Macedonia 4000 years of Albanian continuance

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As shown above, the ancient written material, the archaeological findings, as well as mythological, ethnographical and linguistic material, they all testify to the fact that Macedonia was and is Albanian during 4000 years of her history. Web:http://www.albpelasgian.com/uncategorized/macedonia-4000-years-of-albanian-continuance.html- Η ΙΛΛΥΡΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΓΩΓΗ ΤΩΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ - MACEDONIA – 4000 YEARS OF ALBANIAN CONTINUANCE - Macedonia – Its Albanian Affiliation

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  • MACEDONIA – 4000 YEARS OF ALBANIAN CONTINUANCE
    Macedonia – Its Albanian Affiliation



    The writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors confirm implicitly the Illyrian identity of Ancient Macedonians: Pliny the Elder [IV, X, 33], Strabo [7, 7, 1; 7.7.8; 7, 11], Ptolemy [3, 12]. Based on this clear information, a large number of historians and linguists of the XIX-th and XX-th century uphold a hypothesis on Illyrian identity of Macedonians. We can mention here: Karl Otfrid Muller, William Smith, Charl Anthony, G. Finlay etc. Later on, other well known linguists that do support the thesis of an Illyrian essence in the Ancient Macedonians language are: G. Kazaroff, M. Rostovtzeff, M. Budimir, H. Baric (Miltiades Hatzopoulos: 1999).

    Even the greatest supporters of the hypothesis that the Macedonians were Greeks, do accept a strong influence of the Illyrian language into the Ancient Macedonian language. Paliga states: “It is therefore difficult to say whether the ancient Macedonians spoke an idiom closer to Thracian, Illyrian, Greek or a specific idiom.” ( Paglia cited in Fol 2002 : 219)

    Hammond (1989) accepts that when: “the Macedonians expanded, they overlaid and lived with peoples who spoke Illyrian, Paeonian, Thracian and Phrygian, and they certainly borrowed words from them which excited the authors of lexica and glossaries”. (Hammond 1989:13)

    To be fair, the debate on the characteristics of the Macedonian language is still unfinished, because there are: ‘theories varying from a basically Illyrian “creole” to a Greek-thracian-illyrian ‘pidgin’. (Anastasios-Phoivos Christidēs 2007)

    Archaeological data show an undisputable Illyrian presence in the Ancient Macedonia. Archaeological findings in Vergina (Aigai – an Illyrian foundation, i.e capital of Ancient Macedonia) show similarity as well as uniformity to the Glasinac Culture, which is a typical Illyrian culture. This is what Hammond (1976) says regarding this point:


    “The period of Illyrian control in the plain of Macedonia lasted from c. 800 to c. 650 B.C. The evidence has survived almost entirely in warrior-graves and women’s graves which were much less numerous. There were cremations sometimes in urns, as well as inhumations, large pithoi were used as coffins, e.g. at Vergina; and burials were grouped together, sometimes under a tumulus and sometimes not. New articles were bronze pendants of various kinds, bronze belt-plates, large bronze spectacle-fibulae, armlets of thin bronze wire and armlets of heavy bronze metal with incised decoration, and many bronze beads of various shapes. At Vergina, where the same cemetery was used for Illyrian chieftains, two new forms of bowl were evidently copied from wooden prototypes, such as are made by the Vlachs in modern times. New tumuli constructed for Illyrian chieftains contained many spearheads and spear-butts, sickle-shaped knives and heavy bracelets. The homeland of these new elements was in central Yugoslavia, and the typical site there was Glasinac, where the tumuli were numbered in thousands.
    In the cemetery at Vergina the period of greatest prosperity, c. 900-800 B.C., was followed by radical changes and a growing impoverishment. In some tumuli the partly cremated remains were placed in urns, and sickle shaped knives with whetstones and spears over two metres in length with iron head and iron butt accompanied some of the warriors. In Upper Macedonia the presence of lllyrian rulers was shown by burials with similar weapons and ornaments at Visoi and Petilep in Pelagoma; at Pateli in Eordaea, and at Vucedol near Skopje and by Titov Veles. Objects typical of them have been found in small numbers at Kozani and at sites in the middle Haliacmon valley. To the east of the Vardar they seem to have driven the Paeonians back towards the Strymon valley, and there are concentrations of Illyrian objects at Kumanovo and at Radanja near Stip. Large numbers of tumuli are reported in this area; some at least were made probably for Illyrian warriors. Other groups of Illyrians established themselves in the middle Strymon valley, where their name in Classical times was the Maedi; in the Kumli valley between Doiran and Serres; and in the vicinity of Amphipolis. There were penetrations also into northwest Bulgaria and even beyond the Danube in Rumania.
    The expansion of the Illyrian tribes had some effects also on northern and central Greece. At Vitsa in Zagori burials were made in shallow trenches, or in cist-graves roofed with branches on which stones were placed, or under a cairn of stones. The burials were close-packed; set in three layers, and very close to the settlement, and the cemetery was in use from just before 900 B.C. into the fifth century B.C. To judge from the objects buried with the dead this community had contacts with Barc, vergina, Vodhine, the Illyrians, and also southern Greece”.
    ( Hammond 1976: 154/155)
    Also, the ancient traditions show that prior to the Macedonian hegemony, the territories north of mount Olymp were called “Illyria”. This is what Herodotus (8.137) confirms:


    137. Now of this Alexander the seventh ancestor was that Perdiccas who first became despot of the Macedonians, and that in the manner which here follows:–From Argos there fled to the Illyrians three brothers of the descendents of Temenos, Gauanes, Aëropos, and Perdiccas; and passing over from the Illyrians into the upper parts of Macedonia they came to the city of Lebaia.

    137. τοῦ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου τούτου ἕβδομος γενέτωρ Περδίκκης ἐστὶ ὁ κτησάμενος τῶν Μακεδόνων τὴν τυραννίδα τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. ἐξ Ἄργεος ἔφυγον ἐς Ἰλλυριοὺς τῶν Τημένου ἀπογόνων τρεῖς ἀδελφεοί, Γαυάνης τε καὶ Ἀέροπος καὶ Περδίκκης, ἐκ δὲ Ἰλλυριῶν ὑπερβαλόντες ἐς τὴν ἄνω Μακεδονίην ἀπίκοντο ἐς Λεβαίην πόλιν.
    The latest archaeological findings do support this statement. Here, we can mention the table with inscriptions found a decade ago near the Greek-Macedonian border. This 2800 years old, white marble chronicle, chiselled in late Phoenician characters, unveils in archaic Greek language some important details concerning 8th c. BC Macedonian invasion in the Balkans.

    Prof.Doc. Ahmet Leitani at Beirut University in Lebanon has worked on the transcript, transliteration and translation of this inscription. According to his work the inscription reads:

    Περδίκας Αργαίο[υ] καρανίων ιδίοις Μακέσταις (Μακεδόνες) καθύπερθεν Ιλλυραίας αγχίμολος επ’ άκρα Βεδ[ύ]σσας Σαβάζω οφσιμέδοντι έρεχσεν. Μίδου επ’ αν αίαν κάσχεθε οθνείους Γρεκέστας επί σκευωρήμασι λεληδορημένους αυθ’ ανήρε σκυδμαίνων Βρύγας δε παλαίχθονας αλάσθαι τηλόθ’ είε αμφ’ αλλοθρόας. Εκτου το πάλλιστον άστυ Αιγάς προσγορεύσας εκάρπο. Κράντωρ δη Βρυγαίας γεραίτερος παλιντραπέλους άλαλκε πλην ζωγρημένων. Το δ’ ούν μαρμάρεον μνάματος χάριν Δρέδας Γορδίου Γρεκιστί έχσεσεν ες γραμάτεα λυγρά
    Citim:
    Ελληνικά

    Ο Περδίκας γυιός του Αργαίου επικεφαλής των Μακεστών (Μακεδόνων) μόλις έφθασε στην Ακρόπολη της Εδεσσας προερχόμενος από την άνω Ιλλυρία έκανε θυσία στον ύψιστο (Θεό) Σαβάζ(ι)ον. Στην συνέχεια αφού κυρίευσε την χώραν του Μίδα, τους ξένους Γκρεκούς εξόντωσε αμέσως οργισμένος επειδή βαρύνοντο με ραδιουργίες, ενώ τους γηγενείς Φρύγες άφησε να περιπλανώνται μακρυά, επειδή αυτοί οι δύο λαοί ήσαν ξενόγλωσσοι Από τότε ως γηραιός βασιλέας της Φρυγίας εκμεταλλευόταν την πανάρχαιη αυτή πόλη (Εδεσσα) αφού πρώτα την μετονόμασε σε Αιγαί εμπόδιζοντας τους φυγάδες να επιστρέψουν εκτός από αυτούς που συλλαμβάνοντο αιχμάλωτοι Την μαρμάρινη αυτή επιγραφή χάραξε σε Γκρεκική γλώσσα ο Δρέδας γυιός του Γορδίου σαν χρονικό θλιβερής ανάμνησης.
    Citim:
    English

    Perdikas son of Argeos leading his Makestes when approached to Vedissa (Edessa) citadel, headed down from upper Illyria, offered sacrifice to uppermost (god) Savazos. Afterwards when conquered entire Midas country, being outraged with foreign Greeks who were charged for intrigues, extincted them immediatelly while released indigenous Briges to wander away, because both these people spoke different languages. Since then being elder sovereign of Brigea enjoyed the profits of very ancient city renaming it to Aigai while kept reppeling fugitives to return with excemption of captives. This marble chronicle was chiseled in Greek language by Dredas son of Gordios, in memory of a sorrowful remembrance. (Bugarmak n.d.)
    Also, Strabon [7.5.1] states that:


    “What is now called Macedonia was in earlier times called Emathia. And it took its present name from Macedon, one of its early chieftains. And there was also a city Emathia close to the sea. Now a part of this country was taken and held by certain of the Epeirotes and the Illyrians, but most by the Bottiaei and the Thracians.”
    The most reasonable and logical explanation regarding the etymology of the name of the Ancient Macedonia is found in the language of Illyrians and Epirotes, who were the ethnic inhabitants of Ancient Macedonia. The very name of Macedonia, formerly known as ‘Emathia,’ derives in all probability from the Albanian word “E Madhia”, meaning “The Greatest”. (Larned et al 1922)

    The ties of kinship among the kindred peoples of Illyria, Molossia, and Macedonia were still more strengthened by the intermarriages between their dynasties, Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great, was a daughter of Molossia. Through the right of succession derived from the intermarriages, the same king sometimes happened to rule two or all three kingdoms. (Chekrezi 1919)

    The ancient myths as well, tell us that the Macedonians have had a close relationship with the Illyrians. In the Ethnika of Stephanus of Byzantium Atintan is the son of the Macedon (Μακεδών). At the same time, the ancient chronicles mention Atintians as an Illyrian tribe, located between Illyria, Epirus and Macedonia. Even during the Medieval times, the Byzantine writers refer to Albanians as Macedonians. Macedonian at that time marked someone who spoke Albanian. Until about the fifteenth century Albanians were not called Albanians but Illyrians, or even Macedonians. This means that the terms Macedonian, Illyrian and Albanian were interchangeable and were used to note the Medieval Albanian.

    At that time, even the educated Albanians were signing and declaring themselves as Macedonians. For instance, P. Bodganus (1685) described himself as ‘Macedo’ and the Italo-Albanian Nicola Chetta (1742-1802) described his people as ‘Macedoni’ (7.24). This is the reason why the propagandistic battles between the Slavs and the Greeks for the Macedonian identity are simply failed efforts to steal Macedonia territorially and historically.

    In a letter sent to the Prince of Taranto, George Kastriota Scanderbeg, the Albanian National Hero, reaffirms himself as a descendant of Alexander the Great and of Pirro of Epirus:


    “I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, a species of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part of Macedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far as India under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty. From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Why do your men run away in the faces of sheep? (illyrians n.d)
    As shown above, the ancient written material, the archaeological findings, as well as mythological, ethnographical and linguistic material, they all testify to the fact that Macedonia was and is Albanian during 4000 years of her history.

    Last but not least, let’s cite the words of Edith Durham (1917):

    ‘The Albanians are among the very oldest inhabitants of the Balkan peninsula.
    Classical authors give the names of very many tribes which dwelt in those lands when history
    dawns. The Greeks classed them as ‘barbarians’ and they spoke a non-Greek tongue.
    They were united in groups under native kings, and of these groups some of the most important
    were the Macedonians, the Illyrians, and the Epirotes. According to Strabo, all three spoke
    the same language. And it is from the Illyrians and the Epirotes that the Albanians of to-day
    descend. Modern Albanian, in all probability, derives from the language of Alexander the Great
    and King Pyrrhus‘. (Edith Durham 1917: 83)
    BIBLIOGRAPHY:

    1. Pliny the Elder ‘Natural History’
    2. Strabo ‘Geographica’
    3. Claudius Ptolemaeus ‘Geographia’
    4. Miltiades Hatzopoulos 1999 ‘The speech of the ancient Macedonians, in the light of recent epigraphic discoveries’ – VI International Symposion on Ancient Macedonia.
    5. Aleksandŭr Fol 2002 ‘Thrace and the Aegean’
    6. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond 1989 ‘The Macedonian State: origins, institutions, and history’
    7. Anastasios-Phoivos Christidēs 2007 ‘A history of ancient Greek: from the beginnings to late antiquity’
    8. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond 1976 ‘Migrations and invasions in Greece and adjacent areas’
    9. Herodotus ‘The Histories’
    10. Η ΙΛΛΥΡΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΓΩΓΗ ΤΩΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ THE ILLYRIAN ORIGIN OF ANCIENT MACEDONIANS:http://www.bulgarmak.org/albanian_origin.htm accessed on 25/05/10
    11. Josephus Nelson Larned, Augustus Hunt Shearer 1922 ‘The new Larned History for ready reference, reading and research Volume I’
    12. Constantin Anastasi Chekrezi 1919 ‘Albania past and present’
    13. ‘Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto’ http://www.illyrians.org/skletter2tar.htm accessed on 25/05/10
    14. M. Edith Durham 2005 ‘Albania and the Albanians: selected articles and letters 1903-1944′
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Macedonia 4000 years of Albanian continuance

  1. 1. Macedonia – Its Albanian Affiliation l (marjan.dodaj @ 2011/I) Affiliation MACEDONIA4000 YEARS OF ALBANIAN CONTINUANCE CONTINUANCE - 1 - (marjan.dodaj @ 2011/I)
  2. 2. MACEDONIA – 4000 YEARS OF ALBANIAN CONTINUANCEPosted by : ALBPelasgian ( http://www.albpelasgian.com/uncategorized/macedonia-4000-years-of-albanian-continuance.html )Macedonia – Its Albanian AffiliationWritten by: ALBPelasgianTranslated by: qiellikalter© ARBERIAONLINE – All rights reservedΗ ΙΛΛΥΡΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΓ ΓΗ Τ Ν ΑΡΧΑΙ Ν ΜΑΚΕ∆ΟΝ ΝThe writings of ancient Greek and Roman authors confirm implicitly the Illyrian identity ofAncient Macedonians: Pliny the Elder [IV, X, 33], Strabo [7, 7, 1; 7.7.8; 7, 11], Ptolemy [3,12]. Based on this clear information, a large number of historians and linguists of the XIX-thand XX-th century uphold a hypothesis on Illyrian identity of Macedonians. We can mentionhere: Karl Otfrid Muller, William Smith, Charl Anthony, G. Finlay etc. Later on, other wellknown linguists that do support the thesis of an Illyrian essence in the Ancient Macedonianslanguage are: G. Kazaroff, M. Rostovtzeff, M. Budimir, H. Baric (Miltiades Hatzopoulos: 1999).Even the greatest supporters of the hypothesis that the Macedonians were Greeks, do accept astrong influence of the Illyrian language into the Ancient Macedonian language. Paliga states:“It is therefore difficult to say whether the ancient Macedonians spoke an idiom closer toThracian, Illyrian, Greek or a specific idiom.” ( Paglia cited in Fol 2002 : 219) 1 of 8
  3. 3. Hammond (1989) accepts that when: “the Macedonians expanded, they overlaid and lived withpeoples who spoke Illyrian, Paeonian, Thracian and Phrygian, and they certainly borrowedwords from them which excited the authors of lexica and glossaries”. (Hammond 1989:13)To be fair, the debate on the characteristics of the Macedonian language is still unfinished,because there are: ‘theories varying from a basically Illyrian “creole” to a Greek-thracian-illyrian ‘pidgin’. (Anastasios-Phoivos Christidēs 2007)Archaeological data show an undisputable Illyrian presence in the Ancient Macedonia.Archaeological findings in Vergina (Aigai – an Illyrian foundation, i.e capital of AncientMacedonia) show similarity as well as uniformity to the Glasinac Culture, which is a typicalIllyrian culture. This is what Hammond (1976) says regarding this point:“The period of Illyrian control in the plain of Macedonia lasted from c. 800 to c. 650 B.C. Theevidence has survived almost entirely in warrior-graves and women’s graves which were muchless numerous. There were cremations sometimes in urns, as well as inhumations, large pithoiwere used as coffins, e.g. at Vergina; and burials were grouped together, sometimes under atumulus and sometimes not. New articles were bronze pendants of various kinds, bronze belt-plates, large bronze spectacle-fibulae, armlets of thin bronze wire and armlets of heavy bronzemetal with incised decoration, and many bronze beads of various shapes. At Vergina, where thesame cemetery was used for Illyrian chieftains, two new forms of bowl were evidently copiedfrom wooden prototypes, such as are made by the Vlachs in modern times. New tumuliconstructed for Illyrian chieftains contained many spearheads and spear-butts, sickle-shapedknives and heavy bracelets. The homeland of these new elements was in central Yugoslavia, andthe typical site there was Glasinac, where the tumuli were numbered in thousands.In the cemetery at Vergina the period of greatest prosperity, c. 900-800 B.C., was followed byradical changes and a growing impoverishment. In some tumuli the partly cremated remainswere placed in urns, and sickle shaped knives with whetstones and spears over two metres inlength with iron head and iron butt accompanied some of the warriors. In Upper Macedoniathe presence of lllyrian rulers was shown by burials with similar weapons and ornaments atVisoi and Petilep in Pelagoma; at Pateli in Eordaea, and at Vucedol near Skopje and by TitovVeles. Objects typical of them have been found in small numbers at Kozani and at sites in themiddle Haliacmon valley. To the east of the Vardar they seem to have driven the Paeoniansback towards the Strymon valley, and there are concentrations of Illyrian objects at Kumanovoand at Radanja near Stip. Large numbers of tumuli are reported in this area; some at leastwere made probably for Illyrian warriors. Other groups of Illyrians established themselves inthe middle Strymon valley, where their name in Classical times was the Maedi; in the Kumli 2 of 8
  4. 4. valley between Doiran and Serres; and in the vicinity of Amphipolis. There were penetrationsalso into northwest Bulgaria and even beyond the Danube in Rumania.The expansion of the Illyrian tribes had some effects also on northern and central Greece. AtVitsa in Zagori burials were made in shallow trenches, or in cist-graves roofed with brancheson which stones were placed, or under a cairn of stones. The burials were close-packed; set inthree layers, and very close to the settlement, and the cemetery was in use from just before 900B.C. into the fifth century B.C. To judge from the objects buried with the dead this communityhad contacts with Barc, vergina, Vodhine, the Illyrians, and also southern Greece”.( Hammond 1976: 154/155)Also, the ancient traditions show that prior to the Macedonian hegemony, the territories north ofmount Olymp were called “Illyria”. This is what Herodotus (8.137) confirms:Quote:137. Now of this Alexander the seventh ancestor was that Perdiccas who first became despot ofthe Macedonians, and that in the manner which here follows:–From Argos there fled to theIllyrians three brothers of the descendents of Temenos, Gauanes, Aëropos, and Perdiccas; andpassing over from the Illyrians into the upper parts of Macedonia they came to the city ofLebaia.Quote:137. τοῦ δὲ Ἀλεξάνδρου τούτου ἕβδοµος γενέτωρ Περδίκκης ἐστὶ ὁ κτησάµενος τῶνΜακεδόνων τὴν τυραννίδα τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. ἐξ Ἄργεος ἔφυγον ἐς Ἰλλυριοὺς τῶν Τηµένουἀπογόνων τρεῖς ἀδελφεοί, Γαυάνης τε καὶ Ἀέροπος καὶ Περδίκκης, ἐκ δὲ Ἰλλυριῶνὑπερβαλόντες ἐς τὴν ἄνω Μακεδονίην ἀπίκοντο ἐς Λεβαίην πόλιν. 3 of 8
  5. 5. The latest archaeological findings do support this statement. Here, we can mention the tablewith inscriptions found a decade ago near the Greek-Macedonian border. This 2800 years old,white marble chronicle, chiselled in late Phoenician characters, unveils in archaic Greeklanguage some important details concerning 8th c. BC Macedonian invasion in the Balkans.Prof.Doc. Ahmet Leitani at Beirut University in Lebanon has worked on the transcript,transliteration and translation of this inscription. According to his work the inscription reads:Quote:Περδίκας Αργαίο[υ] καρανίων ιδίοις Μακέσταις (Μακεδόνες) καθύπερθεν Ιλλυραίαςαγχίµολος επ’ άκρα Βεδ[ύ]σσας Σαβάζω οφσιµέδοντι έρεχσεν. Μίδου επ’ αν αίαν κάσχεθεοθνείους Γρεκέστας επί σκευωρήµασι λεληδορηµένους αυθ’ ανήρε σκυδµαίνων Βρύγας δεπαλαίχθονας αλάσθαι τηλόθ’ είε αµφ’ αλλοθρόας. Εκτου το πάλλιστον άστυ Αιγάςπροσγορεύσας εκάρπο. Κράντωρ δη Βρυγαίας γεραίτερος παλιντραπέλους άλαλκε πληνζωγρηµένων. Το δ’ ούν µαρµάρεον µνάµατος χάριν ∆ρέδας Γορδίου Γρεκιστί έχσεσεν εςγραµάτεα λυγράQuote:ΕλληνικάΟ Περδίκας γυιός του Αργαίου επικεφαλής των Μακεστών (Μακεδόνων) µόλις έφθασε στηνΑκρόπολη της Εδεσσας προερχόµενος από την άνω Ιλλυρία έκανε θυσία στον ύψιστο (Θεό)Σαβάζ(ι)ον. Στην συνέχεια αφού κυρίευσε την χώραν του Μίδα, τους ξένους Γκρεκούςεξόντωσε αµέσως οργισµένος επειδή βαρύνοντο µε ραδιουργίες, ενώ τους γηγενείς Φρύγεςάφησε να περιπλανώνται µακρυά, επειδή αυτοί οι δύο λαοί ήσαν ξενόγλωσσοι Από τότε ωςγηραιός βασιλέας της Φρυγίας εκµεταλλευόταν την πανάρχαιη αυτή πόλη (Εδεσσα) αφού 4 of 8
  6. 6. πρώτα την µετονόµασε σε Αιγαί εµπόδιζοντας τους φυγάδες να επιστρέψουν εκτός από αυτούςπου συλλαµβάνοντο αιχµάλωτοι Την µαρµάρινη αυτή επιγραφή χάραξε σε Γκρεκική γλώσσα ο∆ρέδας γυιός του Γορδίου σαν χρονικό θλιβερής ανάµνησης.Quote:EnglishPerdikas son of Argeos leading his Makestes when approached to Vedissa (Edessa) citadel,headed down from upper Illyria, offered sacrifice to uppermost (god) Savazos. Afterwardswhen conquered entire Midas country, being outraged with foreign Greeks who were chargedfor intrigues, extincted them immediatelly while released indigenous Briges to wander away,because both these people spoke different languages. Since then being elder sovereign of Brigeaenjoyed the profits of very ancient city renaming it to Aigai while kept reppeling fugitives toreturn with excemption of captives. This marble chronicle was chiseled in Greek language byDredas son of Gordios, in memory of a sorrowful remembrance. (Bugarmak n.d.)Also, Strabon (7.5.1) states that: “What is now called Macedonia was in earlier times calledEmathia. And it took its present name from Macedon, one of its early chieftains. And there wasalso a city Emathia close to the sea. Now a part of this country was taken and held by certainof the Epeirotes and the Illyrians, but most by the Bottiaei and the Thracians.”The most reasonable and logical explanation regarding the etymology of the name of theAncient Macedonia is found in the language of Illyrians and Epirotes, who were the ethnicinhabitants of Ancient Macedonia. The very name of Macedonia, formerly known as‘Emathia,’ derives in all probability from the Albanian word “E Madhia”, meaning “TheGreatest”. (Larned et al 1922)The ties of kinship among the kindred peoples of Illyria, Molossia, and Macedonia were stillmore strengthened by the intermarriages between their dynasties, Olympias, the mother ofAlexander the Great, was a daughter of Molossia. Through the right of succession derived fromthe intermarriages, the same king sometimes happened to rule two or all three kingdoms.(Chekrezi 1919) 5 of 8
  7. 7. The ancient myths as well, tell us that the Macedonians have had a close relationship with theIllyrians. In the Ethnika of Stephanus of Byzantium Atintan is the son of the Macedon(Μακεδών). At the same time, the ancient chronicles mention Atintians as an Illyrian tribe,located between Illyria, Epirus and Macedonia. Even during the Medieval times, theByzantine writers refer to Albanians as Macedonians. Macedonian at that time markedsomeone who spoke Albanian. Until about the fifteenth century Albanians were not calledAlbanians but Illyrians, or even Macedonians. This means that the terms Macedonian, Illyrianand Albanian were interchangeable and were used to note the Medieval Albanian. 6 of 8
  8. 8. At that time, even the educated Albanians were signing and declaring themselves asMacedonians. For instance, P. Bodganus (1685) described himself as ‘Macedo’ and the Italo-Albanian Nicola Chetta (1742-1802) described his people as ‘Macedoni’ (7.24). This is thereason why the propagandistic battles between the Slavs and the Greeks for the Macedonianidentity are simply failed efforts to steal Macedonia territorially and historically.In a letter sent to the Prince of Taranto, George Kastriota Scanderbeg, the Albanian NationalHero, reaffirms himself as a descendant of Alexander the Great and of Pirro of Epirus:“I do not have to speak for the Epiroti. They are very much stronger men than your Tarantini, aspecies of wet men who are born only to fish. If you want to say that Albania is part ofMacedonia I would concede that a lot more of our ancestors were nobles who went as far asIndia under Alexander the Great and defeated all those peoples with incredible difficulty.From those men come these who you called sheep. But the nature of things is not changed. Whydo your men run away in the faces of sheep? (illyrians n.d)As shown above, the ancient written material, the archaeological findings, as well asmythological, ethnographical and linguistic material, they all testify to the fact that Macedoniawas and is Albanian during 4000 years of her history.Last but not least, let’s cite the words of Edith Durham (1917):‘The Albanians are among the very oldest inhabitants of the Balkan peninsula.Classical authors give the names of very many tribes which dwelt in those lands when historydawns. The Greeks classed them as ‘barbarians’ and they spoke a non-Greek tongue.They were united in groups under native kings, and of these groups some of the most importantwere the Macedonians, the Illyrians, and the Epirotes. According to Strabo, all three spokethe same language. And it is from the Illyrians and the Epirotes that the Albanians of to-daydescend. Modern Albanian, in all probability, derives from the language of Alexander theGreat and King Pyrrhus‘. (Edith Durham 1917: 83)BIBLIOGRAPHY:1. Pliny the Elder ‘Natural History’2. Strabo ‘Geographica’3. Claudius Ptolemaeus ‘Geographia’4. Miltiades Hatzopoulos 1999 ‘The speech of the ancient Macedonians, in the light of recentepigraphic discoveries’ – VI International Symposion on Ancient Macedonia.5. Aleksandŭr Fol 2002 ‘Thrace and the Aegean’6. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond 1989 ‘The Macedonian State: origins, institutions, 7 of 8
  9. 9. and history’7. Anastasios-Phoivos Christidēs 2007 ‘A history of ancient Greek: from the beginnings to lateantiquity’8. Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond 1976 ‘Migrations and invasions in Greece andadjacent areas’9. Herodotus ‘The Histories’10. Η ΙΛΛΥΡΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΓ ΓΗ Τ Ν ΑΡΧΑΙ Ν ΜΑΚΕ∆ΟΝ Ν THE ILLYRIAN ORIGINOF ANCIENT MACEDONIANS:http://www.bulgarmak.org/albanian_origin.htm accessed on25/05/1011. Josephus Nelson Larned, Augustus Hunt Shearer 1922 ‘The new Larned History for readyreference, reading and research Volume I’12. Constantin Anastasi Chekrezi 1919 ‘Albania past and present’13. ‘Letter from Skanderbeg to the Prince of Taranto’ http://www.illyrians.org/skletter2tar.htmaccessed on 25/05/1014. M. Edith Durham 2005 ‘Albania and the Albanians: selected articles and letters 1903-1944′VIDEO: Macedonia - 4000 years of Albanian continuance (Video that shocked both Greece &FYROM) watch?v=97NS-uZMohw ore http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97NS-uZMohw 8 of 8

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