hold a gallon container. In that case, students can use smaller containers and time a 5-second interval to collect water. Then, they can calculate the amount of water used to wash hands.  If you have a classroom sink which is different from those found in the bathroom facilities, students might want to compare the amount of water used in each sink type. 2. Begin the activity by asking students ―How much water do you think you use when you wash your hands?‖ Write estimates on the board. 3. Today, you are going to work in teams to measure the volume of water you use. 4. Ask: ―In order to have clean hands, how long should we wash?‖ A generally accepted instruction for children is to wash for as long as it takes to sing the Happy Birthday song. (The song provides some standardization of the technique, although it will vary some.) 5. Establish teams: one member holds the container, one member measures time, one member softly sings the song. If needed, a forth member can turn the faucet handle. 6. After water is collected, students measure the volume of water. 7. Create a chart or spreadsheet to record all data on the board. How much water did each group use? Are there differences in the amounts? What could account for the differences? 8. Now, use the data to have students determine the range of measurements, find the median and compute the average (mean) amount of water used by the class. 9. Use your ―average‖ number to answer the following questions.  How much more or less does your team measurement vary from the mean?  Why do you think your numbers vary?  When everyone in class washes hands for lunch, on average, how much water is used?  How much water is used when everyone in the school washes up for lunch?  How much water is used during the entire week, when everyone in school washes up for lunch? Wrap Up Discussion Based on what the children have learned about the fresh water supply on Earth, why is water conservation important? 21
  • 22. Draft 22
  • 23. Draft Student Data Sheet Name________________________________ Water used while washing hands at school How much water did your team measure in this hand washing activity? ______________ Create a chart to record measurement data from all the teams. What is the range of these measurements? ________ What is the median? ____________ Compute the mean for the measurements from all teams. The average (or mean) amount of water we use when we wash our hands is ___________________ How much does your team measurement vary from the mean? ___________________ Why do you think your team measurement varies? Calculate how much water is used when every in class washes hands for lunch. How many students go to your school? __________ Calculate how much water is used when everyone in the school washes up for lunch. Calculate how much water is used by all of the students in school to wash hands for lunch during the entire school week. 23
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  • 25. Draft Water Investigation: How much water do you use every day? Grade 5 Subject Math & Science Objectives In this two- to three-day series of lessons, students will measure the amount of water they use in various activities during a 24-hour period and record their data on a spreadsheet. Then students will use computer technology to take the online questionnaire. (Depending on math readiness, the lessons may lapse over three sessions). Concepts The first step in problem solving is collecting data for analysis. By learning about personal water usage, students can see which activities use the most water and then they can consider where water can be conserved. Standards Subject Standard Benchmark Earth & Space Science: In order to maintain & Identify renewable & non- Human interactions with improve existence, humans renewable resources in Earth Systems interact with & influence Minnesota & describe how (5.3.4.1.1) Earth systems. they are used. Earth & Space Science: In order to maintain & Compare the impact of Human interactions with improve existence, humans individual decisions on Earth Systems interact with & influence natural systems. (5.3.4.1.3) Earth systems. Nature of Science & Scientific inquiry requires Identify & collect relevant Engineering: Practice of identification of evidence, make systematic Science assumptions, use of critical observations & accurate (5.1.1.2.2) & logical thinking & measurements, & identify consideration of alternative variables in scientific explanations. investigation. Math: Number & Solve real-world problems Solve problems requiring Operation requiring using arithmetic. addition, subtraction, (5.1.1.4) multiplication and division of multi-digit whole numbers. Use various strategies including technology. Algebra Recognize & represent Create & use rules, tables, 25
  • 26. Draft (5.2.1.1) patterns of change; use spreadsheets and graphs to tables, graphs to solve real describe patterns of change world problems. and solve problems. Skills Measuring Recording data Multiplying with decimals Using a Spreadsheet Using Computer Technology Analyzing data Materials  Student water use spreadsheet entitled ―Investigating Water: How much water…?  Student Computers to enter water use data online (for day 2 or 3) Key Words Water Audit Estimation Hatch Marks Spreadsheet Technology Analysis Conservation Background Information Now that students are aware of the small amount of fresh water available for human use, they will use the spreadsheet and online questionnaire to collect data and examine their personal water use habits and consider possible ways they can conserve water. The water audit is a way for students to take account of their water usage. In light of what they have learned about the continuous water cycle, students may wonder why there is a need to conserve. But whenever we withdraw pure drinking water from an underground aquifer, we pollute the water as we use it. Some pollutants such as sewage are possible to treat and remove from water. Some pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, pesticides and industrial wastes are difficult or impossible to remove. So, pollution renders some of our precious supply of fresh water unusable. Because water is life, it is imperative that we conserve and protect our resources. In later lessons students will learn simple ways they can conserve our water resources. Directions Day 1 (Time: 20 – 30 minutes) Introducing the Spreadsheet 1. Start class discussion by challenging students to list ways they and their families use water. 26
  • 27. Draft 2. Now, students are ready to think about the amount of water that is used for each activity. Today they will be keeping records of all their water-use activities. 3. Distribute the student spreadsheet entitled “Water Investigation: How much water do you use every day?” 4. Read and discuss the introductory paragraph explaining their homework task. 5. Direct student attention to ―Hand washing,‖ the first item on the spreadsheet. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal/washing times/day Used/day Bathroom Washing Hands 0.5 gal 6. Discuss the prior activity where students measured hand washing at school. Compare the class average with the estimated number of gallons/washing given in the chart on the spreadsheet. Are the two numbers the same? 7. The number in the chart is an estimated average number for a home faucet, which may be slightly different than the average number students measured at school. (Many schools use more efficient low-flow faucets to save water and money.) 8. Throughout the rest of this spreadsheet, students will use numbers estimated nation-wide by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These numbers have been filled into the charts. 5. Help students begin recording data. How many times have they already washed hands today? Show them how to use the hatch marks to begin recording data in the appropriate column. 6. Next ask students to record the number of times they have flushed a toilet since arising this morning. Again, use hatch marks. Explain they will keep track for the rest of the day. 7. Point out the ―Family Water Use‖ section and explain that tonight they may ask their family members to help them fill out this section of the spreadsheet. Day 2 (Time 15 - 20 min.) Discussing Data 1. Discuss the results of the student data collected yesterday. 2. Did anyone have trouble completing the multiplication? 3. Did they learn anything surprising about the amount of water they use? 27
  • 28. Draft 4. What activities used the most water? 5. Depending on student readiness, you may continue with the next activity or postpone to another day. Day 3 (Time: 20 min.) Using Technology: Entering Data Online 1. Now students are ready to enter data online. The numbers they have recorded on their spreadsheets will help them answer the online questions. This lesson is most easily accomplished if you can go to a computer lab where all students have access to a machine. 2. Access the web page ______________________________________ Then enter your name and receive a code. This code will be used when students use the online tool. 3. As students log on, instruct them to select the ―I’m a Student‖ option. 4. Students type in their first name and the code number in the space provided. 5. Now they are ready to begin. Wrap Up Discussion Discuss student reactions to the audit. Which activities use the most water? Did they learn any helpful facts to help them conserve water? Were any items confusing? In the next lesson they will brainstorm ways to save water. 28
  • 29. Draft Name _____________________________ Date _________________________ Water Investigation: How much water do you use every day? You know that less than 1% of all the water on Earth is freshwater available for living things – including us. Now it’s time to think about how much water you use each day and how you can conserve water. Today, you will use this spreadsheet to keep track of water used for brushing your teeth, washing your hands, bathing or showering, flushing the toilet and other household uses. Washing Hands Flu season made everyone aware of the importance of clean hands. If you sing the Happy Birthday song while washing, it helps ensure that you wash long enough to get hands clean. What was the average number your class computed for the amount of water used when washing hands at school? ___________ 1. On the chart below you will use the average amount of water flowing from a home faucet. It has been filled in for you. 2. Use hatch marks (////) to keep track of the number of times you wash hands today. 3. Then multiply the number of times washed by gallons used per washing to get your total for the day. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal/washing times/day Used/day Bathroom Washing Hands 0.5 gal Brushing Teeth: As you brush teeth before you go to bed tonight please do the following: 1. Time how long the water is running while you brush. 2. Mark the number of times you brushed today. 3. Multiply to determine the amount of water used. ( # of min. X 2.2 gal X # of times/day = total water used) Location Activity Time Estimated Water # of Total Water # of min. gal/minute used times/day Used/day 29
  • 30. Draft Bathroom Brushing Teeth 2 gal Bathing or Showering 1. Do you take a bath or a shower? _______________ 2. Choose and fill out the appropriate chart below. Only choose one. 3. If you take a shower, ask a family member to time you. Location Activity Time(min.) Estimated Water # of Total Water gal/minute used times/day Used/day Bathroom Showering Answer 2.5 gal here if you shower. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal/tub times/day Used/day Bathroom Bathing 40 gal Answer here if you bathe. Flushing the Toilet: 1. Keep track of the number of times you flush the toilet during the day. 2. The average toilet uses 3.5 gal/flush. 3. Multiply gal/flush by number of times you flush the toilet to get your water total. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal/flush times/day Used/day Bathroom Flushing Toilet 3.5 gal Family Water Use: In addition to your personal water use, there are other ways you consume water as part of a household. Dishwashing, doing laundry, washing the family car and watering the lawn and garden also take a lot of water. 1. Do you help with any of those activities? _____ 30
  • 31. Draft 2. Ask a family member to help you answer the next questions. Dish Washing: 1. Do you help with washing dishes? _________ Does your family wash by hand or use a dishwasher? ____________________________ Choose one method from the next page. 2. Check one box and fill in the correct chart.  Wash dishes by hand with rinse water in sink, or rinse all at once with sprayer. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal in sink times/day Used/day Kitchen Rinse 4.4 gal water in sink  Wash dishes by hand with rinse water running continuously from faucet. Location Activity Estimated Time in # of Total Water gal/min minutes times/day Used/day Kitchen Faucet 2 gal running  Use automatic dishwater with full load of dishes. Location Activity Estimated # of Total Water gal in sink times/day Used/day Kitchen 9 gal Dishwasher Washing Laundry: Do you help your family by washing clothes? ____________ If not, have an the person who washes clothes help you fill in the next chart. Activity Gallons/load # of Total water times/day used/day 40 gal. Washing Clothes Here are some helpful household hints to save water in the summer. 31
  • 32. Draft Washing the Car: To save water, be sure to turn off the hose while you soap and scrub the car. Watering the Lawn: You can save water by adjusting the sprinkler so that it does not spray onto the road, driveway or sidewalk. Put an empty tuna fish can on the lawn to catch water from the sprinkler. When the can is full, it is time to turn off the water or move the sprinkler. 32
  • 33. Draft Detecting Wasted Water: How can we all conserve water? Grade 5 Subject Math & Science Objectives Students analyze their data and use math skills to consider how they interact with and influence the limited amount of fresh water available on Earth. Concepts By learning about personal water usage, students can see which activities use the most water and consider where water can be conserved. Changing small daily habits can make a big difference over time – and working together, children can make a big difference. Standards Subject Standard Benchmark Earth & Space Science: To maintain & improve Identify resources found in Human interaction with existence, humans interact Minnesota & describe how Earth Systems with & influence Earth they are used. (5.3.4.1.1) Systems. Earth & Space Science: To maintain & improve Compare the impact of Human interaction with existence, humans interact individual decisions on Earth Systems with & influence Earth natural systems. (5.3.4.1.3) Systems. Math Number & Solve real-world problems Solve problems requiring Operation using arithmetic using muti- multiplication of multi-digit (5.1.1.4) digit numbers. whole numbers. Skills Comparing Multiplying Interpreting a Spreadsheet Analyzing data Brainstorming 33
  • 34. Draft Materials  Student water use spreadsheet, Investigating Water Use: How much water do you use in a day?  Student work sheet, Detecting Wasted Water: How can we all conserve water? Key Words Analysis Brainstorming Conservation Background Because fresh water is so limited on the Earth’s surface – and so vital to our lives, it is important to use this resource wisely. Although water is continually recycled, many of our actions can make water unusable. As part of the water cycle, some of the precipitation is absorbed into the soil and it is cleaned as it filters down through sand and gravel to be stored as groundwater. This process may take a matter of days or thousands of years. This groundwater is what about 80% of all Minnesotans drink. When this groundwater pumped up from the depths to be used by people, it becomes polluted. This pollution includes sewage, industrial or agricultural wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, runoff from mining, pharmaceuticals, soaps, gasoline, litter – products from our daily lives. This pollution is difficult and expensive to remove. Some may be impossible to remove. This is why we need to conserve our water. As students examine their water use, they may discover that certain family activities, such as lawn watering, consume the largest amounts of water. But this type of activity is not controlled by the student. Sometimes the biggest savings may not be possible or easy to change. However, students CAN take simple steps to modify their personal water use each day. Does the child leave the water running while brushing teeth? Although the savings per use may be small, if the water is turned off, over the course of a year the child can recognize significant savings. Bathing and showering are other areas where the child can save water. If everyone is doing their part to conserve, the savings are considerable! Help students look for the conservation options they can control. This can be a very empowering lesson as students realize that they can make a difference with conservation of resources. Time (30-40 minutes) Directions 1. This is the final water conservation lesson. It’s time to review the following topics:  The amount of fresh water on the Earth available for use  The water cycle  The ways people use water  The most consumptive uses of water at home 34
  • 35. Draft 2. Distribute the student worksheet and give directions. Explain how they can use the spreadsheet to help answer the questions on the worksheet. Wrap Up Discussion  What are the most important things students learned in this unit of study?  Why do students think we tend to place so little value on our water?  What are the most important things they can do to conserve water? 35
  • 36. Draft 36
  • 37. Draft Name_____________________ Detecting Wasted Water: How can we all conserve water? Every drop counts! Let’s look at how you use water. Refer to your spreadsheet entitled, ―Water Investigation: How much Water do you use each day?‖ 1. When you brush your teeth do you turn off the water while you are brushing? _______ If you said ―yes,‖ Congratulations! You saved about 2 gallons of water. If you said ―no,‖ this is one easy habit for you to change and save 2 gallons. 2. How many times a day do you brush your teeth? ________________ 3. If, you save 2 gallons of water while brushing, and you brush twice a day, how many gallons of water can you save in one day by turning of water while brushing your teeth? _____________ 4. How many gallons can you save in a week while brushing your teeth? ________ 5. There are 52 weeks in a year. How many gallons could you conserve in a year? ______________ 6. How many pupils are in your class? ________________ 7. If all of you turn off the water while brushing your teeth, how much water could the class save? ___________________ 8. Showering or bathing is another way to save water. Look at your spreadsheet to determine how much water you used. How could you save water? 9. Do you take a shower? _______ If so, how much water would you save in a month if you shorten your shower by 1 minute? ____________________ (Show your work.) 10. Do you take a bath? ________ If so, how much water can you save in a month if you only fill the tub half full? _______________ (Show your work. ) 37
  • 38. Draft Working together we can make a difference to conserve water! Other ways you can help save water:  Share what you have learned with others in your school. Make a list of water conservation facts and tips that can be read during morning announcement every day for a week or two.  Make a water conservation poster to put near the washbasin or water fountain at school.  Tell others at home what you have learned and encourage family and friends to conserve water.  Tell an adult about a leaky faucet or toilet. You could save between 5 to 200 gallons per day.  Turn off the faucet while washing your hands or face.  Turn off the faucet while brushing your teeth.  Only run the dishwasher when it is full.  Wait until there is a full basket of laundry before running the washing machine.  Use a broom instead of a hose to clean the driveway and sidewalks. 38