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Nervous system

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  • 1.  The nervous system is the part of an animal’s body that coordinates the actions of the animal and transmits signals between different parts of its body. It controls and regulates all activities of the body, whether voluntary or involuntary, and adjusts the individual (organism) to the given surroundings. This is based on the special properties of sensitivity, conductivity and responsiveness of the nervous system.
  • 2. The nervous system includes both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system.The Centralnervous system ismade up of thebrain and spinalcord and ThePeripheralnervous system ismade up of theSomatic and theAutonomicnervous systems.
  • 3. The central nervous system is divided into two major parts: the brain andthe spinal cord.
  • 4. The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a mushroom. Thebrain consists of four principal parts: the brain stem the cerebrum the cerebellum the diencephalon
  • 5. Grey matter receives and White matter in the brain carriesstores impulses. Cell bodies impulses to and from greyof neurons and neuroglia are matter. It consists of the nervein the grey matter. fibers (axons).
  • 6. The brain stem is also known as theMedulla oblongata. It is locatedbetween the pons and the spinal cordand is only about one inch long.
  • 7. The cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain and issupported on the brain stem. The cerebrum is dividedinto two hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls theactivities of the side of the body opposite thathemisphere.The hemispheres arefurther divided into fourlobes:  Frontal lobe  Temporal lobe  Parietal lobe  Occipital lobe
  • 8. The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals, located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere and positioned anterior to (in front of) the parietal lobe and superior and anterior to the temporal lobes.The parietal lobe is a part of the brain positioned above (superior to) the occipital lobe and behind (posterior to) the frontal lobe.The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex.The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is located beneath the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.
  • 9. The cerebellum (Latin for little brain) is a region of the brain thatplays an important role in motor control. It may also be involved in somecognitive functions such as attention and language, and in regulating fearand pleasure responses, but its movement-related functions are the mostsolidly established. The cerebellum does not initiate movement, but itcontributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing.
  • 10. The diencephalon is also known as the fore brainstem. It includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. Thethalamus is where sensory and other impulses go andcoalesce. The hypothalamus is a smaller part of thediencephalon
  • 11. Other parts of the brain include the midbrainand the pons: The midbrain provides conduction pathways to and from higherand lower centers. The pons acts as a pathway to higher structures; it containsconduction pathways between the medulla and higher brain centers.
  • 12. ∞ The spinal cord is alongtube like structure whichextends from the brain.∞ The spinal cord is composed of aseries of 31 segments. A pair ofspinal nerves comes out of eachsegment. The region of the spinalcord from which a pair of spinalnerves originates is called thespinal segment. Both motor andsensory nerves are located in thespinal cord.∞ The spinal cord is about 43 cm long inadult women and 45 cm long in adultmen and weighs about 35-40 grams. Itlies within the vertebral column, thecollection of bones (back bone).
  • 13. The meninges are three layers ormembranes that cover the brain andthe spinal cord. The outermost layer is thedura mater. The middle layer is thearachnoid, and the innermost layer isthe pia mater. The meninges offerprotection to the brain and the spinalcord by acting as a barrier againstbacteria and other microorganisms.The Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)circulates around the brain andspinal cord. It protects andnourishes the brain and spinal cord.
  • 14. The neuron is the basic unit in the nervous system. It is a specialized conductor cell that receives and transmits electrochemical nerve impulses. A typical neuron has a cell body and long arms that conduct impulses from one body part to another body part.There are three different parts of theneuron:  the cell body - The cell body is like any other cell with a nucleus or control center.  dendrites - The cell body has several highly branched, thick extensions that appear like cables and are called dendrites. The exception is a sensory neuron that has a single, long dendrite instead of many dendrites. Motor neurons have multiple thick dendrites. The dendrites function is to carry a nerve impulse into the cell body.  axon - An axon is a long, thin process that carries impulses away from the cell body to another neuron or tissue. There is usually only one axon per neuron.
  • 15. The neuron is covered with the Myelin Sheath or SchwannCells. These are white segmented covering around axons anddendrites of many peripheral neurons. The covering is continuousalong the axons or dendrites except at the point of termination and atthe nodes of Ranvier. The neurilemma is the layer of Schwann cells with a nucleus.Its function is to allow damaged nerves to regenerate. Nerves inthe brain and spinal cord do not have a neurilemma and, thereforecannot recover when damaged.
  • 16. Neurons in the body can be classified according to structure andfunction. According to structure neurons may be multipolarneurons, bipolar neurons, and unipolar neurons:  Multipolar neurons have one axon and several dendrites. These are common in the brain and spinal cord  Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite. These are seen in the retina of the eye, the inner ear, and the olfactory (smell) area.  Unipolar neurons have one process extending from the cell body. The one process divides with one part acting as an axon and the other part functioning as dendrite. These are seen in the spinal cord.
  • 17. The Peripheral nervous system is made up of two parts:  Somatic nervous system  Autonomic nervous system
  • 18. The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibersthat pick up sensory information or sensations from the peripheralor distant organs (those away from the brain like limbs) and carrythem to the central nervous system.These also consist of motor nerve fibers that come out of thebrain and take the messages for movement and necessary actionto the skeletal muscles. For example, on touching a hot objectthe sensory nerves carry information about the heat to thebrain, which in turn, via the motor nerves, tells the muscles ofthe hand to withdraw it immediately.The whole process takes less than a second to happen. The cellbody of the neuron that carries the information often lies withinthe brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle.
  • 19. Another part of the nervous system is the Autonomic Nervous System. It has three parts: The sympathetic nervoussystem The parasympathetic nervoussystem The enteric nervous system
  • 20.  The (ortho-) sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the threeparts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric andparasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the bodysnervous system fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly activeat a basic level to maintain homeostasis. The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS, or occasionally PNS) isone of the three main divisions of the autonomic nervoussystem (ANS). The ANS is responsible for regulation of internal organsand glands, which occurs unconsciously. To be specific, theparasympathetic system is responsible for stimulation of "rest-and-digest" or "feed and breed" activities that occur when the body is atrest, including sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation(tears), urination, digestion and defication. Its action is described asbeing complementary to that of one of the other main branches of theANS, the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible forstimulating activities associated with the fight-or-flight response. The enteric nervous system (ENS) or Intrinsic nervous system is asubdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) that directly controlsthe gastrointestinal system in vertebrates.It is derived from neural crest.
  • 21. This nervous system controls the nerves of the innerorgans of the body on which humans have no consciouscontrol. This includes theheartbeat, digestion, breathing (except consciousbreathing) etc.The nerves of the autonomic nervous system enervatethe smooth involuntary muscles of the (internal organs)and glands and cause them to function and secretetheir enzymes etc.The Enteric nervous system is the third part of theautonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous systemis a complex network of nerve fibers that innervate theorgans within the abdomen like the gastrointestinaltract, pancreas, gall bladder etc. It contains nearly 100million nerves.
  • 22. The smallest worker in the nervous system is the neuron. For each ofthe chain of impulses there is one preganglionic neuron, or onebefore the cell body or ganglion, that is like a central controllingbody for numerous neurons going out peripherally.The preganglionic neuron is located in either the brain or the spinalcord. In the autonomic nervous system this preganglionic neuronprojects to an autonomic ganglion. The postganglionic neuron thenprojects to the target organ.In the somatic nervous system there is only one neuron between thecentral nervous system and the target organ while the autonomicnervous system uses two neurons.