Bay Area Community Exchange (BACE) is a collaborative network that supports the development of alternative means of exchan...
What is the Economy? <ul><li>A way of meeting our needs and wants: production, distribution, storage, etc. </li></ul><ul><...
What is money? <ul><li>A medium of exchange that facilitates trade so there doesn't have to be a perfect match of what you...
The History of Money <ul><li>9,000—6,000 BC: Livestock and agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>4000 BC: Clay tablet re...
Babylonian warehouse receipt 4000 BC, Iranian clay currencies 3500 BC
Tabu shell money, Papua New Guinea
Yap Island stone money
Federal Reserve Note
Checkbook
Electronic Bank Account
Credit Cards
What functions does money have? <ul><li>Measure of value: A book of US$20 is equal to 5 rides on BART, standard equivalenc...
What is a Community Currency? <ul><li>means of exchange that has a localized value, usually restricted within a geographic...
Why Community Currencies? <ul><li>Keeps the wealth created by the exchange of goods and services within the local communit...
Types of Currencies <ul><li>LETS (Local Employment Trading Systems): Canada, Europe, NZ, South Africa, CES, Fourth Corner ...
Basis of Issuance and Backing <ul><li>Backed by a person’s commitment to volunteer,spend time either in the future or hour...
Mutual Credit Systems <ul><li>Each individual member, organization or business can create their own credit by providing a ...
LETS (Local Employment Trading Systems) <ul><li>Started in 1982 by Michael Linton in Canada, then thousands spread into ot...
Timebanks  <ul><li>Timebanks USA started by lawyer Edgar Cahn as a means to promote social justice, public engagement, ful...
Business to Business Credit/Bartering <ul><li>Businesses trade goods and services as credits in national or alternative cu...
WIR Bank, Switzerland <ul><li>A B2B mutual credit system since 1934 in Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Small and medium size...
Scrips (Paper Currencies) <ul><li>Cash-like currency backed by a commodity, debt, national currency or trust in community ...
Red de Trueque, Argentina
Red de Trueque, Argentina <ul><li>The largest complementary currency system in the world </li></ul><ul><li>A barter club i...
Banco Palmas, Brazil
Banco Palmas, Brazil <ul><li>A community bank started by STRO Foundation and Joaquim Melo in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil sinc...
Chiemgauer, Germany
Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Network of 30 REGIO (regional currencies) projects throughout Germany  started by high-school ...
Wara , Austria
Wara , Austria <ul><li>Issued by the mayor of Woergl in July 1932, during the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized ...
Berkshares, Massachusetts
Berkshares, Massachusetts    <ul><li>Started in 2006 in Berkshire region by EF Schumacher Society </li></ul><ul><li>The ex...
Ithaca Hours, NY
Ithaca Hours, NY <ul><li>Started in 1991 in by Paul Glover </li></ul><ul><li>Over 900 businesses, thousands of individuals...
Community Way
Community Way <ul><li>Businesses donate community way dollars (cw$), not cash or products, to schools, organizations, and ...
Community Project/Specific Use Currencies
Community Project/Specific Use Currencies <ul><li>Can be used to create sustainable enterprises and community projects lik...
Business Scrips Deli Dollars, 1989
Business Scrips <ul><li>Businesses need money for financing start-up or expansion or temporary survival loan.  </li></ul><...
Rewards/Loyalty Currencies <ul><li>Provide rewards to members to shop at participating businesses.  </li></ul><ul><li>Rewa...
Legal Considerations <ul><li>Complementary currencies are legal within certain parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be ea...
Questions in Designing a Currency <ul><li>What are your complementary currency’s goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are unmet n...
Currency Design  (edited by Luna from Community Currency Guide by Lietaer and Hallsmith) <ul><li>Set Currency Objectives: ...
Currency Design Features :  Standard of Value (graphs edited by Luna from John Rogers’ Community Currency Design Manual) E...
Currency Design Features:  Issuance FEATURE CHOICES FEATURE SUB-CHOICES COMMENTS Mutual credit (issued by users) Amount of...
Currency Design Features:  Medium of Exchange FEATURE CHOICES COMMENTS Scrip Useful to raise profile of CC, establish visi...
Addressing Challenges <ul><li>Business participation- simple unit of account (e.g. linked to $USD), easy to use medium (ca...
Key Points to Remember <ul><li>Try to involve key people/organizations/network from the community and from potential parti...
Further Info <ul><li>“ The Future of Money” (Bernard Lietaer) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Local Money: how to make it happen in yo...
Contact us: Mira Luna  [email_address] Chris Lindstrom  [email_address] Deneene Brockington  [email_address] Miguel Hirota...
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Mira currency pp june 10

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An introduction to community currencies, examples, comparisons, and design guide.

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  • 9,000—6,000 BC: Cattle Cattle, which include anything from cows, to sheep, to camels, are the first and oldest form of money. With the advent of agriculture came the use of grain and other vegetable or plant products as a standard form of barter in many cultures. 1,200 BC: Cowrie Shells The first use of cowries, the shell of a mollusc that was widely available in the shallow waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, was in China. Historically, many societies have used cowries as money, and even as recently as the middle of this century, cowries have been used in some parts of Africa. The cowrie is the most widely and longest used currency in history. 1,000 BC: First Metal Money and Coins Bronze and Copper cowrie imitations were manufactured by China at the end of the Stone Age and could be considered some of the earliest forms of metal coins. Metal tool money, such as knife and spade monies, was also first used in China. These early metal monies developed into primitive versions of round coins. Chinese coins were made out of base metals, often containing holes so they could be put together like a chain. 500 BC: Modern Coinage Outside of China, the first coins developed out of lumps of silver. They soon took the familar round form of today, and were stamped with various gods and emperors to mark their authenticity. These early coins first appeared in Lydia, which is part of present-day Turkey, but the techniques were quickly copied and further refined by the Greek, Persian, Macedonian, and later the Roman empires. Unlike Chinese coins which depended on base metals, these new coins were made from precious metals such as silver, bronze, and gold, which had more inherent value. 118 BC: Leather Money Leather money was used in China in the form of one-foot-square pieces of white deerskin with colorful borders. This could be considered the first documented type of banknote. 800 - 900 AD: The Nose The phrase &amp;quot;To pay through the nose&amp;quot; comes from Danes in Ireland, who slit the noses of those who were remiss in paying the Danish poll tax. 806 AD: Paper Currency The first paper banknotes appeared in China. In all, China experienced over 500 years of early paper money, spanning from the ninth through the fifteenth century. Over this period, paper notes grew in production to the point that their value rapidly depreciated and inflation soared. Then beginning in 1455, the use of paper money in China disappeared for several hundred years. This was still many years before paper currency would reappear in Europe, and three centuries before it was considered common. 1500s: Potlach &amp;quot;Potlach&amp;quot; comes from a Chinook Indian custom that existed in many North American Indian cultures. It is a ceremony where not only were gifts exchanged, but dances, feasts, and other public rituals were performed. In some instances potlach was a form of initiation into secret tribal societies. Because the exchange of gifts was so important in establishing a leader&apos;s social rank, potlach often spiralled out of control as the gifts became progressively more lavish and tribes put on larger and grander feasts and celebrations in an attempt to out-do each other. 1535: Wampum The earliest known use of wampum, which are strings of beads made from clam shells, was by North American Indians in 1535. Most likely, this monetary medium existed well before this date. The Indian word &amp;quot;wampum&amp;quot; means white, which was the color of the beads. 1816: The Gold Standard Gold was officially made the standard of value in England in 1816. At this time, guidelines were made to allow for a non-inflationary production of standard banknotes which represented a certain amount of gold. Banknotes had been used in England and Europe for several hundred years before this time, but their worth had never been tied directly to gold. In the United States, the Gold Standard Act was officialy enacted in 1900, which helped lead to the establishment of a central bank. 1930: End of the Gold Standard The massive Depression of the 1930&apos;s, felt worldwide, marked the beginning of the end of the gold standard. In the United States, the gold standard was revised and the price of gold was devalued. This was the first step in ending the relationship altogether. The British and international gold standards soon ended as well, and the complexities of international monetary regulation began. The Present: Today, currency continues to change and develop, as evidenced by the new $100 US Ben Franklin bill. The Future: Electronic Money Digital cash in the form of bits and bytes will most likely become an important new currency of the future.
  • Mira currency pp june 10

    1. 1. Bay Area Community Exchange (BACE) is a collaborative network that supports the development of alternative means of exchange in the San Francisco Bay Area. We provide research and development support, incubation of alternative exchange projects, and education to the Bay Area community about economic issues. Through our work with currency projects, we will create an economy that is more sustainable, just, and embedded in healthy community connections.
    2. 2. What is the Economy? <ul><li>A way of meeting our needs and wants: production, distribution, storage, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A measure and reflection of what we value: profit, the Earth, community, happiness, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st circle of economy: close to home, friends and family, mostly gift economy, some informal barter, sharing; direct and indirect reciprocity; based on unconditional love and trust </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd circle of economy: local community,bioregion, friends, acquaintances, small businesses, local government; some trade, local currencies, scrips, timebanks, etc.; some formalized reciprocity and sharing (like libraries, community gardens); based somewhat on trust </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd circle of economy: in the last century has consumed two inner circles, $USD and international trading, anonymous and alienated exchanges, nontransparent, unreal numbers that don’t represent real value; only trust in the Fed, Govt, and Wall Street; virtually no popular control </li></ul><ul><li>The new economy: rebuild the first and second circles through gift economies, sharing and community currencies </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is money? <ul><li>A medium of exchange that facilitates trade so there doesn't have to be a perfect match of what you need and what the person you are trading with needs around the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of paper, plastic card, number in an account, or other placeholder with a value that exists only in the perception of those who agree that it has value and trust in it. </li></ul><ul><li>US dollars are issued by the Federal Reserve, which attempts to set the value of the dollar by controlling the supply of it as an artificially scarce resource. This means that even though there may be enough food or housing for everyone, there will not be enough money to pay rent or buy food. </li></ul><ul><li>$USD is issued as debt (usually from loan agreements), which means it must be paid back with interest. That interest comes out of someone else’s pocket. The economy must continually grow to pay off the interest, requiring businesses to extract profit from somewhere else (e.g. third world labor and natural resources). </li></ul><ul><li>Interest funnels wealth to those who already have it and can lend it out, creating gross inequalities in wealth and social decay and conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 2% of money is actually used for trading goods and services, the rest is speculation. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The History of Money <ul><li>9,000—6,000 BC: Livestock and agricultural products </li></ul><ul><li>4000 BC: Clay tablet receipts </li></ul><ul><li>1,200 BC: Cowrie shells </li></ul><ul><li>1,000 BC: First metal money and coins </li></ul><ul><li>500 BC: Modern coinage from precious metals </li></ul><ul><li>118 BC: Leather money (1 st banknote) </li></ul><ul><li>806 AD: Paper Currency </li></ul><ul><li>1535 (discovery date): Wampum string beads </li></ul><ul><li>1770s: US issues Continentals to finance American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Civil War: Over 10k scrips in US, mostly issued by local and state banks </li></ul><ul><li>1860’s: US Banking Act establishes national currency, taxes state bank notes 10%, finances Civil War with greenbacks </li></ul><ul><li>1890: The Gold standard begins in US </li></ul><ul><li>1916: Federal Reserve Act replaces national bank notes with Federal Reserve notes, declared sole legal tender </li></ul><ul><li>Great Depression: End of gold standard, over 300 scrips flourish in N. America until economy picks up again, Swiss WIR Bank is established, time exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>1950: Credit card invented </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s: Community currencies experience comeback with LETS, Timebanks </li></ul><ul><li>2001-2005: Argentina’s economy collapses, Red de Trueque is primary currency for 1,6 its population </li></ul>
    5. 5. Babylonian warehouse receipt 4000 BC, Iranian clay currencies 3500 BC
    6. 6. Tabu shell money, Papua New Guinea
    7. 7. Yap Island stone money
    8. 8. Federal Reserve Note
    9. 9. Checkbook
    10. 10. Electronic Bank Account
    11. 11. Credit Cards
    12. 12. What functions does money have? <ul><li>Measure of value: A book of US$20 is equal to 5 rides on BART, standard equivalency </li></ul><ul><li>Means of exchange: Allows us to get goods and,or services which wouldn't otherwise be acquired with direct barter, increases fluidity of circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Means of saving/storage: Allows us to keep our current asset for future expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Means of investment or credit (financial capital, speculation): promotes new enterprises, can lend to community projects, but with interest and speculation, also has consequence of concentrating wealth and creating economic instability </li></ul>
    13. 13. What is a Community Currency? <ul><li>means of exchange that has a localized value, usually restricted within a geographical region or between people with specific community connections (like green businesses, artists, schools, farmers or parents) </li></ul><ul><li>represents agreements that acknowledge trust in the community itself, rather the federal government, big banks, or corporations </li></ul><ul><li>takes many forms: online accounting, tokens, paper bills, plastic cards, metal, checkbooks </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why Community Currencies? <ul><li>Keeps the wealth created by the exchange of goods and services within the local community - it cannot be extracted, exported, or benefited by entities outside of the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplier effect: shopping locally keeps 3x more wealth in community, 3x more jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates abundance rather than scarcity. There is no need for a scarce means of exchange when we have lots of time and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Recreates a local or bioregional economy that is suited to its ecology and community needs. Encourages greater sustainability through import replacement and sustainable production processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Links unmet needs with otherwise unused resources </li></ul><ul><li>Stronger and greater numbers of community relationships, which enhances a different kind of economic security and spiritual connection </li></ul><ul><li>Community and individual self-determination and sufficiency- local control over economy and therefore more local self-governance, transparency, participation and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates communities from the roller-coaster market economy </li></ul><ul><li>Different forms of exchange facilitate community resiliency </li></ul><ul><li>Represents real value created by our communities, not market value </li></ul><ul><li>Protest against unfair and unsustainable global economy </li></ul>
    15. 15. Types of Currencies <ul><li>LETS (Local Employment Trading Systems): Canada, Europe, NZ, South Africa, CES, Fourth Corner Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Business to business credit,exchange: WIR Bank (Switzerland), GETS </li></ul><ul><li>Timebanks: Time Banks USA and open source time exchanges, Fureai Kippu (Japanese elder care time exchange) </li></ul><ul><li>Paper currencies: Ithaca Hours, Berkshares, Cheimgauer, Wara, Red de Trueque, Community Way, Humboldt Exchange, many more </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic currencies: Banco PalmasCard, Sonoma Go Local, Bernal Bucks </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards currencies: Sonoma Go Local </li></ul><ul><li>Business scrips: Comfort Dollars, Deli Dollars, farmers market currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrids: Tlaloc </li></ul><ul><li>Reputation currencies: Couchsurfing, Friendly Favors </li></ul>
    16. 16. Basis of Issuance and Backing <ul><li>Backed by a person’s commitment to volunteer,spend time either in the future or hours already earned </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by a business’ or individual’s promise to allow redemption for goods or services or a discount for them, including excess business capacity (e.g. unsold goods and services, slow times) </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by a community loan which will eventually be repaid (especially good for import replacement) </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by a grant to an organization to provide some common good to the community, value can then converted into the value provided to the community (e.g. renewable energy kilowatts or veggie shares) </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by US dollars in a bank or at a business </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by a commodity- gold, silver, food security, a commodity basket </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by fiat from an issuing authority, similar to Federal Reserve </li></ul>
    17. 17. Mutual Credit Systems <ul><li>Each individual member, organization or business can create their own credit by providing a good or service. The receiver is debited their account and the giver is credited to their account so the system is always in balance. This creates significant abundance of transactions outside what is possible with scarce national currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Many kinds of mutual credit systems exist for business to business trading (WIR Bank), trading mostly between individuals (Timebanks), and trading between multiple kinds of entities (LETS). </li></ul>Name Previous amount Change Current amount Andy +10 -25 -15 Betty +5 0 +5 Charly -15 +25 +10 Total 0 0 0
    18. 18. LETS (Local Employment Trading Systems) <ul><li>Started in 1982 by Michael Linton in Canada, then thousands spread into other countries (UK, Australia, NZ, continental Europe, South Africa etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual credit system where members exchange goods and,or services and pay in LETS points usually in rough equivalence to dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for transactions between individuals in small communities or conglomerations of multiple districts in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Helps create community connections and meaningful, self-determined employment, as well as economic relocalization </li></ul><ul><li>Vary in their ability to provide broad scope of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>More abundant than dollars as they are mostly limited by time and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly online now, but used to be done with paper ledger </li></ul><ul><li>In low tech areas, ease of use is barrier to participation </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses reluctant to participate because of trust in value of currency and ease of use </li></ul>
    19. 19. Timebanks <ul><li>Timebanks USA started by lawyer Edgar Cahn as a means to promote social justice, public engagement, full “employment” and facilitate community building </li></ul><ul><li>Over 120 official timebanks and open source time exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Pool community resources, members help each other by giving service and receiving online credit which can be used to receive services from anyone on the system </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of account is the hour and everyone’s hour is equal. This abolishes privilege and prejudice and gives a fair “wage” so that everyone can afford what they need. </li></ul><ul><li>Timebanks are considered tax exempt as they are considered volunteering, as long as there is no contractual agreement and everyone’s hour is equal, so people of all ages, employment status, and people on government assistance can use it. </li></ul><ul><li>Goods may be included as long as they are priced by the hours worked and not equivalent to market value. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation with other businesses, government agencies and nonprofits through the co-production model </li></ul><ul><li>Have been limited in their ability to provide goods, but may be addressed by hybrid approach with scrip, cards or phones </li></ul><ul><li>www.timebanks .org and www.opensourcecurrency.org </li></ul>
    20. 20. Business to Business Credit/Bartering <ul><li>Businesses trade goods and services as credits in national or alternative currency units or both </li></ul><ul><li>Items offered on the system are usually based on “excess business capacity” – the capacity for a business to produce, which is often under or unsold (e.g. unsold movie seats). </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses may be extended low or no interest credit to start-up, expand, improve or maintain during difficult times based on reputation, capacity, past performance, collateral or other assurances. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit lines may extend based on successful payback. </li></ul><ul><li>If the sum of credits is zero or negative, there is usually no tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses may sell credits to customers and vice-versa as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: WIR Bank of Switzerland, GETS Plus </li></ul>
    21. 21. WIR Bank, Switzerland <ul><li>A B2B mutual credit system since 1934 in Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Small and medium sized businesses receive loans in WIR instead of CHF </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates for loans in WIR are lower than those in CHF </li></ul><ul><li>WIR is only accepted by Swiss SMEs , retaining the purchasing power within their own business circle (not out into multinationals or into neighboring countries) </li></ul><ul><li>WIR Bank is a cooperative: member companies control WIR Bank through democratic decision-making processes </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1.65 billion CHF traded in 2004, over 70k member businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of businesses kept alive through recessions </li></ul><ul><li>Backed by collateral (usually members’ property) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Scrips (Paper Currencies) <ul><li>Cash-like currency backed by a commodity, debt, national currency or trust in community and issuing agency </li></ul><ul><li>100’s in US during Depression, 1000’s before Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Convenient for certain types of businesses, small transactions by independent producers, and low tech environments </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive to produce durable, noncounterfeitable scrip </li></ul><ul><li>Costs time to make sure issuance is not over or under what is needed for maintaining value, as well as facilitating circulation in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Often now combined with plastic cards for ease of use, low overhead, and better tracking of circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Counterfeiting is usually not a problem on small scale </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide anonymity that may be desired by certain populations (immigrants, the unbanked, tax resisters) </li></ul><ul><li>Not real alternative currency unless there are other ways to earn in addition to exchange with national currency </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Chiemgauer, Berkshares, Ithaca Hours, Banco Palmas, Red de Trueque, Wara, Community Way </li></ul>
    23. 23. Red de Trueque, Argentina
    24. 24. Red de Trueque, Argentina <ul><li>The largest complementary currency system in the world </li></ul><ul><li>A barter club in the suburb of Buenos Aires in May 1995 with 23 members grew into a huge national network of thousands of clubs when the 2001 economic crash hit </li></ul><ul><li>6 million people (1 out of 6 Argentineans at that period) made ends meet during the economic crisis starting in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>The mismanagement, corruption and counterfeiting of the currency led to a severe inflation and most people left it40,000 to 50,000 still go on exchanging </li></ul><ul><li>Some initiatives to revive this movement </li></ul>
    25. 25. Banco Palmas, Brazil
    26. 26. Banco Palmas, Brazil <ul><li>A community bank started by STRO Foundation and Joaquim Melo in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil since 1998 issuing credit cards, home loans, consumer loans, grants and paper currency as microcredit, through purchase or directly earned through work </li></ul><ul><li>Banks are opened with an initial donation in Reales with an equivalent amount created in Palmas </li></ul><ul><li>For a fee of 1%, amounts in local currency can be swapped with the national currency (ratio 2:1) </li></ul><ul><li>The bank offers credits in the local currency (interest-free) and in Brazil's national currency (interest rate 2%) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest rates on microcredits are much lower than Reales (Brazil’s currency), enabling people with limited income to start up their own business </li></ul><ul><li>Scrip and plastic card issued in equivalence to Brazilian Real </li></ul><ul><li>Managed by neighborhood association, community members </li></ul><ul><li>Has created 1200 jobs and many public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>Some people live entirely off Palmas rather than Reales </li></ul><ul><li>Over 50 similar initiatives in Brazil and a few in other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by the Central Bank of Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Along with Red de Trueque, most successful in helping poor </li></ul>
    27. 27. Chiemgauer, Germany
    28. 28. Chiemgauer, Germany <ul><li>Network of 30 REGIO (regional currencies) projects throughout Germany started by high-school students with their professor in Jan 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>1300 individual and 600 business members , 5 district offices and 50 issuers </li></ul><ul><li>Goal is to improve local purchasing power and bind currency to local district, thereby increasing flow and reducing leakage of wealth, and reduce emissions from transport </li></ul><ul><li>€ -backed paper and card keeps wealth within the region that already has strong local economy and can create good circulation loops </li></ul><ul><li>~C560,000 (=€560,000) in circulation, increasing local businesses’ turnover (about 4 million Chiemgauer/year), C100,000 bought/month, 70% spent again and not immediately redeemed for =€ </li></ul><ul><li>Chiemgauer office sells C100 at 97 euro to other non-profits.Local non-profits sell C100 at 100 euro to their members, earning 3 euro to be spent for own activities </li></ul><ul><li>Local businesses spend C100 to other local businesses or redeem 95 Euro, and the difference of 2 euro will be spent to cover the administrative cost of Chiemgauer office, 3% to nonprofits </li></ul><ul><li>Demurrage (negative interest) incorporated- 2%,quarter, 8%,year, stamp purchase to validate </li></ul><ul><li>Kits for provided for business accounting </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitates import replacement- local apple growing increasing to fulfill supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>Limited by ability to purchase Chiemgauers with Euros </li></ul>
    29. 29. Wara , Austria
    30. 30. Wara , Austria <ul><li>Issued by the mayor of Woergl in July 1932, during the Great Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized demurrage fee or negative interest </li></ul><ul><li>Quick circulation reactivated local trades and people even tried to pay their tax in advance </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced unemployment by 30% in one year </li></ul><ul><li>Helped produce all kinds of needed public works projects </li></ul><ul><li>So successful economically that the Austrian Central Bank, fearing to lose its grip over its national currency, stopped it in Sep 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar cases occurred in the past (up to 1950s) in Germany and France, stopped by the central governments </li></ul>
    31. 31. Berkshares, Massachusetts
    32. 32. Berkshares, Massachusetts    <ul><li>Started in 2006 in Berkshire region by EF Schumacher Society </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange rate is ninety-five cents per BerkShare.  Ninety-five federal dollars will yield one hundred BerkShares </li></ul><ul><li>Federal dollars remain on deposit at the BerkShare Exchange Banks to redeem excess BerkShares at a five percent discount. </li></ul><ul><li>100 BerkShares would be exchanged for ninety–five $USD </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprofits can purchase Berkshares at 5% discount and sell to membership,donors at 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Go into circulation through purchasing at bank or business. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 400 businesses and 5 banks (15 branches) involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently over 2 million Berkshares in circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually plan to delink from US dollar and expand to rest of region </li></ul><ul><li>Good for easy to adopt, business friendly, transitional strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to get businesses to spend Berkshares on supplies rather than converting back to $USD </li></ul>
    33. 33. Ithaca Hours, NY
    34. 34. Ithaca Hours, NY <ul><li>Started in 1991 in by Paul Glover </li></ul><ul><li>Over 900 businesses, thousands of individuals accept HOURS </li></ul><ul><li>Over $120k worth of hours issued, estimated trade facilitation in the millions. </li></ul><ul><li>Issued by fiat of Ithaca Hours Circulating Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Unit of account is HOUR, equivalent to living wage of $10, all hours are not necessarily equal </li></ul><ul><li>New HOUR notes are issued as disbursements to those who pay for a listing in the directory or renew membership, loans to participants,small business at no interest, as small grants to community organizations and a limited number issued to help cover basic system expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Some local business employees paid partially in hours </li></ul><ul><li>Local public transit authority accepts hours for bus fare </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals like the idea of calculating a fair wage in hours </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses especially have difficulty accounting in hours, even though tied to $10 living wage </li></ul>
    35. 35. Community Way
    36. 36. Community Way <ul><li>Businesses donate community way dollars (cw$), not cash or products, to schools, organizations, and projects of their choice, undertaking to accept community way dollars (cw$) in part payment (usually between 15% and 50%) of a sale. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations spend the cw$ at participating businesses, increase staff wages and pay for unpaid overtime, reward volunteers, and hire local contractors </li></ul><ul><li>People fund the nonprofits and projects they want to support by exchanging normal money for cw$, which they then spend in any of the participating shops, restaurants, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses then spend the earned (redeemed) cw$ with other participating businesses, pay staff bonuses, hire local contractors, and so on. They get tax credits on donations, and they collect taxes on the whole amount of the sale, just like normal money. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple and cash free way to increase sales, strengthen the local economy, and secure customer recognition and loyalty. Since the cw$ are as good as cash at participating businesses, people can help without losing purchasing power, and by shopping locally, they vote for the community they want. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Community Project/Specific Use Currencies
    38. 38. Community Project/Specific Use Currencies <ul><li>Can be used to create sustainable enterprises and community projects like urban food production and renewable energy projects or to reward positive activities like ridesharing </li></ul><ul><li>Money and time invested in project is rewarded with community currency (e.g. veggie shares, kilowatt hours), which can then be redeemed for food or energy in the future or at partnering enterprises already established </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid of CSA model and Deli Dollars </li></ul><ul><li>Advantage of specific cherished cause to attach to as motivator </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge to use unless expanded to other goods and services as a general use currency </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Bay Area, CA and Montpelier, VT food currency projects in design process, recycling/composting tokens in Curitiba, Brazil </li></ul>
    39. 39. Business Scrips Deli Dollars, 1989
    40. 40. Business Scrips <ul><li>Businesses need money for financing start-up or expansion or temporary survival loan. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful when business can’t qualify for bank loan or doesn’t want to pay interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Business issues its own scrip in exchange for $USD, usually in set total amount and with expiration and,or beginning date. </li></ul><ul><li>Customers redeem goods or services from business in the future usually for a discount or reward using company scrip or currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to pay employees, volunteers, or suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Would be useful for expanding individual businesses or networks of businesses with social, environmental mission and worker cooperatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Very easy to implement. </li></ul><ul><li>Good publicity for business. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be start of general use local currency. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be careful of securities laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Deli Dollars, Comfort Dollars, ~Detroit Cheers </li></ul>
    41. 41. Rewards/Loyalty Currencies <ul><li>Provide rewards to members to shop at participating businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards may be points redeemable for discount or additional goods/services. </li></ul><ul><li>These points may become a true community currency at some point. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards can be transferred to nonprofits. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy for businesses to adopt. May get complicated for consumers to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Forms- cards, vouchers, online accounts, money tags </li></ul><ul><li>Examples- frequent flyer miles, Sonoma Go Local, Bernal Bucks </li></ul>
    42. 42. Legal Considerations <ul><li>Complementary currencies are legal within certain parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Must not be easily confused with $USD </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to calculate a conversion to $USD for tax purposes if taxable </li></ul><ul><li>Standard employment and sales tax laws may apply, as they apply to cash and electronic account transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Systems may be required to provide tax reports to users and to IRS (esp. business to business systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Time banks received tax exemption status- considered nontaxable volunteering system </li></ul><ul><li>No denomination at a fraction of $USD (e.g. 25 cents) </li></ul><ul><li>Metal coins are legal grey area </li></ul><ul><li>If they become too big, the federal government may tighten laws to restrict their use </li></ul><ul><li>Securities laws may apply to some business scrips </li></ul><ul><li>Employees can not be forced to accept alternative currency </li></ul><ul><li>See “Rethinking Our Centralized Monetary System”, as well as Katovich Law in Oakland (Jenny Kassan) and Janelle Orsi in Berkeley </li></ul>
    43. 43. Questions in Designing a Currency <ul><li>What are your complementary currency’s goals? </li></ul><ul><li>What are unmet needs in your community, region? </li></ul><ul><li>What unused resources are available? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be the most interested in complementary currencies? </li></ul><ul><li>Who would it serve? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be the members of the start-up project team? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it be managed by a coalition of different sectors or just one sector? Businesses, local governments, nonprofits? </li></ul><ul><li>What means will you use? Commodities, bills, coins, checks, electronic accounts, cell phones, hybrid </li></ul><ul><li>What is the unit of your currency? $USD equivalent, goods (e.g. pound of corn, kilowatt), hours </li></ul><ul><li>How will the complementary currency be issued? In exchange for $USD, giveaway to all members , exchange for goods, fiat issuing authority, time worked </li></ul><ul><li>How will the project be funded? Subsidy (grant, donation), membership fee, transaction fee, interest on loan, demurrage, conversion fee, pool of business donations, crowdfunding </li></ul>
    44. 44. Currency Design (edited by Luna from Community Currency Guide by Lietaer and Hallsmith) <ul><li>Set Currency Objectives: Do an assessment of your community where you identify the priorities for matching unmet needs with underutilized resources – this will determine the objective of the complementary currency project you want to implement. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the Appropriate Currency: Review the different types of complementary currencies that are available, and choose the type or types that suit your needs best. Info available at www.sfbace.org </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Leadership and Good Governance: Build support for the community currency system, which means finding a group of skilled, responsible people who can help with the different aspects of the project and representation from different sectors of participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the Right Mechanisms: Establish a system for managing transactions in your community, which includes considerations of the support medium, standard of value, store of value, issuing procedures, and cost recovery. This system can take many forms, depending on the local resources available, the scale of the project, the type of participants, and the type of currency you select. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a Circulation System: Carefully design the exchange process and circulation system so that the money keeps moving throughout the community and doesn’t stagnate or pool discourage participants. Draw a circulation map, fill in the gaps. Demurrage (negative interest) speed circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Design a sustainable funding mechanism: Through transaction fees, membership or other means in national or local currency. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Currency Design Features : Standard of Value (graphs edited by Luna from John Rogers’ Community Currency Design Manual) E.g. for actual backing with food security or for value reference A pound, kilo of food Unit of Account COMMENTS Tied to the national currency Familiar reference point but tied to inflation/deflation, if backed by national currency then still scarce An hour of time Can be used as fixed or flexible standard ,difficult for businesses to use, low confidence in backing, good for services, difficult for goods A kilowatt hour of energy Useful for currencies designed to maximize energy saving and use of renewables A mile of travel E.g. Air Miles or could be used for car sharing A square meter per year E.g. basis for Community Land Trust
    46. 46. Currency Design Features: Issuance FEATURE CHOICES FEATURE SUB-CHOICES COMMENTS Mutual credit (issued by users) Amount of currency issued by service receivers always exactly matched to service given, can lead to stagnation, poor ease of use, confidence low unless strong rules and/or collateral backing, good for commercial bartering and offering low/no interest credit, potentially create great abundance because credit is limited by capacity to produce rather than scarcely issued currency Fiat (issued by authority) Commodity backed (food, energy, etc) Creates confidence, limits abuse, issuance potential, inflation and economic rollercoaster, may still be scarce Borrowing with legal collateral May be appropriate to large scale commercial CC only, increases trust in system and significant business participation Borrowing without collateral CC loans issued when credit worthiness or trust established Purchased and redeemable scrip CC purchased with national currency, circulating as CC, then redeemable for national currency, high level of trust because of national currency backing, limited usefulness if immediately converted back, good business participation Commercial scrip Non-redeemable for cash, redeemable for goods or services, may be given as incentives or purchased at discount Loyalty points Issued for loyalty to business, organization or community, easy to get businesses to participate, can be convertible to community currency, good for buy local campaigns
    47. 47. Currency Design Features: Medium of Exchange FEATURE CHOICES COMMENTS Scrip Useful to raise profile of CC, establish visible presence/propaganda/advertising, strengthen local identity, requires security features, costly to print, anonymous Coins High level of confidence, acceptance for precious metals, establish visible presence and strengthen local identity, significant legal issues Checks Helps keep track of spending and earning but requires administration, security issues, verification of account balance/payment enforcement Vouchers Useful for promotions, discounts but not for circulating CC Swipe cards Useful for automation and integration into business administration but requires investment in technical infrastructure, limit payment acceptance to established business, transaction fees 1-3%, anonymity may be an issue, allows easy tracking of circulation and analysis to improve system SMS messages Useful where other media are difficult to organize but requires access to cheap mobile phone network, many poor people now have cell phones, enables small producers to accept payment anywhere, high cost per transaction on most networks, not well developed systems Computer/Internet accounting Useful for automation, centralized record keeping and decentralized self-administration (eg through website), less accessible to low income, elderly, etc., limited by access to internet (many businesses do not have internet on site)
    48. 48. Addressing Challenges <ul><li>Business participation- simple unit of account (e.g. linked to $USD), easy to use medium (cards), provide access to credit (mutual credit clearing), accounting kits, reserve of $USD currency backing in bank, limit % or timing of acceptance for payment, facilitate integration of supply chain, use for wages/bonuses, business participation in design and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Community buy in- address community needs and goals; multi-stakeholder participation in design, planning and governance; link to reputable nonprofit, local business or local government; build up large directory before launch; transparency; sound design (e.g. few give-aways, no counterfeiting) </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation- self-balanced system (e.g. mutual credit), demurrage, tight management of issuance and flow, more constant unit (hour, commodity basket, etc.), not $USD </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation- facilitate exchange connections and import replacement </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness- public education about monetary system and functions and benefits of currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of administration- grants, member or transaction fees, pay in community currency, minimize administration, electronic forms </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological conflict- apolitical transformative, transitional approach, or create within like-minded community and demonstrate success </li></ul>
    49. 49. Key Points to Remember <ul><li>Try to involve key people/organizations/network from the community and from potential participant base early on to build confidence, enthusiasm and better design </li></ul><ul><li>Currency must have value- purchasing power, advertising/promotional value, ideological value, community-building, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be relatively easy to use as compared to conventional forms </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and reduce barriers to participation as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Meet unmet needs with underutilized resources </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate circulation loops- help people find places to spend currency and fill in gaps  </li></ul><ul><li>Different currencies systems and features address different goals and contexts better </li></ul><ul><li>You may eventually need a few different currencies to facilitate different exchanges, but start with one that addresses top goals </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency, good communication and participation are key </li></ul><ul><li>Purely volunteer run currencies rarely succeed- create partnerships with funded organizations, build in sustainability, reciprocity for work and resource contributions </li></ul>
    50. 50. Further Info <ul><li>“ The Future of Money” (Bernard Lietaer) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Local Money: how to make it happen in your community” and “Money and Liberation: the Micropolitics of Alternative Currency Movements” by Peter North </li></ul><ul><li>“ Money: Understanding and Creating Alternatives to Legal Tender” and “The End of Money and the Future of Civilization” (Thomas Greco) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Interest and Inflation-free Money” (Margrit Kennedy) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Life Inc.” (Douglas Rushkoff) </li></ul><ul><li>“ No More Throw-Away People: The Co-Production Imperative” (Edgar Cahn) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rethinking Our Centralized Monetary System: the Case for a System of Local Currencies” (Lewis D. Solomon) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Web of Debt” (Ellen Brown) </li></ul><ul><li>Films: “The Money Fix”, “Money as Debt” and “The Double Face of Money” </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sfbace.org in the Education section </li></ul>
    51. 51. Contact us: Mira Luna [email_address] Chris Lindstrom [email_address] Deneene Brockington [email_address] Miguel Hirota [email_address] John Rogers [email_address] Heloisa Primavera [email_address]

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