An Introduction to Neurotransmitter System

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An Introduction to Neurotransmitter System

  1. 1. Madan Baral B. Pharmacy 3rd Semester Roll-8
  2. 2. • Identify neurotransmitters • Understand the physiology of neurotransmission • Classify neurotransmitters • Biosynthesis • Major neurotransmitter systems : simple anatomy and functions
  3. 3. • Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse.
  4. 4. • Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) discovered a 20 to 40 nm gap between neurons, known today as the synaptic cleft. • In 1921, German pharmacologist Otto Loewi (1873– 1961) confirmed that neurons can communicate by releasing chemicals. • Otto Loewi is accredited with discovering acetylcholine (Ach)-the first known neurotransmitter • However, some neurons communicate via electrical synapses
  5. 5. How do we identify if a compound is a neurotransmitter?
  6. 6. Chemical can be classified as a neurotransmitter if it meets the following conditions: 1.There are precursors or synthesis enzymes located in the presynaptic side of the synapse 2.It is available in sufficient quantity in the presynaptic neuron to affect the postsynaptic neuron. 3.There are postsynaptic receptors and the chemical is able to bind to them. 4.A biochemical mechanism for inactivation is present.
  7. 7. 1. Small Molecule transmitters  Mono Amines • Acetylcholine • Serotonin • Histamine Catecholamines • Dopamine • Norepinephrine • Epinephrine  Amino acids • Glutamate • Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) • Glycine 2. Large Molecule Transmitters Neuropeptides •Substance P and Other Tachykinins •Opoid Peptides 3. Other Chemical Transmitters • Cannabinoids • Gases (NO)
  8. 8. Neurotransmitter Source Site of Synthesis Acetylcholine Choline CNS, parasympathetic nerves Serotonin Tryptophan CNS, chromaffin cells of the gut, enteric cells GABA Glutamate CNS Histamine Histidine hypothalamus Epinephrine Tyrosine adrenal medulla, some CNS cells Norepinephrine Tyrosine CNS, sympathetic nerves Dopamine Tyrosine CNS Nitric oxide Arginine CNS, gastrointestinal tract
  9. 9. C.CATECHOLAIMNES
  10. 10. • Cholinergic • Dopaminergic • Noradrenergic • Serotonergic
  11. 11. Functions • In PNS – Induces skeletal muscle contraction • In CNS – Arousal and reward – Enhancement of sensory perceptions when we wake and in sustaining attention
  12. 12. Functions • Behavior and cognition • Voluntary movement • Motivation, punishment and reward • Mood, attention, working memory, and learning
  13. 13. Functions • Affects amygdala, where attention and responses are controlled • Increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores • Increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle • Increases the brain's oxygen supply
  14. 14. Functions • Mood • Cognition • Sleep • Memory Processing
  15. 15. • Schizophrenia • Parkinson’s Disease • Alzheimer’s Disease • Dementia • Bipolar Disorder • Depression • Sleep Disorder
  16. 16. • Neurotransmitters are the wonder chemicals of human body.
  17. 17. • URL1-http://en.wikipedia.org/Neurotransmitters • Barren et al. (2005), Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology (23rd Ed.), Elsevier, pp 223-297

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