1. SINIFICANCE OF EDUCATION IN PRESENT ERA
Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the
Latin ēducātiō (“A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō (“I educate, I train”)
which is related to the homonym ēdūcō (“I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect”)
from ē- (“from, out of”) and dūcō (“I lead, I conduct”). The education system in Pakistan
is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six
through eight); high(grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or
SSC); intermediate(grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School)
Certificateor HSC); and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate
degrees. The literacy rate ranges from 87% in Islamabadto 20% in the Kohlu District.
Between 2000—2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 30%,
those aged between 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 40%, those between 25–34 had a
literacy rate of 50%, and those aged 15–24 had a literacy rate of 60%. Literacy rates vary
regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 7.5%. Moreover, English is
fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis (11% of the population) having a
command over the English language, which makes it the 9th Largest English Speaking
Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. On top of that, Pakistan produces about
445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year. Despite
these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world.
AIM OF EDUCATION:
individual is not to be understood simply in the sense that cultural patterns and social
institutions 'influence' the individual. The interaction goes much deeper; the whole
personality of the average individual is moulded by the way people relate to each
other, and it is determined by the socioeconomic and political structure of society to
such an extent, that in principle, one can infer from the analysis of one individual the
totality of the social structure in which he lives."
PURPOSE OF EDUCATION:
"To culture the mind of a man so that he
can accomplish all his aims in life. Education, to justify itself, should enable a man to
use the full potential of his body, mind and spirit. It should also develop in him the
ability to make the best use of his personality, surroundings and circumstances so
that he may accomplish the maximum in life for himself and for others." (51) The
purpose of education would be met if the schools provided educational methods of
2. self-development by which the individual can "gain complete possession of of all his
powers." Broadly speakly, education has two goals which are mutually dependent:
cultivation and development of the individual and the improvement of society. But it
is individuals who make up the society. Therefore the society improves with the
improvement of the individuals who make it up".
Systems and purpose of schooling:
institutionalized teaching and learning in relation to a curriculum, which itself is
established according to a predetermined purpose of the schools in the system.
Schools systems were also based off of people's religion giving them a different
curriculum. Individual’s purposes for pursuing education can vary. However in early
age the focus is generally around developing basic Interpersonal communication and
literacy skills in order to further ability to learn more complex skills and subjects. After
acquiring these basic abilities education is commonly focused towards individuals
gaining necessary knowledge and skills to improve ability to create value and a
livelihood for themselves.
Curriculum: In formal education, a curriculum is the set of courses and their
content offered at a school or university. As an idea, curriculum stems from the Latin
word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through
which children grow to become mature adults. A curriculum is prescriptive, and is
based on a more general syllabus which merely specifies what topics must be
understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard. An academic
discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university–
or via some other such method. Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines
or branches, and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous.
Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences,
mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.
Educational institutions may incorporate fine arts as part of K-12 grade curriculums
or within majors at colleges and universities as electives. The various types of fine
arts are music, dance, and theatre.
The term preschool refers to a school for children
who are not old enough to attend kindergarten. It is a nursery school.
3. Preschool education is important because it can give a child the edge in a
competitive world and education climate. While children who do not receive
the fundamentals during their preschool years will be taught the alphabet,
counting, shapes and colors and designs when they begin their formal
education they will be behind the children who already possess that
Primary (or elementary) education consists of the
first 5–7 years of formal, structured education. In general, primary education
consists of six or eight years of schooling starting at the age of five or six,
although this varies between, and sometimes within, countries. Globally,
around 89% of primary-age children are enrolled in primary education, and
this proportion is rising. Under the ‘Education for All’ programs driven by
UNESCO, most countries have committed to achieving universal enrollment in
primary education by 2015, and in many countries, it is compulsory for
children to receive primary education. The division between primary and
secondary education is somewhat arbitrary, but it generally occurs at about
eleven or twelve years of age. Schools that provide primary education are
mostly referred to as primary schools. Primary schools in these countries are
often subdivided into infant schools and junior school.
In most contemporary educational systems
of the world, secondary education comprises the formal education that occurs
during adolescence. It is characterized by transition from the typically
compulsory, comprehensive primary education for minors, to the optional,
selective tertiary, "post-secondary", or "higher" education (e.g. university,
vocational school) for adults. The exact boundary between primary and
secondary education also varies from country to country and even within
them, but is generally around the seventh to the tenth year of schooling.
Secondary education occurs mainly during the teenage years. The purpose of
secondary education can be to give common knowledge, to prepare for higher
education or to train directly in a profession. In Europe, the grammar school or
academy existed from as early as the 16th century; public schools or fee-
4. paying schools, or charitable educational foundations have an even longer
Vocational education is a form of education
focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft. Vocational
education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as
institutions teaching courses such as carpentry, agriculture, engineering,
medicine, architecture & arts.
Alternative education, also known as non-
traditional education or educational alternative, is a broad term that may be
used to refer to all forms of education outside of traditional education (for all
age groups and levels of education). This may include not only forms of
education designed for students with special needs (ranging from teenage
pregnancy to intellectual disability), but also forms of education designed for a
general audience and employing alternative educational philosophies and
methods. These alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative
schools, independent schools, homeschooling and auto didacticism vary, but
often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between
students and teachers, and a sense of community. Alternative education may
also allow for independent learning and engaging class activities.
Special Education: In the past, those who were disabled were often
not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were often educated
by physicians or special tutors. These early physicians (people like Itard,
Seguin, Howe, and Gallaudet) set the foundation for special education today.
They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. Special
education was only provided to people with severe disabilities in its early
years, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced
Systems of higher education:
Higher education, also called tertiary,
third stage, or post secondary education, is the non-compulsory educational
level that follows the completion of a school providing a secondary education,
5. such as a high school or secondary school. Tertiary education is normally
taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate education, as well as
vocational education and training. Colleges and universities are the main
institutions that provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes
known as tertiary institutions. Tertiary education generally results in the
receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees. Higher education
generally involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree
qualification. In most developed countries a high proportion of the population
(up to 50%) now enter higher education at some time in their lives. Higher
education is therefore very important to national economies, both as a
significant industry in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated
personnel for the rest of the economy.
research and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate
level (sometimes referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or
postgraduate) level (sometimes referred to as graduate school). Universities
are generally composed of several colleges. Universities can be private and
independent, like Hamdard University, they can be public and State governed,
like the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education, or they can be
independent but State funded, like the University Of Karachi.
undergoing a transition towards open education; e-learning alone is currently
growing at 14x the rate of traditional learning. Open education is fast growing
to become the dominant form of education, for many reasons such as its
superior efficiency and results compared to traditionalist methods. Cost of
education has been an issue throughout history, and it a major political issue
in most countries today. Open education is generally significantly cheaper
than traditional campus based learning and in many cases even free. It has
been called the biggest change in the way we learn since the printing press.
Many people despite favourable studies on effectiveness may still desire to
choose traditional campus education for social and cultural reasons. There
has been a culture forming around distance learning for people who are
6. looking to enjoy the shared social aspects that many people value in
traditional on campus education that is not often directly offered from open
education. Examples of this are people in open education forming study
groups, meet ups and movements.
One of the most substantial uses in education is the use
of technology. Computers and mobile phones are used in developed countries both
to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning
such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students the
opportunity to choose what they are interested in learning. Technology offers
powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students,
including Multimedia, and provides new ways to engage students, such as Virtual
learning environments. Virtual manipulative are dynamic visual/ pictorial, which have
long been used to demonstrate and teach various mathematical concepts. Virtual
manipulative can be easily accessed on the Internet as stand-alone applets, allowing
for easy access and use in a variety of educational settings. The use of technologies
such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students
in the classroom. The use of computers and the Internet is in its infancy in
developing countries, if these are used at all, due to limited infrastructure and the
attendant high costs of access. Usually, various technologies are used in
combination rather than as the sole delivery mechanism. The Open University of the
United Kingdom (UKOU), established in 1969 as the first educational institution in
the world wholly dedicated to open and distance learning, still relies heavily on printbased materials supplemented by radio, television and, in recent years, online
programming. Similarly, the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan
combines the use of print, recorded audio and video, broadcast radio and television,
and audio conferencing technologies.
Adult learning, or adult education, is the practice of
training and developing skills in adults. It is also sometimes referred to as andragogy
(the art and science of helping adults learn). Adult education has become common in
many countries. It takes on many forms, ranging from formal class-based learning to
self-directed learning and e-learning. A number of career specific courses such as
veterinary assisting, medical billing and coding, real estate license, bookkeeping and
7. many more are now available to students through the Internet. With the boom of
information from availability of knowledge through means of internet and other
modern low cost information exchange mechanisms people are beginning to take an
attitude of Lifelong learning. To make knowledge and self improvement a life long
focus as opposed to the more traditional view that knowledge and in particular value
creating trade skills are to be learned just exclusively in youth.
There has been work on learning styles over the
last two decades. Howard Gardner identified individual talents or aptitudes in his
Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type
Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter focused on understanding how
people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the
way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of
David Kolb follows a similar but more simplified approach. It is currently fashionable
to divide education into different learning "modes". The learning modalities are
probably the most common:
Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.
Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of
teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students
have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.
Instruction is the facilitation of another's learning. Instructors in
primary and secondary institutions are often called teachers, and they direct the
education of students and might draw on many subjects like reading, writing,
mathematics, science and history. Instructors in post-secondary institutions might be
called teachers, instructors, or professors, depending on the type of institution; and
they primarily teach only their specific discipline. The quality of teachers is the single
most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score
highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the
teachers they employ are as effective as possible. With the passing of NCLB in the
8. United States (No Child Left Behind), teachers must be highly qualified. A popular
way to gauge teaching performance is to use student evaluations of teachers
(SETS), but these evaluations have been criticized for being counterproductive to
learning and inaccurate due to student bias.
Nowadays some kind of education is compulsory to all
people in most countries. Due to population growth and the proliferation of
compulsory education, UNESCO has calculated that in the next 30 years more
people will receive formal education than in all of human history thus far.
Philosophy: As an academic field, philosophy of education is "the
philosophical study of education and its problems...its central subject matter is
education, and its methods are those of philosophy" .For example, it might
study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms
revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits &
legitimization of education as an academic discipline, & the relation between
education theory & practice.
Psychology: Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn
in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the
psychology of teaching, and the
social psychology of schools as
organizations. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of
educational attainment in the general population and in sub-populations such
as gifted children and those with specific disabilities. Educational psychology
in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies,
development, organizational learning, special education and classroom
management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to
cognitive science and the learning sciences.
The sociology of education is the study of how social
institutions and forces affect educational processes and outcomes, and vice
versa. By many, education is understood to be a means of overcoming
handicaps, achieving greater equality and acquiring wealth and status for all
9. (Sargent 1994). Learners may be motivated by aspirations for progress and
betterment. Education is perceived as a place where children can develop
according to their unique needs and potentialities. The purpose of education
can be to develop every individual to their full potential.
Education in impoverished areas:
Technology has a role in allowing
access to education to people living in impoverished areas. There are charities which
work for getting internet access and laptops with pre-loaded information to these
areas. One example is the one laptop per child program that, as of 2011, has
distributed over 2.4 million laptops to people seeking better education. Along with
access to hardware, online universities are being used, in Africa & Pakistan.
Female Education: There was a time when very few women received proper
education. But now girls are receiving the highest education. Some people insist on
having educated girl as their wives. Others are strongly against this. Let us here
consider, in brief, the advantages and disadvantages of having an educated wife.
There are many advantages also of having an educated wife. Being educated, she
can manage her home more efficiently. She can look after the work of the servants.
She can maintain accounts. Thus, by keeping the family budget, she helps the family
in making the best of its income. She keeps her kitchen in hygienic condition. In
short, she is of definite help as a successful manager of the household.
An-educated girl understands her duties well. She proves a source of great comfort
to her husband in times of trouble. She can amuse and entertain her husband in
different ways. Thus she can keep his away from various vices. Besides this, as a
mother also an educated wife is very useful. She can teach many things to her
children. She can give them elementary education. She can keep them neat clean,
they become healthy. Thus, both the husband and the children are benefited. Ups
and downs come in life. If the husband is out of employment, his educated wife can
be a great help to him. The husband may be ill or he may meet with some accident.
In such emergencies an educated wife can get some job for herself. An unfortunate
10. widow, if she is educated, need not remain at the mercy of others. She can stand on
her legs. She can support herself and her children.
Education is becoming increasingly international.
The most represented case is the spread of mass schooling. Mass schooling has
implanted the fundamental concepts that everyone has a right to be educated
regardless of his/her cultural background and gender differences. The global campus
online, led by American universities, allows free access to class materials and
lecture files recorded during the actual classes. This facilitates the globalization of
SUMMARY: Education is essential for diverse purposes. First, why is
education important? It is the fundamental base which helps us understand our
rights, opportunities, and responsibilities in life. Education does not only gives us
more opportunities to get better jobs but also helps in developing ourselves as better
human beings. The government does not see educating our children as a priority. On
the contrary, the state is firing teachers that have dedicated their lives in giving their
best effort to providing their students with the best education possible. There have
been several budget cuts in education without taking into account that if we do not
provide our youth with resources they may not be as successful in the near future. If
these cuts in education continue, this country will go from being a world leader to a
country without leadership role in the world. From my experience, I have learned that
we must value education and must stay on top of it.
By: Shahid Ali Bangash