The Quest for Meaning:<br />Culture in the Mid-Twentieth Century<br />Can humanity still believe that progress is positive...
EXISTENTIALISM:  The Most Influential Philosophical Movement of the 20th Century<br />P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S...
P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S<br />P<br />H<br />Y<br />EXISTENTIALISM<br />Jean-Paul Sartre (French)<br />	-leadin...
CHRISTIAN EXISTENTIALISM<br />P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S<br />P<br />H<br />Y<br />*God does exist, but he chall...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Samuel Beckett’s (Irish) Waiting for Godot<br />-Two...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />T.S. Eliot’s (American) excerpt from The Rock<br />-...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Dylan Thomas’ (Welsh) “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Go...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Rabindranth Tagore’s (Indian) “The Man Who Had No Us...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Muhammad Iqbal’s (Indian/Muslim) “Revolution” and “E...
L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Judith Wright’s (Australian) “Eve to Her Daughters”<...
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />V    <br />I     <br />S		<br />U		<br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*One of the first art movemen...
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Willem de Kooning (Dutch)<br />	-applied paint in a loose, free, 	insti...
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Jackson Pollock (American)<br />	-best known abstract expressionist<br ...
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*A Jackson Pollock Painting<br />-Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist)<br />		...
 ABSTRACT      EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Mark Rothko (Russian/Latvian)<br />	- moved to America as a boy<b...
 ABSTRACT      EXPRESSIONISM<br />-This is one of Rothko’s “color field paintings,” a kind of total abstraction of large, ...
 ABSTRACT      EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Helen Frankenthaler (American)<br />	-Considered a “color field 	...
 ABSTRACT      EXPRESSIONISM<br />-This is one of Frankenthaler’s “color field paintings”<br />-Most of her paintings were...
REGIONALISM<br />V    <br />I     <br />S		<br />U		<br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*Regionalism was an outgrowth of Realism...
REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Edward Hopper (American)<br />-His paintings simulate film stills that are oddly c...
REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Grant Wood (American)<br />-His paintings depicted the American midwest<br />-He w...
REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Grant Wood’s American Gothic<br />(The original and our parody in the Short North ...
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM IN SCULPTURE<br />V    <br />I     <br />S		<br />U		<br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*Reflected the e...
SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Alberto Giacometti (Swiss)<br />-His figures are spindly creatures that <br />symbol...
SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*George Segal (American)<br />-His figures were life-sized plaster <br />casts of his...
SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*David Smith (American)<br />-His nonfigurative art exploited the <br />industrial ma...
SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Alexander Calder (American)<br />-His art consisted of whimsical wire constructions ...
A<br />R<br />C<br />H<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />C<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />ORGANIC STYLE<br />-A reaction against...
ORGANIC STYLE<br />Frank Lloyd Wright (American)<br />	-Had a reputation for womanizing; stole his <br />	friend’s wife wh...
ALEATORY<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />*Music based upon chance and randomness<br...
AVANT-GARDE<br /> D<br />	A<br />		N<br />	C<br />E<br />*Experimental or innovative choreography that sometimes included ...
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Q U E S T F O R M E A N I N G

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Quest for Meaning (Culture in the mid-twentieth century) PowerPoint. UNIT FIVE, Humanities 10

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Q U E S T F O R M E A N I N G

  1. 1. The Quest for Meaning:<br />Culture in the Mid-Twentieth Century<br />Can humanity still believe that progress is positive? <br />Can you be rational when you are haunted by the past?<br />Can your life have meaning when you are alienated from reason and God?<br />
  2. 2. EXISTENTIALISM: The Most Influential Philosophical Movement of the 20th Century<br />P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S<br />P<br />H<br />Y<br />*We are what we choose to be because we create both ourselves and our freedom by every choice we make<br />*Humans have no fixed nature and they are not by nature rational; they are condemned to be free<br />*Denies existence of a supreme being<br />
  3. 3. P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S<br />P<br />H<br />Y<br />EXISTENTIALISM<br />Jean-Paul Sartre (French)<br /> -leading existentialist<br /> -fought in WWII; resisted German occupation of France<br /> -humans cannot use excuses such as “the Devil made me do it” or “the ghetto turned me into a criminal” because we alone are responsible for our actions—he called this existential “anguish”<br />
  4. 4. CHRISTIAN EXISTENTIALISM<br />P<br />H<br />I<br />L<br />O<br />S<br />P<br />H<br />Y<br />*God does exist, but he challenges humans to act freely and responsibly<br />*Karl Jaspers (German)<br /> -started as a psychiatrist <br /> -wrote about German government after fall of Nazis<br /> -believed philosophy must be guided by faith because faith is the origin of human transcendence<br />
  5. 5. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Samuel Beckett’s (Irish) Waiting for Godot<br />-Two tramps await Godot who never arrives<br />-Theater of the Absurd-outgrowth of Dada and Surrealism; drama that lacks progression, direction, and resolution; the characters go through little or no change; dialogue may contradict actions; events can be in an illogical order; it may include gallows humor and grotesque situations; it captures the anguish of modern society; it usually does not come to a satisfying end because situations remain unresolved<br />Beckett was an unhappy, depressed man whom the women could not resist <br />He idolized James Joyce (remember Ulysses and stream of consciousness)<br />He resisted German occupation of France during WWII and had to flee with his French wife<br />He was stabbed in the lung by a “tramp” asking for money<br />When his play was performed in front of 1400 prisoners at San Quentin, it was a great success because inmates know about waiting<br />
  6. 6. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />T.S. Eliot’s (American) excerpt from The Rock<br />-The crisis of the modern world is loss of wisdom and godliness due to passage of time and ease of information<br />-Born in America, became British citizen<br />-Wanted to rid poetry of its romantic qualities<br />-Theme of alienation permeates his poetry<br />
  7. 7. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Dylan Thomas’ (Welsh) “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night”<br />-Villanelle that takes an exuberant approach to the quest for meaning: take life-affirming action even in the face of death <br />-Published just after the death of his father, who suffered both a loss of vision and a denial of god<br />-Igor Stavinsky (remember The Rite of Spring) used this poem as the basis for a song, In Memoriam, Dylan Thomas<br /> -Claimed himself a Welshman first and a drunkard second<br />
  8. 8. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Rabindranth Tagore’s (Indian) “The Man Who Had No Useful Work”<br />-Narrative poem that deals gently with the existential responsibility for individual choice<br />-Questions the value of the practical, goal-oriented pursuits that drive society<br />-Shows ironic truth that art may be both meaningless and essential<br />-Asian who saw spiritual <br />deterioration in the world<br />-Believed the crisis of modern <br />society was misplaced values<br />-Published 60 volumes of literature<br />-Won the Nobel Prize for Literature<br />
  9. 9. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Muhammad Iqbal’s (Indian/Muslim) “Revolution” and “Europe and Syria”<br />-Both poems show difference between Eastern and Western culture<br />-Both poems show the soul <br />killing power of secular life<br />-Muslim who said Islam <br />had a civilizing role in <br />modern life<br />-Wanted to move passive contemplation and withdraw from society of traditional Islam to action and choice, thus making Islam a leading moral force in the world<br />-Most eminent writer of Muslim India<br />-Wanted an independent Muslim state in Hindu India<br />Iqbal: The man<br />who dreamed <br />Pakistan.<br />
  10. 10. L<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />R<br />A<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Judith Wright’s (Australian) “Eve to Her Daughters”<br />-An extension of the biblical story of Adam and Eve<br />-We know we exist when we have faults; to have no faults is to not exist<br />-Adam turns himself into a god and stops existing<br />-Wright condemned the<br /> Australian educational system<br /> and blamed it for failing to<br /> teach the students the art and<br /> pleasure of poetry.<br /> -Worked at her father’s sheep<br /> station during WWII due to a<br /> shortage of labor<br /> -Awarded Queen’s Gold Medal<br /> for poetry <br />
  11. 11. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />V <br />I <br />S <br />U <br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*One of the first art movements to begin in America (New York City); started by Europeans who fled to the U. S. to escape Nazi occupation and war-torn areas of Europe<br />*The style embraced randomness; sought balance between choice and chance<br />*Usually nonrepresentational<br />*Process was as important as product<br />*Paintings were so large they could<br />not be purchased for living rooms<br />
  12. 12. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Willem de Kooning (Dutch)<br /> -applied paint in a loose, free, instinctive manner that emphasized the act of painting<br /> -used large canvases and oversized brushes<br />*Woman and Bicycle<br /> -took 18 months of laying on, scraping away and restoring color<br /> -inspired by Earth Mother figures<br />
  13. 13. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Jackson Pollock (American)<br /> -best known abstract expressionist<br /> -strapped canvas to the floor and dripped, splashed, poured and spread paint across it<br /> -sometimes layered paint would be mixed with sand, nails, matches, cigarettes, glass shards, etc.<br /> -his technique was inspired by<br /> Navaho sand painting and was<br /> dubbed “action painting” because<br /> you had to be “in” the painting to<br /> create it<br />
  14. 14. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*A Jackson Pollock Painting<br />-Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist)<br /> -Pollock used the patterns<br /> caused by the separation<br /> and marbling of one<br /> enamel wet in another, the<br /> tiny black striations in the<br /> dusty pink, to produce an<br /> infinity of tones.<br />-Critics say it is impossible <br />to forge a Pollock painting.<br />
  15. 15. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Mark Rothko (Russian/Latvian)<br /> - moved to America as a boy<br /> -a founding member of the Ten, a group of artists sympathetic to abstraction and Expressionism<br /> -painting style developed from simple flat shapes inspired by primitive art to his mature style,<br /> in which frontal, luminous rectangles seem to hover on the canvas<br /> -wanted people to look at his paintings close-up from about 18”<br /> -committed suicide <br />
  16. 16. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />-This is one of Rothko’s “color field paintings,” a kind of total abstraction of large, often transparent layers of paint in soft-edged blocks that float on the surfaces of other fields of color and seem illuminated.<br />-he said the subject matter was “tragedy, ecstasy, and doom”<br />-he said if you’re<br />only moved by color relationships, you miss the point<br />*Mark Rothko Painting, Untitled<br /> -<br />
  17. 17. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Helen Frankenthaler (American)<br /> -Considered a “color field painter” like Rothko<br /> -Poured thin washes of paint directly from coffee tins onto unprimed canvas<br /> -Created abstract shapes that tended to swell and expand like flowers -She is still alive <br />
  18. 18. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM<br />-This is one of Frankenthaler’s “color field paintings”<br />-Most of her paintings were called “heroic” due to the enormous size, this one is 8’ 6’’ by 8’ 8’’<br />*Helen Frankenthaler Painting<br />Before <br />the <br />Canes<br />
  19. 19. REGIONALISM<br />V <br />I <br />S <br />U <br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*Regionalism was an outgrowth of Realism that was popular in specific geographic regions<br />*The messages from these paintings centered on bleak reality and the lack of meaningful relationships and communication<br />
  20. 20. REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Edward Hopper (American)<br />-His paintings simulate film stills that are oddly cropped and artificially lit<br />-He preferred urban and business subjects, but it sometimes took him months to decide on a subject to paint<br />-He would sketch before painting<br />-Nighthawks<br /> -Hopper depicts a harshly lit all-night diner, whose occupants share the same space, but there is little intimacy as his characters seem isolated or estranged. <br />
  21. 21. REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Grant Wood (American)<br />-His paintings depicted the American midwest<br />-He was fired from teaching when they found <br />out he was homosexual<br />-He died at age 51 of liver cancer<br />-American Gothic<br /> -One of the most famous paintings ever—many parodies have been made (Short North has one)<br /> -The models are his sister and his dentist which represent a farmer and his spinster daughter<br />-He came up with the idea after seeing the farmhouse depicted in his painting in Iowa<br /> -Has repeated patterns (stripes/ calicos) and traditional gender roles<br />
  22. 22. REGIONALISM<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Grant Wood’s American Gothic<br />(The original and our parody in the Short North by Steve Galgas and Mike Altman)<br />
  23. 23. ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM IN SCULPTURE<br />V <br />I <br />S <br />U <br />A<br />L<br />ARTS<br />*Reflected the existential anxiety of the time with a “geometry of fear” that was <br />evident in both figurative and nonfigurative<br />*Figurative pieces reflected the bleak reality of the human condition<br />*Nonfigurative pieces explored the chance and randomness of their counterparts in the painting <br />realm such as Pollock<br />
  24. 24. SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Alberto Giacometti (Swiss)<br />-His figures are spindly creatures that <br />symbolize the existential solitude of individuals<br />-Jean-Paul Sartre admired his work<br />-He designed the set for Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot<br />-He mostly used his brother as his model<br />-City Square (La Place)<br /> -Symbolizes the existential solitude of individuals in a large city <br /> -Figures are together, but isolated from one another<br />
  25. 25. SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*George Segal (American)<br />-His figures were life-sized plaster <br />casts of his friends and family<br />-He created “assembled environments” when he added the casts to ordinary objects, such as chairs<br />-He is a link between Realism and the Pop Art we’ll see in Unit Six<br />-Bus Riders<br /> -Comments on alienation<br /> and failure of communication<br /> -Figures are together, but isolated from one another<br />-White plaster gives a ghostly appearance<br />The Holocaust<br />-Arrangement of figures gives both a sense of solidarity and alienation<br />-Shows individual and mass suffering<br />
  26. 26. SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*David Smith (American)<br />-His nonfigurative art exploited the <br />industrial materials such as welded iron and steel<br />-He learned to weld during a summer job at auto factory and learned other industrial processes while working in a wartime locomotive factory<br />-Tried to give optimistic spirit in postwar America<br />Cubi XIX<br />-Made of stainless steel <br />-Boxlike forms are <br />burnished and scraped to<br />reflect the colors of their<br />surroundings<br />-Movable piece; has been<br />installed in varied places<br />
  27. 27. SCULPTURE<br />VISUAL<br />ARTS<br />*Alexander Calder (American)<br />-His art consisted of whimsical wire constructions that were motorized or hung from ceilings<br />-Ranged in size from a few feet to enormous proportions<br />-Air currents made the piece vary in look, creating the “chance” effect that made constantly changing relationships between volumes and voids<br />-Most were brightly colored<br />painted aluminum or sheet metal<br />Big Red (Sheet metal and steel wire)<br />Little Spider<br />-painted<br />sheet metal<br />and wire<br />
  28. 28. A<br />R<br />C<br />H<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />C<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />ORGANIC STYLE<br />-A reaction against the international style that advocated unadorned interchangeable parts and machinelike housing where “form followed function”<br />-Subjective, personal, and romantic buildings that used cast concrete to make organic shapes<br />-Eero Saarinen’s (Finnish) Trans World Airlines Terminal, Kennedy Airport, New York<br />-Drew bomb dismantling illustrations for the US during WWII<br />-He also designed interior furniture like this tulip chair he created with his father<br />
  29. 29. ORGANIC STYLE<br />Frank Lloyd Wright (American)<br /> -Had a reputation for womanizing; stole his <br /> friend’s wife when he designed a house for them; abandoned his own wife and six kids<br /> -Hired a servant who burnt down his house and <br /> murdered seven people in his house, including <br /> the wife he stole from his friend <br />A<br />R<br />C<br />H<br />I<br />T<br />E<br />C<br />T<br />U<br />R<br />E<br />Falling Waters, Pennsylvania<br />The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York<br />
  30. 30. ALEATORY<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />MUSIC<br />*Music based upon chance and randomness<br />*Tried to have balance between freedom and control, meaninglessness and purposeful action<br />John Cage (American)<br /> -He believed everything we do is music<br /> -Process is central to composition, not the product<br /> -Began Fluxus, neo-dada movement which involved minimal works that required audience to complete them<br />*In 4’33’’ the piano player sits motionless for four minutes and 33 seconds—the music is the breathing, shuffling, etc. of the audience<br />*In “Imaginary Landscape No. 4” twelve radios with two performers at each randomly turn the dials<br />
  31. 31. AVANT-GARDE<br /> D<br /> A<br /> N<br /> C<br />E<br />*Experimental or innovative choreography that sometimes included mixed media, such as slide shows<br />*Merce Cunningham (American)<br /> -Separated dance from music; dance no longer told the story of the music<br /> -Music can accompany the dance, but it does not determine the rhythm of the dancers<br /> -All body movements, including falling down, are considered dance <br /> -Ignored staging whereby a <br /> dancer was assigned to a <br /> specific space—allowed<br /> improvisation<br /> -Dancers move confidently <br /> in different directions<br />

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