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  • 1. UGC-NET Guide 1900 This will help you to face UGC-NET exams in such a good manner. I have been took my time to prepare it. This sources can be available in the URL http://www.netugc.com/ Shanthakumara,T.N. M.L.I.Sc. Manasagangothri, University of Mysore
  • 2. Page2 Abstracting Periodicals According to Allen Kent “an abstract is a summary of a publication or articles accompanied by an adequate bibliographical description to enable the publication or article to be traced. H. M. Weisman defines “the abstract is an announcement medium whose objectives is to provide knowledge of and an ordered and logical access to new primary literature”. Thus, an abstract can be defined as an abbreviated, accurate representation of the significant content of a document consisting scope, purpose, method used, kinds of treatment results and findings, interpretation of the result by the author, argument, etc which is usually accompanied by an adequate bibliographical description to enable to trace the original document. An abstracting periodical is “a regularly issued compilation of concise summaries of i) Significant articles (often in a very limited subject field) that appear in current primary source journal and ii) of important new research monographs, reports, patent and other primary source publication in that field”. Example: Library and Information Science Abstract, London, Library Association, 1950-, Bimonthly. Indian Science Abstract, Delhi, Insdoc, Vol. 1-, 1965-. Besides the above sources, list of periodicals, list of theses, dissertations, location and finding list etc also serves as bibliographical sources. Academic Library Libraries in the educational institutions are concerned with the teaching and learning process experienced by specific communities. a) Definition: A library which is an integral part of a college, university, or other post-secondary educational institution (higher education), administered to meet the needs of its students, faculty, and staff for scholarly information and research services is the academic library. Large college or university libraries often have separate libraries within individual academic departments or schools which have a collection devoted to their subject or discipline such as chemistry, mathematics etc. i) College Library: The college library meets the legitimate needs and demand of all their users from senior teachers engaged in research to fresh students just entering. The library serves the reading, reference and research needs of the members of the college community. ii) University Library: According to Donald Davinson library is the “soul” of a university, the sun around which all teaching revolves. The Radhakrishnan Commission in its report hailed the library as the very “heart of a university”, the “workshop of the scholar” and “the laboratory of the learned”. b) Objectives: The general objectives of the academic libraries are:- i) To serve the curricular, cultural and general education requirement of the academic community;
  • 3. Page3 ii) To provide reference material at appropriate levels; iii) To provide study areas of users; iv) To provide a lending service appropriate to different types of users; v) To provide an active information service. These libraries are located on the campuses of colleges and universities and serve primarily the students and faculty of that institution and other academic institutions. Some academic libraries are also accessible to the general public in whole or in part, although borrowing privileges are often limited for users affiliated with the college or university only. i) College Library: The college library aims to help young students in proper understanding of various disciplines, in preparing them for advanced studies, and for shouldering the higher responsibilities in future life. It also helps the students in getting acquainted with the library practices such as consulting catalogues, bibliographies, indexes, locating books, and other materials, etc. ii) University Library: Its primary aim is to support the instructional and research programmes of the university and conservation of knowledge and ideas, teaching, research, publication, extension service and interpretation. The objective is to ultimately help produce leaders in the community in different fields of human activity- the inventors, discoverers and pioneers. c) Collections: The collections of academic libraries reflect the courses offered and research undertaken within the institution. In recent times most of the academic libraries tend to use new computers, telecommunications equipment for access to the Internet, and online databases, E- Journal etc. Also as in the age of information explosion no college or university library can procure all published documents therefore the academic libraries can form a network on cooperative basis that would enable them to share the scarce and little-used materials required for advanced research. i) College Library: The college libraries build up a balanced collection consisting of a wide variety of learning and teaching materials to satisfy varied curricular and extra-curricular activities of both students and teachers. The collections are selected and developed on the basis of educational philosophy and objectives of the institution, size and nature of the student body, size of the faculty and their needs for research materials. The collection includes text books and recommended books, books of advanced nature for teacher, a wide range of reference books, travelogues, biographies, learned periodicals. ii) University Library: The collection of the university library includes materials to meet the needs of post-graduate students as well as resources of sufficient breadth and depth to support serious scholarship in all areas. The collection, in fact, embraces a wide variety of subjects for learning, teaching, research and publishing. It provides a general collection, rare materials, newspapers and periodicals, government publications, special materials such as theses, dissertations, archives, clipping, visual and audio-visual materials, digital objects, and so on.
  • 4. Page4 d) Services: The academic library plays a central role in the academic work of students and faculty at colleges and universities and is often considered the most important resource of the institution of higher education. As students and faculty at colleges and universities may wish to conduct research within any conceivable academic discipline, the collections of academic libraries usually reflect a vast range of interests and formats. It has both a comprehensive collection to support formal or class room teaching as well as bears a representative collection of different research activities. Some of the universities maintain the largest libraries in the world. Because of the complexity, range, and diversity of formats and information in academic libraries, they frequently offer orientation, library tour programs to introduce incoming students and faculty to the institution’s library services. These programs are designed to teach new users the effective ways to make use of a variety of reference tools and library search mechanisms. Even in some parts of the United States, college accreditation agencies require institutions to offer library-sponsored courses on information retrieval and evaluation. i) College Library: The basic function of the college library is to assist its parent institution to carry out its programmes. It must serve the needs and requirements of teachers and students towards reading, study and research. Its educative function includes- providing materials to the college community, making materials easily accessible, arranging orientation programmes in the use of the library, providing bibliographical information to the faculty, arranging inter-library loan, and similar others. ii) University Library: The university libraries provide ready access to materials and facilities such as translation, typing, photocopying. In an effort to provide more efficient service the university library often participates in co-operative undertaking in networking, consortia, interlibrary lending, co- operative and centralized cataloguing and compilation of bibliographies. By accumulating and organizing materials, the library serves as an invaluable aid in the conservation of knowledge and as an active force in teaching, research and extension program4 | P a g e of the university. It also provides a variety of library documentation and information services necessary for the success of the formal programmes of instruction. It also participates in the interpretative function of the university through assistance to the faculty and research staff. Academic Status of a Librarian: Status means the social position or rank in relation to others and its relative importance. The status of the profession depends upon the rules that reflect the entry qualification for the new aspirants that want to join the profession, their future career prospects, the level of training needed, amount of experience required. After getting a job it also depends upon the position held in the administrative hierarchy of the institution, level of responsibility vested, amount of salary drawn, tenure, voting privileges within or outside the institution, vacation, sabbatical leave, sick leave, retirement benefit, social privilege and so on. At present in India the status of the librarian is somewhat confused and uncertain. However, some academic librarians in colleges and universities are considered as faculty, and they hold similar
  • 5. Page5 academic ranks as professors. The following points will throw some light on the overall position of the librarian as an academician in different academic institutions. a) Entry Qualification: At present the entry qualification for the post of librarian at college is on par with that of the lecturer i.e. Master degree with minimum of 55% marks in Library Studies, Library Science, Library and information Science and, in some cases, a Master's degree in another field, SLET/SET/NET and at university level, it is similar with that of the head of different departments. b) Rank in the Administrative Hierarchy: He works at the top level of administrative hierarchy, next to the principal and vice principal at college level and alone with the top administrator such as Vice Chancellor, Registrar, Controller of Examinations in the University level. In case of universities, the librarian is directly responsible to the vice chancellor of the university or in colleges to the principal. The librarian is also a member of a University’s Academic Council. c) Responsibilities: He/she acts as a boss or chief executive and is responsible for all the administrative functions of the library. He helps not only the students but also the teaching staff. Besides, he / she can be termed as the teacher of the self-education practice, who complements and supplements the classroom teaching. d) Salary and Grade: The salary and grade of a qualified librarian is at par with the teaching staff of the respective institution. In college, lecturer grade is given to the librarian, in Universities the grade of the librarian is equivalent to professors. e) Condition at Foreign Countries: In the United States and Canada, generally, the trend is to provide academic status to the librarians working in colleges and universities. In India, in Karnataka, the Karnataka Government passed a resolution for the librarian to be treated on par with a teacher on 21st July 2006. Of course this is due to the efforts of the Karnataka State College Librarians’ Association and fde credit goes to the Minister for Primary and Secondary Education Shri. Basavaraj Horatti and Shri D H. Shankarmurthy respectively. Further, each individual working in an organization wants a feeling of group belongingness, as the public librarian are group among government officer, the librarian in research laboratories are group among scientist so the academic librarian wants to grouped alone with the faculty member of the institution. So in conclusion if we count the academic and professional qualifications of librarian, they are same as that of teaching staff, so the status should also be the same. Accessioning Work: The accessioning work includes the following activities a) Receiving the Books and Bills: From the vendors books are received along with bills.
  • 6. Page6 b) Checking the Books: After receiving the books they should be checked for page missing, damaged binding, and for such other issues. c) Arranging the Bills and the Books in Parallel Sequence: The books should be arranged in the sequence in which these have been entered in the order placed to the vendor. d) Verification: Then the bill should be verified in regard to the order in terms of books received and the amount to be paid. The order slip with the bill and books should be submitted at the accession corner. If books are not received in time then reminder letters should be sent to the vendor. e) Accessioning: The accessioning involves the following activities- i) Entering details in the accession register: In the accessioning process, the details of the books are entered in the accession register. Documents are entered date-wise according to their receipt in the library. All purchased books are entered in the order of their bills. ii) Entering accession number in the document: Accession number is recorded at the back of title page and on the conventional clue place of the volume. iii) Certifying the bills: Accession number is also written against the respective item in the bill for purchased book. After entering all the items covered by one bill a certificate must be furnished on the bill which should be like the following. A rubber stamp for this purpose may be useful. Certified that all the books as per the bill have been duly entered in the accession register vide numbers from ------ to------- f) Transmitting Books: Then the books are sent to the technical department for classification and cataloguing (processing). At this step each book should also be provided with a process slip (7.5 cm X 12.5 cm) as well as earlier order slip. g) Transmitting Bills: Then bills are passed for payment. h) Books – In-Process: The cards belonging to them, after noting the date of accessioning and the accession numbers, are filed in a tray labelled as “Books – In-Process”. i) Accession Register: Accession register is the official stock record in the library about each document forming part of its collection; it is a bound register consisting of essential field in regards to a description of a reading material. This record gives a complete history of each book / periodical acquired by the library. The general practice in libraries is to have a single register in which all types of document whether purchased or received as gift or on exchange or as deposit is entered. But some libraries have the practice of using separate accession registers for gifts. When a book is withdrawn, then the corresponding accession slip is withdrawn or the note regarding withdrawal is given in the accession register. In case, a user loses a book, then with the help of details given in the accession register, the user may be asked either to make payment or to replace the copy. ii) Accession Number: Every volume added to the library receives a serial number in the order of acquisition to the library collection. This includes book purchased or received in exchange or as gift.
  • 7. Page7 This number is called accession number. Cumulated volumes of periodicals, which are to be bound and preserved in the library, are also accessioned. Administration Vs Management There are many factors according to which administration can be distinguished from management. These are as follows: i) Meaning: Administration: It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives, plans & policies. Management: Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. It puts into action the policies and plans laid down by the administration. ii) Nature: Administration: Administration is a decision-making function. Management: Management is an executing function. iii) Scope: Administration: It takes major decisions of an enterprise as a whole. Management: It takes decisions within the framework set by the administration. iv)Process: Administration: Administration decides what is to be done & when it is to be done. Management: Management decides who should as it & how should he dot it. v) Function: Administration: Planning and organizing functions are involved in it. Management: Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it. vi)Skills: Administration: It needs administrative rather than technical abilities. Administration handles the business aspects such as finance. Management: It requires technical activities. Management handles the employers. vii) Level: Administration: It is a top-level activity. Management: It is a middle level activity. viii) Influence: Administration: The administration is influenced by public opinion, govt. policies, religious organizations, customs etc. Management: The management decisions are influenced by the values, opinions, beliefs & decisions of the managers. ix) Status:Administration: Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested & profits in the form of dividend. Management: Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration (in the form of salaries & wages).
  • 8. Page8 Archives Archives: In general, archives consist of records which have been selected for permanent or long- term preservation on the ground of their enduring cultural, historical or evidentiary value. Archival records are normally unpublished and almost always unique, unlike books or magazines for which many identical copies exist. This means that archives (the places) are quite distinct from libraries with regard to their functions and organization, although archival collections can often be found within library buildings. a) Definition: The word “archive” is derived from the Greek “arkhē” meaning government or order (compare an-archy, mon-archy). The word originally developed from the Greek “arkheion” which refers to the home or dwelling of the Archon, in which important official state documents were filed and interpreted under the authority of the Archon. Since “archive”, as a noun or a verb, has acquired meanings related to computer science, Archivists tend to prefer the term “archives” (with an S) as the correct terminology to serve as both the singular and plural. A person who works in archives is called an archivist. The study and practice of organizing, preserving, and providing access to information and materials in archives is called archival science. b) Objectives i) Safe storage and preservation of the document in a climate control facility; ii) Classification and Cataloguing of the document; iii) Retrieval and safe handling of the document. c) Collections: It contains records (primary source documents) which have accumulated over the course of an individual or organization's lifetime. The collection refers to all historical records (not just documents and manuscripts but videos, disks, and other tangible forms as well) held and preserved by an institution. Archival materials are not published; these are always famous documents, or even necessarily old. The archives of an organization (such as a corporation or government) tend to contain records, such as administrative files, business records, memos, official correspondences and meeting minutes. The archives of an individual may include letters, papers, photographs, computer files, scrapbooks, financial records or diaries created or collected by the individual – regardless of media or format. d) Services: Professor and author Bruce Dearstyne identified the eight roles of the archivist- - The role of an agent to the past and the future. This means that archivists must always bear in mind its historical significance and its importance to posterity. - They must work in conjunction with related information fields. For example, many archivists work closely with librarians and records managers to determine the value of records and their place in the repository.
  • 9. Page9 - They act as organizers. This requires the archivists to manage, coordinate, and allocate resources in a manner that allows an easy access and use by staff and patrons. - Archivists should act as evaluators of program materials by continually assessing records. - They should assert control and order. This includes systematic filing and storing of items. - They ensure physical survival of records through security, storage, and disaster planning. - Archivists foster access to valuable records and so they must also encourage patrons and researchers to make use of their collections. They can do this through various promotional campaigns (articles or exhibits). - Archivists act as public relations coordinators for their repository. This means that they attempt to reach out to the community via conferences and presentations that demonstrate the importance and richness of their resources Areas of Computer Application in Library Areas of Computer Application in Library: A modern library cannot be imagined without the application of computers. In the library and information centres computers can be used for performing efficiently all sorts of jobs from the procurement of the reading materials to their organization and use. So, it can serve as a remedy for all the existing problems of libraries and information centres. But, till now computers have been used successfully in the following areas of library activities. A) Library House Keeping Operation: In case of library house keeping operation, the computer is used for acquisition of books and other reading materials, their classification, cataloguing, circulation and serial control. a) Acquisition: The selection of materials can be made by the computer. Any library which is a part of online computerized library system has access to catalogue entries and bibliographic data of all the libraries in the system. These databases can be used as a selection tools to purchase new documents for the particular library in question. Other offline databases can also be used as selection tools for non current documents and sometimes out of print books. For other documents, conventional book selection methods may be used. The MARC bibliographic record service has opened up a new vista in both cataloguing and bibliographic database that can be used as a book selection tool. The ordering and acquisition are the routine jobs in the library and for a single time ordering it requires repetitive operation by different sections. These repetitive operations and the requisite checking can very well be done by the application of the computer system. Both offline and online acquisition can be performed by the use of computers. b) Classification: A computer based classification system is being experimented at the Documentation Research and Training Centre, Bangalore. It is based on Colon Classification System. c) Cataloguing: The computerized cataloguing system operates with high speed for performing routine and repetitive jobs. Besides, in the cataloguing unit, computer can also be used in various
  • 10. Page10 other ways such as producing book plates, book pockets, book cards, spine labels, etc. It can also produce a variety of records, card catalogues in the book form, printed catalogue, etc. as byproducts. The following uses of computer in cataloguing have already been able to draw the attention of the librarians. The MARC project was started in November, 1965 by the Library of Congress, USA. The latest development in the system includes the CoMARC (Co-Operative Machine Readable Cataloguing). Computer Output Microfilm (COM) was developed in the USA by Stromberg Carlson Company. The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), previously known as the Ohio College Library Centre was started in August 1970. All these have successfully used computers for cataloguing of documents. d) Serial Control: Serials are continuing publication having reasonably permanent titles and appearing usually at regular intervals. Their contents usually vary from issue to issue. An article as a single bibliographic unit may be published in more than one issue and even in more than one volume. Obviously, the users may be interested in an issue of a serial as a bibliographic unit, or an article spread over a number of issues as a bibliographic unit. So, serial control comprises complex operations of library activities because of the vary nature and characteristics of Serial as library material. Again, the conflict between the physical unit and the bibliographic unit makes Serial control a complex task. In case of Serial, the current issues, the retrospective or immediate back issues and bound volumes under every year of publication is an ongoing process. In this case, the library should encounter the search problem because of the conflict between the title and the corporate body, the old titles and the changed titles, nature of irregularity in publication (more than one issue in a single publication and the like). These situations pose the problem of listing, acquisition, accessioning, cataloguing and creation of records in the desired format. e) Circulation: The circulation activities are the life-stream of the library services. The library documents are for use and are intended for the users. At various points, documents are to be trapped for the users who have recorded their priority in using such documents. The circulation is a flow of document, but the flow should be controlled by library operations so as to serve the users in the best possible way with the available materials in the library. B) Library Administrations: In case of library administration, the library automation helps in a) Providing Access Right to Staff Members b) Providing Access Right to Library Users c) Exception Reporting d) Generation of Library Statistics / Report C) Information Retrieval: Today, Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) or sometimes Web OPAC facility provided by the library and information centres helps in easy retrieval of information. Computers are also used for searching Library Database: eg. International Nuclear Information System.
  • 11. Page11 D) Building Digital / Virtual Libraries Collection: Computers can also be used to build digital or virtual collection or for institutional repository of the library. E) Resource Sharing: In order to facilitate the provision of material request on inter library loan basis, the use of computers and other latest telecommunication devices is being put to use in almost all the countries of the world. The Online Union catalogue is also a product of computer application in library. F) Library Network: INFLIBNET, Developing Library Network (DELNET) is the example of taking library automation as its first step or base structure. G) Information System: World Science Information System (UNISIST), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS), illustrate the advanced stage of library automation. H) User Services: The library automation also helps to provide Current Awareness Service (CAS), Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Services, Indexing and Abstracting Service, Web Based Translation Services, Computer Based Indexing and Abstracting Services, and so on. Conclusion: Today, the computers have entered each and every area of a library. The library automation is the application of modern technologies including the application of computer hardware and software, different storage medias, telecommunications, etc. which help the mechanization of any activity in the library. To implement the computer in the library, the selection of proper hardware and software forms an essential part. If proper software is selected, it will automatically generate or create OPAC which will replace the traditional card catalogue of the library. The feature-rich software will also have the provision of retrospective conversion. It will help the library to enter minimum of details about the document in their collection in the database of some other libraries and will help in getting the full bibliographic record of the document that can be embedded in the local database. Array and Chain 1. Introduction: The addition of a characteristic to a basic subject idea or an isolate idea leads to the addition of an array. The addition of an array implies the addition of a further division of a basic subject or an isolate idea as the case may be. Any isolate idea taken along with its succession of sub isolates is also an isolate idea. The succession of the isolate idea from the first to the last reached in this process is denoted by the term “chain of isolate idea”. A chain may similarly be formed in respect of basic subject idea. 2. Array: The series of co-ordinate subdivision which are obtained by dividing a class or a division according to a single characteristic. Each co-ordinate division in array should exclude all the others and the whole array should be exhaustive of the context of the class. The order of the division in an array should be that deemed most helpful to users. 3. Chain: The successions of division subordinate one to another expressing the relation. “A includes B which in turn includes C (or conversely c is a part of B which is a part of A) constitute a chain of or
  • 12. Page12 it may also be defined as a hierarchy of term each containing or including all which follow it in the same series. 4. Examples: Asia, India, Assam, Kamrup, Guwahati is a chain of isolate idea Basic Principles of Library Building Design Basic Principles of Library Building Design: Some of the basic principles of library building design are mentioned below- a) Functional Design: A library building should have functional design rather than a monumental one. There should be provision for documents, users, staff, and service areas. There should be areas for senior professional’s rooms, library staff, seminar room, binding section, reprographic section, digital library section with additional areas for acquisition section, technical section, reference section, reading room, room for stack book, circulation section, etc. b) Open Access: The availability of the number of library staff, the user demand and the type of collection are the deciding factors for a library to go for open access or closed access system. In a closed access library the users are prohibited to enter the library, they should write their demands in some slips. The building design for open access is also considered useful for closed access system. However, vice versa is not true. But, in both the closed and the open access systems, library property counter and some such a thing are a must, because the users are free to enter the reading room and the periodical section in both the cases. Both the systems require that the library building should have a single entrance and one exit point for keeping a proper control on incoming and outgoing users. The whole building should be accessible from the entrance to different parts of the building by means of simple and easy to understand plan requiring only a few directions or guides. Doors and windows should be protected by means of wire fabric to avoid any loss of books. c) Future Growth: A library building should be planned for at least next 20 years, keeping in view the rate of collection development, number of readers, technology enhancements, etc. The building should be extendable to allow for future growth with minimum of disruption. There should also be adequate provision for future expansion, both horizontally and vertically. d) Flexible: There should be the means of interchangeability of all major stack areas, service areas, reading room, and staff areas. The whole design should be such that if any change in library function takes place in future it will be possible to adjust the layout without carrying out major structural operations. There should be no interior load bearing walls but the building should be able to bear the stack load anywhere. e) Air-conditioning, Lighting and Noise: Uniform standards of lighting, heating, cooling, ventilation, noise prevention, communications, fumigation and flooring are necessary to meet the criteria of interchangeability. The natural light should come inside the whole building throughout the day time. Outside or background noises generally cannot be controlled except by double glazing which involves air conditioning. The inside noise of human voice, equipment and mechanical device, impact of footsteps, banging of doors should be reduced by using insulating materials and devices, use of
  • 13. Page13 acoustical material for walls and ceilings in corridors, reading rooms and work rooms. Use of proper floor coverings is also essential. f) Modular Design: A building on modular system is the one which is supported by columns placed at regular interval. The basic dimensions of library building should be in multiples or submultiples of some module/column. Even while only the columns are load bearing inside the building, outside walls may also bear the load. Columns, stairways, lifts, hearing facilities, plumbing and ducts are all fixed and everything else is movable. Thus, the modular system leads to flexibility. g) Economic: The design should be such that the operation of the library can be carried out with the minimum of staff and finance. The windows should be covered with net. h) Secure: The building should be free from dust, dirt, and cobwebs. To deal with other vermin the best remedy would be to have a rat proof building. The water may not enter the stack room either through ventilators and windows or due to leakage of roof. The stacking material should be fire proof. Sufficient number of fire extinguishers and fire buckets should be fixed at various strategic places in the building. The library building should also be designed to guard against some detrimental habits of the readers, visitors and outsiders. Bibliographic Control According to UNESCO / Library of Congress Survey, bibliographic control means “the mastery over written and published records which is provided by and for the purpose of bibliography”. Effective bibliographic control should be made at subject and national level. A) National Bibliographic Control: The national library ensures the bibliographic control of all the books or book-like documents published in that particular country. It has the provision of legal deposit by a host of different programs such as a cataloguing in publication service or similar mandatory practices. By cataloguing in publication service, the Library of Congress gives a complete catalogue entry of a book to any publisher who sends a final draft or some form of galley proof of a book currently in production. B) International Bibliographic Control: One of the main goals of a national library is fulfilling their nation's part of the common international goal of universal bibliographic control. The International bibliographic control is done by the exchanges and also by fostering the creation of standard conceptual tools such as library classification systems and cataloguing rules. The most commonly used of these tools is the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). It applies to books and periodicals, but also has variants for other book-like material such as the ISBD (ER) for Electronic Resources or digital documents or the ISBD (A) for Antiquarian documents. C) Conclusion: New ideas are generated in each and every branch of human activity from time to time. Apart from new ideas we give new interpretation to old ideas, at times we also borrow ideas from other discipline and try to apply them in a new content. As a result more and more information are produced in a variety of forms leading to information explosion. There is a need to keep track of this information explosion by way of bibliographic control.
  • 14. Page14 Bibliography 1. History of the Bibliography: the word “bibliography” originated in post classical Greek times. It has been derived from the Greek word “biblion” which means books and “graphein” is to write. So etymologically bibliography changed practically. Since 1763 from “writing of books” to “writing about books”. The term “bibliography” was first used by Louis Jacob de Saint Charles in his Bibliographia parisiana (1645-50) and Konrad Gesner regarded as the father of bibliography, he attempted to list of all scholarly publications in “bibliotheca universities” which appear in 1545. Great German bibliographer Ebert define bibliography as “the science that deals with literary production” Copinger define bibliography as “the grammar of literary investigation” C. W. Claps defined bibliography as “the systematic listing of the records of human communications”. The bibliography as defined by Louis Shores is a “list of written, printed or otherwise produced record of civilization, which may include books, serials, pictures, films, maps, records, manuscripts and any other media of communication”. According to Ranganathan the bibliography “is a list of document listed together for some purpose. The purpose is to bring to the attention of the reader an exhaustive or selective lis of document relevant to his pursuit of study or enquire”. ALA glossary of library and information science defined bibliography as “a list of works, documents or bibliographic items, usually with some relationship between them. E.g by a given author on a given subject or published in a given place and differing from a catalogue in that its contents are not restricted to the holding of a single libraries or group of libraries”. 2. Aims and Functions of Bibliography: Librarianship is a profession in which what is recorded by what so ever of librarianship is bibliographies. Bibliography generally serves the following functions: a) It is a guide to the literature of a subject: bibliography is actually an index compiled systematically on a subject, so it serves as a guide to the literature of the subject. b) Finding the existence: A bibliography enables one to find out what has already been written on his subject and allows him to keep himself well informed and up to date. This avoids duplication in research, saving him both time and money. c) Verification of bibliographic detail: Whenever we are to verify a title or collect information on any subject we are to consult a bibliography (subject bibliography). It also helps us to as certain bibliographical data about an author thus helping in the identification of a document. d) Location of material: A bibliography helps in locating the material or book in terms of place of publication, location in the library on point of purchase.
  • 15. Page15 e) Book selection: A bibliography by adding a note to each document being listed, indicate the value of the document to a given type of user. So it helps in books selection i. e. which book should be consulted for a given purpose. f) It preserves documents: bibliography by listing of documents preserve all books, good, bad and indifferent from oblivion. g) It provides list of prior records of civilization: bibliography provide information about the prior records of communication. Thus it is a vital aid to the study of history. 3. Types of Bibliography: Bibliographies are of the following types a) Analytical Bibliography: According to Roy B Stokes on analytical bibliography involves “investigation of the physical nature of the book which can be and frequently is sufficiently exhaustive to enable all the circumstances of the book manufacture and history to be revealed”. Analytical or critical bibliography therefore rests to a large extent upon imperfection in the production process and as such it has been defined as the physical examination of books. There would have been virtually no need of analytical bibliography if every step in the production process was perfectly accomplished and a perfect book produced in every care. But unfortunately such perfection has been a rare thing in the history of book production or has at latest happened in exceptional case. b) Descriptive Bibliography: Descriptive bibliography is the application of analytical bibliography to the external form of the book i.e it concern itself with the materials forms of books and not with their literary contexts. “its function is primarily that of recording the bibliography details of the book which has been established during the process of analytical bibliography.” In Descriptive bibliography the bibliograph details are kept to minimum because the basic purpose to listing. Descriptive bibliography aims to describe all variation from this ideal form. But due to standardization of books production the importance of descriptive bibliography has decreased greatly. c) Textual Bibliography: It is an application of analytical bibliography to the contexts of books. It is a bibliography applied to textual studies. The main purpose of such a bibliography is to determine the effect of writing or the printing process on the correctness or completeness of a text. It helps ascertain the variety of authorship edition etc. thus textual variation between a manuscript and the printed books or between various reprints or edition. So the textual bibliography is more interested in the author’s wards and tries to determine the exact words that the author intended should constitute his work. The aim is to prepare definite edition of the original author. We can say therefore the textual bibliography is an area which seems to be of great importance for literary critics rather than librarians or bibliographies. d) Historical Bibliography: The study of books “as object of art” may be termed a historical bibliography. It is concerned with art of writing, printing, illumination and binding. The historical bibliography makes an attempt to achieve a broad understanding of the milieu of the book in the
  • 16. Page16 context of the world of books, and social and cultural conditions in existence at the time because the significance of books is very great in every phase of civilization and of life. Historical bibliography has to content itself with the evolution of typefaces from its very early manuscripts origin. Then again the very material of which the book is compared paper as we know it, from its handmade stage to that of machine manufactured. e) Systematic Bibliography: systematic bibliography is nothing but the listing of books and other reading material according to some useful system of reference scheme. According to Arundell Esdaile “to assemble the resulting entries, simple or elaborate as the case may required into logical and useful arrangement for reference and study” is called systematic bibliography. Esdale in his “student’s manual of bibliography” has divided bibliography into two categories namely primary and secondary. a) Primary Bibliography: Primary bibliographies are those which are the original record of the whole or part of their content. i) General or Universal Bibliography: In general or universal bibliography, it attempts to include books published in every country and age and on all subject. It is a survey of all records of civilization in all fields of knowledge for whatever the time, place, language, subject or author. It does not matter. In fact there is no universal bibliography as such but the publish catalogue of great libraries of the world can be stated to be the nearest approaches to this type of bibliography. Eg. Library of Congress Catalogue of Books., British Museum General Catalogue of printed books. Also Konard Gesner, the father of bibliography attempts to list all scholarly publication in the world which appears in 1545, under the title “Bibliotheca Universalis” ii) Incunabula Bibliography: This type of bibliography lists the early printed material upto 15th century. It was considered a cradle period of printing and the systematic order in arranging various parts of the book was not followed. Eg. Proctor Robert An index to the early printed books in the British Museum from the invention of printing to the year 1300 with notes of those in the Bodleian library. Konard Burger’s index, London 1960. iii) Bibliography of anonymous and pseudonymous works: These types of bibliographies are arranged alphabetically by title with notes of author, details of publication and annotations and notes about authority for the ascription. They are also provided with an index of initials and pseudonyms. Sometimes the titles are arranged alphabetically with names of the authors in square brackets and notes about the authority for the attribution at the end. Eg. Dictionary of anonymous and pseudonymous literature. iv)Trade bibliographies: These types of bibliographies are brought out by large publishing firms engaged in book production or trade. The books available for sale or purchase are listed therein. Eg. Whitakers cumulative book list, London, Whitaker British Book in print etc. v) National bibliography: it is a comprehensive, almost complete record of both written and printed output in a given country, furnishing description and supplying verification which cannot found in
  • 17. Page17 the less complete bibliographies. So in short a national bibliography list all documents published in a given country. The national bibliography is compiled on the basis of the materials received by the National Libraries under the copyright act as promulgated in various countries. A national bibliography is considered a national heritage and its purpose is intellectual not commercial (selling). It is useful for the researcher and the posterity. Example: Indian National Bibliography, Kolkata, Central Reference Library, British National Bibliography, London B) Secondary Bibliography: Secondary bibliographies are “those in which material registered elsewhere is rearranged for the convenience of research”. In these documents already recorded in primary bibliographies are selected, analyzed, and rearranged either by subject, author, period or typography. i) Subject Bibliography: A subject bibliography is a comprehensive list of all books, periodicals articles, pamphlets and other analytical materials that have appeared on that subject, such a bibliography is international in scope since it covers everything that has been appeared on the subject in different languages and in different countries of the world. Example: Education Abstract, 1949 to date, Paris, UNESCO. ii) Author Bibliography: An author bibliography is the list of writing by an author together with the works on him by others. Example: Mahatma Gandhi: A descriptive bibliography, compiled by Dr. J. S. Sharma, Delhi, S. Chand, 1955. iii) Personal Bibliography: A personal bibliography is a list of writings by others on the different aspects of the life of a great man together with what he himself has written, printed and delivered in the form of oratory. Kindly note that personal bibliography is different from that of author bibliography. Example: Jawaharlal Nehru: A descriptive bibliography by Jagdish Saran Sharma, Delhi, S. Chand & Co, 1955. iv) Bibliophilic Bibliography: A bibliography that records old and rare books, first editions of celebrated authors is known as bibliophilic bibliography. These bibliographies are only for those who have a craze for old and rare books, especially for first edition of books of celebrated author. They have fancy for such book for their magnificent look, distinctive physical feature, colorfulness, sumptuous binding, decorative covers, brilliant illustration and pictorial ornamentation, grand illumination and beautiful type face, sometimes on sentimental ground and sometimes for getting original thought of the author. Example: Johnson, Merie de Vore, “American first editon”, 4th ed, revised N. Y. Bowker, 1942. v) Selective Bibliography (Elective): This kind of bibliography is concerned with the listing of only selected and the best books. This is useful to those who want to record only the best. This is also serves as a valuable book selection tool to small and medium-sized libraries.
  • 18. Page18 Example: The best books: A readers’ guide, 3rd ed, by W. S. Sonnenschein, London, Routledge, 1910 – 35, 6 Vol. vi) Unit Bibliography: It is a list of different editions adaptations, abridged forms, translations, dramatization, versification, criticism, etc of a single literary work conveniently arranged in order to give a comprehensive picture of its literary excellence and popularity. Every literary work by every author does not deserve a unit bibliography. It is only in the case of such works which have sound scholars curiosity by dint of their great literary merit, universal appeal and enormous popularity that unit bibliographies are compiled. Example: The Arabian Hight’s Entertainment with its numerous adaptations and translations. vii) Bibliography of Bibliographies (Bibliographic Index): As the bibliographies in various subject fields have multiplied now a day the compilation of this kind of bibliography has become imperative. It is a list of bibliographies recorded in a systematic and logical order. It includes all type of bibliographies in various subject fields, separately published. This kind of bibliography is also known as bibliographic index Example: Besterman Theodore, “A world bibliography of bibliographies”. Blog Blog: The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger on 17 December 1997. Then Peter Merholz, jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog in the sidebar of his blog Peterme.com in 1999, from where it becomes popular as "blog". Thus Blog is derived from Weblog. Blog or weblog is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles normally in reverse chronological order with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the writer. 1. Definition: Blogs have different meaning to different people, ranging from “online journal” to “easily updated personal website”. A weblog is a journal (or newsletter) that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author or the Web site. According to Concept Websites Ltd (http://www.conceptwebsites.com/SEO/common-terms.htm), “a blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog”. In simple, it can be said that it is a web based website where articles posted will automatically be arranged in reverse chronological fashion or in a chronological fashion. The owner/member will post message which are sometimes rich with graph, audio, video and hyperlink periodically enabling others to view and comment. Topics often include the owner's/member’s daily life or views on a particular subject or topic of important to the group. The original post with its associated comments and discussion provide a very insight to the topic at hand. Many blogs are frequently updated and publicly accessible i.e they allow anybody to sign up at any time; some others are private where entry to the group is restricted. Some advanced users have
  • 19. Page19 server-side software, and often implement membership management and password protected areas. Others have created a mix of a blog and wiki, called a bliki. 2. History: At the initial stage of internet development, Usenet, e-mail lists, Bulletin Board Systems (BBS), chronicles, commonplaces, diaries, and perzines were used as a form of Citizen Media. Bulletin Board is a service whereby messages and points of interest can be posted to be read and replied to unlike list server. The news group provides access to thousands of topic based discussion group services which are open to all. The news reader software allows one to post an article to any group for others to read. A comment to the message (original) can be added to the thread of the article. In recent times these are effectively replaced by the “blog”. During recent days, blog has evolved into a tool that offers some of the most insightful information on the Web. It provides self-publishing phenomenon represented by blogging and becoming much more common in LIS, as librarians, libraries and library associations have begun to blog as a way of communicating with their patrons and constituents. Many librarians world wide also publish their personal blogs that offer a wealth of information about librarianship, their parent institution and sometimes to their personal lives as well. The emergence of blogging provides a medium to give readers of the library new perspectives on the realities, as well as often offering different viewpoints from those of its official news sources. Many bloggers began to provide nearly-instant commentary on televised events, creating a secondary meaning of the word "blogging": to simultaneously transcribe and editorialize speeches and events shown on television (liveblogging). 3. Anatomy of a Blog Entry: Blog uses web interfaces that allow anyone over the Internet, to create blogs by their own. It usually does not demand the maintenance of server software by the users themselves. It also does not demand to go for the HTML. A blog entry typically consists of the following: a) Title: The main title, or headline, of the post; b) Body: Main content of the post; c) Permalink: The URL of the full, individual article; d) Post Date: Date and time the post published. A blog entry optionally also includes the comments or feedback. Comments are a way to provide discussion on blog entries. Readers can leave a comment on a post (a way of correcting one’s error) or they can also leave their personal opinion on the previous post(s). 4. Types: There are various types of blogs, and each differs in the way content is delivered or written. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web pages, and other media related to its topic, the ability to quote another user's post with special formatting in ones post is also a special feature of many blogs. Generally, blog can be categorized as follows:
  • 20. Page20 a) Linklog: A blog comprising links; b) Moblog: A blog written by a mobile phone or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA); c) Photoblog: A blog comprising photos; d) Podcasting: Blog containing audio; e) Vlog: A blog comprising videos. Blog can also be categorized based on a particular subject, such as political blogs, travel blogs, legal blogs (often referred to as a blawg), Library blogs, Academic Library blogs, Librarian’s blogs and so on. 5. Importance: Blogging combined the site with tools to make linking to other pages easier specifically permalinks, blogrolls and TrackBacks. This, together with blog search engines enabled bloggers to track the threads that connected them to others with similar interests. a) Blog as a Forum: The ability for readers to leave comments in an interactive format and the scope for adding more than one author in a blog, can be used to create discussion forum. Wordpress comments at the bottom of a blog post allow for a single-threaded discussion of any given blog post. Slashcode, on the other hand, is far more complicated, allowing fully threaded discussions and incorporating a robust moderation and meta-moderation system as well as many of the profile features available to forum users. b) Blog as a Group: The Blog’s RSS Feed or Atom by burning with some feed burning services can be used to provide email subscription option (some blog hosting service even produce it by default). This feature can be used as a group to notify the intended users or reader or subscribers about some announcement. Blog also have blogrolls (i.e. links to other blogs which the owner reads or admires), and indicate the social relationship of a particular blog to those of other bloggers. Pingback (links to other sites that refer to the entry) and trackback (one of three types of Linkbacks, methods for Web authors to request notification when somebody links to one of their documents) allow one blog to notify another blog, creating an inter-blog conversation. In summary, blogs engage readers and build a virtual community around a particular person or interest, which have immense implication in library and information science. c) A Major Part of the Internet: Blogs are easy to create and maintain as compared to websites. As a result, people are turning towards blog as a publication medium. Day by day, its volume as well as quality increases and now we are in a position where we can say that if one is unable to locate any information over internet by searching in the traditional general purpose search engine then it must be in blog. d) Latest Information: The literature search forms the backbone of any research activities. In recent times, a part of this business relies on internet and for a comprehensive list of resources over
  • 21. Page21 internet, the search should extend to blog also, as it contains the latest, up to the minute information on a given topic. e) Substitute of Mainstream Media: Blog increasingly considered as a substitute of the mainstream media for news services, consultants, etc. As blog becomes a standard part of the publicity arsenal, it is used extensively as a tool for outreach and opinion forming and as means of applying pressure upon concern authority and like other. It can also be used to push the messages directly to the public by avoiding the filtering process of the mainstream media (the editorial board of which often cut down the massage as a means to avoid the legal liabilities, to present credible news or at times to justify their presence!). 6. Finding a Blog / Blog Search Engine: The general purpose search engines generally avoid displaying results from blogosphere. So, for searching the blog over internet, reliance must be placed on the specially designed blog search engines. Several blog search engines are used to search blog contents (also known as the blogosphere), such as blogdigger, Feedster, and Technorati, which helps one to find out what people are saying on any subject of his/her interest. In the following paragraph an attempt is made to list and discuss some of the most popular blog search engines. a) Blogdigger (http://www.blogdigger.com/index.html): Blogdigger is a blog and media search engine founded in March 2003 by Greg Gershman. Blogdigger began as an experiment with RSS and search technologies, developing into a search engine that provides fast, up-to-the-minute search results of the latest posts collected from blogs and syndicated content feeds, such as RSS and Atom. b) Bloglines (http://www.bloglines.com): Bloglines is a web-based news aggregator for browsing weblogs and other news feeds. Mark Fletcher founded the site in 2003 and sold it in February 2005 to Ask.com. Bloglines uses an interface with the blogs names in one frame and their most recently updated content in another pane. c) Feedster (http://www.feedster.com): Feedster was founded in March 2003 by Scott Johnson. In June 2003, it merged with RSS-Search founded by François Schiettecatte. Feedster began as a weblog search tool, indexing and archiving individual blog posts based on a site's RSS feed. Feedster gained popularity with blog enthusiasts because it indexed new information fast, let users sort search results chronologically, and made it possible to subscribe to search results as an RSS feed. It has now expanded to offer a wide range of related services, including "Feed of the Day". d) IceRocket (http://www.icerocket.com): IceRocket is an Internet search engine specialized in searching blogs. IceRocket is backed by Mark Cuban and headquartered in Dallas, Texas. In 2005, CNet reported that it may be re launched as Blogscour. e) PubSub: PubSub is an Internet search engine for searching blogs which was founded in 2002 by Bob Wyman and Salim Ismail. The site operates by storing a user's search term, making it a subscription, and checking it against posts on blogs which ping the search engine. When a new match is found, the user is notified, even if it occurs months after the initial search. This feature has led PubSub to call itself a matching engine. Results can be read on the service's website or on an optional sidebar, available for both Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox. PubSub is currently having problem as noted in by Bob Wyman.
  • 22. Page22 f) Sphere (http://www.sphere.com): The Sphere search engine delivers blog posts based on algorithms that combine semantic matching with authority factors to deliver results relevant to the search query. Sphere also organizes bloggers by topic. The company produces an application called Sphere It! allowing users to seek blog posts related to news articles based on the contents of a particular web page they're viewing. The function is accessed from a browser navigation bar plug-in. Upon clicking the plug-in button, a semantic analysis is performed on the text within the page and blog posts related to the text of the article are returned. g) Technorati (http://www.technorati.com): Technorati is an Internet search engine for searching blogs, competing with Google, Yahoo, PubSub and IceRocket. As of November 2006, Technorati indexes over 60 million weblogs. The site won the SXSW 2006 awards for Best Technical Achievement and also Best of Show. It has also been nominated for a 2006 Webby award for Best Practices. Technorati provides current information on both popular searches and tags used to categorize blog postings. Blogs are also given rankings by Technorati based on the amount of incoming links and Alexa Internet based on the web hits of Alexa Toolbar users. h) Google Blog Search (http://www.google.co.in/blogsearch?hl=en): Google Blog Search is a search engine focused on blogs, with a continuously updated search index. Results include all blogs, not just those published through Blogger. Results can be viewed and filtered by date. Google provides following option to search for blog i) Google-style interface (blogsearch.google.com) ii) Blogger-style interface) (search.blogger.com) iii) The Blogger Dashboard iv) The Navbar on any Blog All of the above provide same search, no matter where one searches. The Navbar, however, provides two buttons: one to search the blog that one currently viewing, and one to search all blogs. It also provides “Advanced Search” features where one can specify titles, authors, languages and more. After getting the search results, it also provides an additional link that allows to switch between displaying the results with either the most relevant or recent results at the top. 7. Blog Hosting Services: Blogs are generally hosted by dedicated blog hosting services or on regular web hosting services. Most of the free blog hosting services are ad-supported but generally have unlimited posting bandwidth and storage space. Generally, a small advertisement square banner is placed on the user blog, which does not affect the overall make up the said blog. Many blog hosting services also notified the blogger when someone adds some comments on his/her blog. Examples include the following i) Blogger (https://www.blogger.com/start): Blogger was started by Evan Williams and Meg Hourihan (Pyra Labs of San Francisco) in August 1999 and was purchased by Google in February 2003. ii) coComment (http://www.cocomment.com/): coComment is a Swiss startup company funded by Swisscom Innovations and focused on providing high quality services to internet users worldwide. The company is based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 23. Page23 iii) LiveJournal (http://www.livejournal.com/): Brad Fitzpatrick started LiveJournal in March 1999. The LiveJournal can be used as a private journal, a blog, a discussion forum, a social network, and like other. iv) Open Diary (http://www.opendiary.com/): Launched in October 1998, soon growing to thousands of online diaries. Open Diary becomes the first blog community where readers could add comments to other writers' blog entries. v) Pitas.com (http://www.pitas.com/): Andrew Smales created Pitas.com in July 1999 as an easier alternative to maintaining a "news page" on a website, followed by Diaryland in September 1999, focusing more on a personal diary community. vi) Xanga (http://www.xanga.com/): Launched in 1996, had only 100 diaries by 1997, but over 20 million as of December 2005. Other blog hosting service includes Blog (http://www.blog.com/), DreamHost (http://www.dreamhost.com/), Salon.com (http://www.salon.com), Tripod (http://www.tripod.lycos.com/), Vox (http://www.vox.com/), WordPress (http://www.worldpress.org/), etc. Book Order Book Order: Once a book has been selected for purchase, then an order has to be placed to acquire it by typing from the book selection slip in a sheet or two. In case the book being ordered is an additional copy or a new edition of an available book, the staff would put down the call number in the book order slip. The ordering procedure relates to three stages- i) Pre-ordering Work: Pre-order work includes the various jobs connected with the invitation of tenders or quotations, tabulating the quotations, fixing the suppliers, signing the contracts, and so on. ii) Order Placing Work: Order placing work consists of tallying, scrutiny and elimination. iii) Intimation to the Indenters: The library should inform the indenter(s)/user(s) about the action taken by the library for their demanded books. The library generally tries to possess every type of information sources based upon the demand of the user which includes books, journals, books on tape, videocassettes, CDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs, electronic journals, online databases, etc. The book selection section is responsible for the identification of potentially useful materials by consulting publishers' catalogues and flyers for the final selection to be made by the appropriate decision maker. Sometimes the acquisition unit is the primary collection development unit for the library. Activities centring acquisition also focus on securing items wanted by the library's end-users and handling financial transactions that are associated with the purchase or leasing of the item(s). It is a process that involves which materials the library should acquire by purchase or otherwise and getting the materials.
  • 24. Page24 Book Selection Theories Book Selection Theories: There are some principles of selection of documents which guide the librarian in making a judicious choice of a document and thus help to develop a meaningful collection of documents in the libraries. i) L. R. McColvin: Theory of Book Selection (1925): According to L. R. McColvin books in themselves are nothing. They have no meaning until they are made serviceable by demand. So he gives much stress on demand and gives stress on the selection of only those documents which are demanded by the users for their information needs. ii) Drury: Book Selection (1930): It states that the right book will be provided to the right reader at the right time. In this principle the reader is the central theme. A document is right or otherwise is to be provided when the user needs it for use. The selector should know the users and their requirements. He should select only that material which caters to the informational educational and recreational needs of the users. iii) Haines: Living with book (2nd ed, 1950): The first edition of Living with Books appeared in 1935. It was one of the first true textbooks aimed at training librarians in the art of book selection. Although Haines died in 1961, her legacy continues to be felt. Through the 1970s, Living with Books remained the standard text on book selection, and it is still referenced on many collection development course syllabi. iv) Ranganathan: Library book selection (1952, reprint 1990): The first three laws of library science enunciated by Ranganathan are also helpful in formulating the principles of selection of the documents for libraries. v) Dewey’s Principle: According to Dewey, the library should select the best documents within the finance available, which may satisfy the information need of the maximum number of users. Besides the above, we may mention Rovert Broadus’ Selecting Materials for Libraries, 2nd ed. New York: H.W. Wilson Co, 1981 and Building Library Collections: 6th Ed. By: Arthur Curley, Dorothy M. Broderick, and Published: January 1985 as important books on book selection. Budgeting Budgeting: Budget is defined as “an estimated often itemized or expected income and expense or operating results for a given period in the future”. Thus, a library budget is an estimate of the expected income and expenditure of the library for the coming year. As a budget is an estimate, it can be altered if and when the circumstances change. It needs to be flexible enough to meet the changing needs. In a budget, the diversion of funds should not be done for some unnecessary events or causes and it is actually not permitted. a) Need and Purpose of Library Budget: Since a library is a non-profit organization, the financial responsibility on its part is much more important. The need and purpose of library budget can be looked at from the following points
  • 25. Page25 i) Through budgeting a library is able to limit its expenditure to its income; ii) A budget helps to spend the finance in a systematic way; iii) Budgeting is the primary means by which formulated plans can be carried out; iv) It serves as an effective management tool. v) It gives overall direction to the library services; vi) It coordinates all administrative functions by guaranteeing exchange of information on policies, program and finance; vii) It is a most important control device to measure the programmes of a library and their effectiveness; viii) It reflects the goals and objectives of the library. b) Budgeting Method: The following methods are generally used in budgeting- i) Line Item: Here the expenditure is divided into broad categories such as salary and wages, books and periodicals, equipment, binding, stationary, miscellaneous, etc. However, this brings inflexibility, whereby money from one item cannot be shifted to another one easily. ii) Lump Sum: In this approach a certain amount of money is allocated to the library, the libraries decide as to how that amount is going to be allocated to different categories. iii) Formula Budget: Here predetermined standards are applied for the allocation of money. The formula is mechanical and easy to prepare. iv) Performance Budget: It is based on the expenditure for the performance of activities of a library. It gives justification for and description of services to be achieved by the proposed programme. v) Programme Budgeting: It is concerned with activities of organization but individual items or expenditures are ignored. vi) Per Capita Method: In this case a minimum amount per head of the population is fixed and financial estimates are prepared accordingly. In case of university and college libraries, the UGC Library Committee way back in 1957 suggested for a provision of Rs. 16 per student and Rs. 200 per teacher. Kothari Commission in 1966 suggested for allocation of Rs. 25 per student and Rs. 300 per teacher. vii) Proportion Method: In this method a certain proportion of the general budget of a parent organization / state is recommended for providing library services. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan suggested that 6% of the education budget of a local /state / federal government, as the case may be, should be earmarked for public library purposes. UGC Parry
  • 26. Page26 Committee (UK) suggested that 6% of the total budget of a university may be provided to university library. Education Commission recommended that 6.5-10 percent of the total university budget should be spent for the university library. viii) Method of Details: In this method all the items of expenditure of a library under various heads and subheads in detail are calculated. The expenditure should be estimated under non recurring expenditure and recurring expenditure. It is generally done by projecting current expenditure to the next year adding the increase of cost. The UGC Library Committee (1957) staff formula can be used to determine the number of staff and their pay scale. The cost of books and other reading materials can be based on the number of students and teachers. 5% of the total cost of books is allocated to stacking, storing, and serving of books. ix) Planning Programming Budgeting System (PPBS): PPBS is a technique which combines the best of programme budgeting and performance budgeting. In this method the emphasis is given on the planning of the total system, the different parts of the system and their expected level of performance. All these are considered for assigning the cost of the whole system. x) Zero Based Budget: It was developed by Peter Phyor to achieve greater effective planning and fiscal control. The term “zero based” is derived from the first step in the process- the development of a hierarchy of functions based on the assumption that the unit or agency is starting operation for the first time (i.e point zero). Thus, the focus of budgeting is on the purpose(s) of the unit and on the function which it should perform so that it meets the reason for its existence. Basically, it is not concerned with what happened previously but rather with what is required to be done in future. c) Expenditure: While estimated expenditure is planned three factors are kept in mind- i) Comparison with past expenditure; ii) Budgeting in accordance with the work programme and iii) Using arbitrary stands and norms. Depending upon the size of the library, the types of library expenditure headings vary. The general forms of expenditure which can be applied to all types of libraries are given below. Sl. No. Item Percentage of Total Budget Initial Recurring 1) Salaries a) Basic Salary b) DA c) PF 20% 65% 2) Equipment and furniture 30% 5% 3) Books 15% 10%
  • 27. Page27 a) Reference collection b) New books c) Others 4) Periodicals a) Back volumes b) Annual subscription 20% 10% 5) Binding and repairing of documents 2 ½% 2 ½% 6) Microfilming and digitization 7 ½% 2 ½% 7) AMC -as needed- -as needed- 8) Contingency (stationary item, printing, Photostat, postage, telephone, electricity bills, etc) 2 ½% 2 ½% 9) Miscellaneous (overtime allowances, insurance premium) 2 ½% 2 ½% 10) Imprest Money (Sundry expenditure or the money which is kept for unforeseen events) In the above table, expenditure with regards to gift and exchange are excluded as they cannot be foreseen with any possible precision. In case of a new library, the initial costs as well as the operating budget require some special consideration. But in case of an existing library only the operating budget items need to be considered. As the library does not usually have all its functions at the start, the total staff is not required at the initial state; consequently, the recurring expenditure on salary will be about three times of that obtaining at the beginning. The cost of the library building and its maintenance usually form part of the budget of the organization as a whole and, therefore, this has been excluded from the library budget. If, however, the library has its separate existence, a sizable initial cost and a proportionate cost of maintaining will have to be provided in the budget. Any good architect will be able to give these estimates. The expenditure in a special library is higher than that in a general library as it involves more amenities and the use of many costly machineries and gadgets. d) Accounting and Reporting: Accurate records regarding the amount paid out, encumbered and unspent are maintained by the accounts section. To ensure proper utilization of grants, an Account Register should be maintained to watch the expenditure. A Ledger should be maintained with double entry system. Receipts and expenditure items should be entered regularly in the said ledger. In addition to this ledger, a Cash Book in which daily transactions are to be entered and a Budget Allotment Register, department wise and objective wise, should be maintained so as to know easily and with accuracy as to how much amount has been spent and how much remains in balance. Monthly reports should be prepared regarding this. The reporting should be done to the users,
  • 28. Page28 library staff and higher authorities. This may appear an annual report of newspaper article or radio talk or in some other form. Let Us Sum Up: Budget statement or record is a definite financial record which speaks of the back history, present position and future development of the library. It is also a statement for comparing the position and the trend of development between the past, present and future. Budgetary statement generally depends on the sources of income and expenditure of the library. Library budget may be divided into two parts- Income and expenditure. Citation Analysis Citation Analysis: When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish that relationship (links). Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries. Citations both from and to a certain document may be studied. The Science Citation Index began publication in 1961. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Information scientists also use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal. Google's PageRank is based on the principle of citation analysis. Other bibliometrics applications include: creating thesauri; measuring term frequencies; exploring grammatical and syntactical structures of texts. Data from citation indexes can be analyzed to determine the popularity and impact of specific articles, authors, and publications. However the limitation of citation analysis is that they are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected by hand (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. a) Co-citation Coupling: If papers A and B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other. If papers A and B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. b) Bibliographic Coupling: Bibliographic coupling is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the stronger their relationship is.
  • 29. Page29 Cloud Computing Cloud Computing:in the traditional model of computing, both software and data are fully contained on the user’s computer, whereas in the cloud computing, the user’s computer may contain almost no software or data. They only need a minimal operating system and web browser to serve as a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. So, the cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. The resources may be a application, database, file service, email etc. In case of cloud computing, the data are stored in the cloud instead of a local computer so multiple users can access and contribute to the projects simultaneously without worrying about using the same operating system, software, or browser. For example, instead of collaborating on a document by sending back and forth revision after revision as attachments, documents can be better stored in the cloud with Google Apps. Coworkers can access the web-based document simultaneously in their browsers, and even make changes that other authorized users can see in real-time. Eliminating attachment round-trips by storing data in the cloud saves time and reduces frustrations for teams who need to work together efficiently. Collection Development Collection Development: The Library housekeeping operation or Technical works of a library handle those tasks associated with bringing materials into the library and making them ready for use for the general public or for the service population and thus include the job of identification, selection, acquisition, organization of the collection (classification and cataloguing) and preparation (labeling and others), covering, security processing, and/or distribution of materials. Within the purview of technical service also come such things as serials, binding / repair, copy cataloguing, original cataloguing, and gifts and exchange. A library, however large it may be, cannot store all the materials and all the users of a library will not be interested in all the materials kept in it. All the materials will not be used by all the users in a library. So, here arises the need of selection of library materials. The library collection development is the process of planning and acquiring a balanced collection of library materials of many formats, including books, periodicals, online resources, and other media. It is sometimes considered as synonymous to “Collection building”, which means that there are already nuclei of collection in the library and the librarian is going to build up the collection. But collection development is a term different from collection building, since the word “development” implies qualitative improvement of the collection, whereas building a collection is likely to mean the planned and systematic development of an already existing collection. It occasionally involves the selection and acquisition of materials, as said by Shipman. Harrod’s Librarian Glossary (6th edition) defines “collection development” as “the process of planning a stock acquisition programme not simply to cater for immediate needs but to build a coherent and reliable collection over a number of years, to meet the objective of the service”. The proliferation of publications in various physical formats made the exponential growth of literature and all these materials are the record of intellectual endeavours on one hand and on the other hand these are the vehicle of communication for transmission of information and knowledge.Since the basic purpose of the library is to facilitate the process of communication so all the above materials should be collected to help grow the library holding and to meet the ever increasing need and requirement of the users as far as possible. This continuous process of acquiring
  • 30. Page30 the reading material is known as collection development. Collection development is an expansion of book selection by enlarging the kinds of materials to which selection principles have been applied, making the collection a total holding at any particular point. It is also a process of maintaining a balanced, consistent and user responsive collection in the library. The process of collection development includes selection of current as well as retrospective material, weeding out of obsolete, irrelevant, unused and not-to-be-used materials. Evaluation of existing holding should be made for the identification of adequacy and gaps. The gaps should be filled according to the user’s need. Paul Mosher explains collection development as “a process that should constitute a rational documented programme guided by written policies and protocols and should reflect in sense a contrast between library users and library staff as to what will be acquired, for whom and at what level”. Collections are developed by librarians and library staff by buying or otherwise acquiring materials over a period of time, based on the assessment of the information needs of the library's users. In addition to ongoing materials acquisition, library collection development includes: i) The creation of policies to guide material selection. ii) Replacement of worn or lost materials. iii) Removal (weeding) of materials no longer needed in the collection. iv)Planning for new collections or collection areas. v) Cooperative decision-making with other libraries or within library consortia. a) Collection Development and Book Selection: The librarian knows that collection development begins with book selection. Some assume that they are same and the terms are interchangeable; others assume that collection development is a broader term for the same old job, namely, acquisition, but actually collection development is very much different from the term “book selection” both conceptually and operationally. The library collection and its development determine the nature and the characteristics of the library not only in the holding but in service pattern also. So the librarians should be acquainted with the user needs and requirements and the users should be requested to advise the librarian about their needs. In this way it is a two way job. b) Objectives of Collection Development: The main objectives of collection development are- i) A library should acquire and provide all the relevant reading materials to its clientele so that the basic function of the library are fulfilled from the vast amount of literature, which are also increasing day by day. ii) A library should acquire all other books on the related topics;
  • 31. Page31 iii) A library should contain all the reading materials pertaining to the history and culture of a particular country, city, place or institution as the case may be. c) Need of Book Selection: The need of book selection arises due to the following reasons- i) The world of book is so large that a library, however large and resourceful, cannot procure all the materials published and available in the market; ii) The library collection is meant for the user of a particular library so that library collection should commensurate with the need and requirement of the users; iii) The physical limitation of storage naturally imposes the necessity for selection. d) Factors that Influence Book Selection: Selection of the library materials is of prime importance in a library. The librarians with the concern of library staff and with the help of various user groups should perform the job of selection of the library material. In selection process the following factors should be considered:- i) The Library: The kind, objectives, size and goals of the library, specialization areas of the library; ii) Users: Need and demand, requirement and intellectual level of the users, the number of users; iii) Existing Holding: The number of books, its nature and characteristics which are already present in the collection; the merits of the books which are going to be selected; iv)Fund: The amount allotted for acquisition of books/journals. Common Communication Format (CCF) Common Communication Format (CCF): CCF is a structure format for creating bibliographical records and for exchanging records between groups of information agency and libraries. An international symposium in Taormina, Sicily conducted by UNESCO was held in April, 1978. On the recommendations of the symposium UNESCO / PGI formed the adhoc group on the establishment of a Common Communication Format (CCF). The first edition of CCF was published in 1984 under the editorship of Peter Simmons and Alan Hopkins and its second edition was published in 1988 in two volumes called CCF/B and CCF/F. Several countries have adopted this standard for exchange and creation of bibliographic records at national level. A) Structure of CCF: The structure of CCF is the implementation of ISO-2709. It consists of the following- a) Record Labels: Each CCF record begins with a fixed record label of 24 characters and consists of data element which contains the record. Each data element is identified by its relative character positioning the label. b) Directory: The directory is a table containing a variable number of 14 characters entries i.e the length of each directory entry is of 14 characters terminated by a fixed separator character. Each
  • 32. Page32 directory entry corresponds to a specific variable. Data fields in the record are divided into four sub sections or parts, containing data for the following data element- i) Tab ii) Length of the data field iii) Starting character position iv) Implementation defined section c) Data Fields: In the CCF a data field is defined as consisting of- i) Indicator ii) Sub Fields: A sub field consists of a subfield identifier followed by a data string which is terminated by either another sub field identifier or a field separator. iii) Field Separator: The field separator is that character which constitutes the final character of every data field except for the final data field in the record. iv) Record Separator: The record separator is that character which makes the end of the final data field in the record and constitutes the final character of the record. B) Limitation of the CCF: CCF is not designed to meet the requirement of all types of libraries and information organizations for local implementation. It is also not expected that institutes will use CCF record format for internal storage and processing purpose. The major limitations of CCF are- a) It is not sufficiently detailed in its definition and coverage of all data elements necessary for creating a bibliographical database for an individual library. b) It does not include its cataloguing rules nor does it align itself with any particular cataloguing code or set of rules oriented towards a specific or fixed type of information output form. c) Except for standard CCF fields CCF recommends the use of alphanumeric code for tags but it may not be possible to use alphanumeric code for tags in all cases (eg when library system uses CDS/ISIS, this recommendation cannot be implemented). d) Though in CCF further addition of the new data elements and their respective content designator is possible, the unrestricted interpolation by different users can create complication for exchanging data among libraries. In such cases, the content designators of newly added data elements are likely to vary which may cause inconvenience for exchanging data from one database to another. Communication Communication: The term “communication” comes from Latin word “communis” meaning common. When we communicate with someone we try to establish a certain degree of commonness with the communicate. Eg. By sharing some information, an idea or an attitude. Communication therefore refers to transmission or exchange of information, message, etc. Communication takes place when
  • 33. Page33 people send or receive message of various kind. So information and communication are two interlinked term in the sense that without information communication is not possible. The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as “the imparting, conveying or exchange of ideas and knowledge whether by speech, writing or signs”. The Columbia Encyclopaedia of Communication defines it as “the transfer of thought and message as contrasted with transportation of goods and person”. In ordinary usage the verb “to communicate” means i) To exchange thoughts, feelings, information; ii) To make known; iii) To make common; iv) To have a sympathetic relationship. In the noun form “communication” refers to i) The exchange of symbols, common message, information; ii) The process of exchange between individual through a common system of symbols; iii) The art of expressing ideas and iv) The science of transmitting information. In the popularly understood sense of the term communication refers to anything from a face to face conversion between two persons, conversion over the telephone, and correspondence between friends. The transmission of programes on live television are broadcast via communication satellite i.e received by millions of people. 1. Elements of Communication: The communication process requires at least three elements. a) Source: The source is a point at which message originates. It can be an individual or an organization, a human being or a machine. b) Channel: The message may be in audible, visual, or tactile form as any signal capable of meaningful interpretation. c) Destination: The destination or recipient, which again can be a person or a group of person, is in the final link of the communication chain. Destination is the interceded target of the message. 2. Media and Forms of Communication of Information: There is a distinct difference between communication of information and communication of commodities, energy, heat, etc. i.e one’s own stock of information or knowledge is not going to diminish by communicating to others. Thus the
  • 34. Page34 ownership of information may multiply but not change hands like a physical commodity. Further one can communicate information which he does not have, eg. about one’s own behaviour. Quite often two or more channels may be used together for effective communication and the channels of dissemination may form a series of alternative routes, through the total communication system. Communication is a process of transferring message from one point to another. The four element of any communication process are the reader, the medium, the receiver and the feedback. In Library and Information Science several models of communication are used in the dissemination of information through e-mail, post, telephone line, through oral verbal communication, videoconferencing etc. Communication of Information 1. Introduction: In the popularly understood sense of the term communication refers to anything from a face to face conversion between two person, conversion over the telephone, and correspondence between friends. The transmission of programmes on live television broadcast via communication satellite i.e. received by millions of people. 2. Elements of Communication: The communication process requires at least three elements. i) Source: The source is a point at which message originates. It can be an individual or an organization, a human being or a machine. ii) Message: The message may be in audible, visual or tactile form, as any signal capable of meaningful interpretation. iii) Destination: The destination or recipient, which again can be a person or a group of persons, in a final link in the communication chain - the intended target of the message. 3. Media and Forms of Communication: There is a distinct difference between communication of information and communication of commodities, energy, heat, etc i.e. one’s own stock of information or knowledge is not going to diminish by communicating to other. Thus the ownership of information may multiply but not change hands like a physical commodity. Further one can communicate information which he does not have eg. about one’s own behavior. Following is a list of forms of communication with channels of disseminating information. Though they are given in isolation here, quite often two or more channels may be used together for effective communication and the channels of dissemination may form a series of alternative routes, through the total communication system. 3.1 Oral Communication / Informal Communication: Oral communication is one of the oldest medium of communication of information and is speedier. The oral communication is generally called as informal communication. According to Ban – Hillel, oral transmission can be analysed into the following technical stages-
  • 35. Page35 i) A concept, statement, preposition, postulates etc is formulated mentally. ii) The mental formulation is expressed in words. iii) The words are spoken that is they are expressed by the complicated larynx, tongue and lip position of speech. iv) The vibration set up a sound wave that is transmitted through the air. White has referred to informal communication as interactive as it involves a direct interaction between the source of information and the recipient. Oral communications are of the following types- i) One person to one person: Example: a face to face talk or by phone, chat, etc. ii) One person to several: Example: a group or committee meeting, conference, teleconference, video conference, etc. iii) Several person to several: Example: A group discussion, conversation, etc. a) Advantages of Informal Communication: The following are the some of the advantages of informal communication i) Promptness: The face to face or telephone conversation, personal correspondence, and preprint exchange, all of which are faster than dissemination through the formal channels. ii) Selectivity: Formal journals are designed to reach large audiences and therefore cannot be sensitive to individual need. Information transmitted through the informal channel is specifically meant for an individual recipient or a small group. iii) Interactive Communication: In the informal context example telephone conversation, continuous interaction between the supplier and receiver of information is possible. This facility is very difficult to achieve in the formal channels. iv) Screening and Evaluation: In the informal communication system the supplier provides evaluated and predigested information that can be readily used by the recipient. v) Transmission of Ineffable: In the informal mode a scientist may not hesitate to communicate opinions and experiences which are too personal to be communicated through formal channels. vi) Personal Appeal: Scientist communicating in the informal mode can established a personal rapport among themselves. This is difficult to achieve in the formal channel. 3.2 Formal Channel of Communication / Verbal Communication: The formal channel of communication is very effective way of storing and preserving the available information and knowledge in a very handy manner. Formal communication is non interactive and also known as documentary communication or verbal communication. The formal channel of communication is of the following types.
  • 36. Page36 i) Written (Manuscripts): Exchange of practical note book, preprints and reprints among scientists fall under this category. ii) Printed: The newspapers, newsletter, journal, book, state of art report, etc fall under this category. iii) Audio – Video: It consists of picture, charts, maps, slide, video tapes, CD, DVD, Magnetic tapes, etc. 3.3 Exception Cases: There are many exception of formal and informal communication. They are i) Correspondence: Correspondence is a written form of communication but it is generally treated as informal rather than formal channel of communication. ii) Professional Conference: It is both formal and informal. It is formal in the sense that it involves formal organization. There will be presentation of formal papers and it frequently results in some formal publication. It is informal in the sense- it provides greater opportunity for personnel communication among individual. iii) Mass Media: Radio, television film which are able to bring the information as soon as it occur to the mass. iv) Telecommunication and Satellite Communication: The online resources, though they are formal but are interactive in nature. 4. Barriers of Communication: The barriers to communication of information can broadly be grouped into the following categories- a) Institutional Impediment: There are three basic institutional impediments. These are - i) Status of a person and organization: Information mainly flows among equal level of status. It is very difficult for person of lower status to enter into such network of information. ii) Structural (Hierarchical): Information flows from top to bottom or from bottom to top level in administrative hierarchy. iii) Secrecy (Fear of Losing): Managers and officials sometimes fear that if they provide the information to somebody else their own secrets will be lost. b) Financial: Financial barriers are of the following types i) Rising cost in production of document: It reduced the production of the documents and reduced the purchasing power of the user. ii) Postal and other transportation charges iii) Cost in running libraries and information centres pushed libraries to shift from free services to fee based service. iv) Currency exchange and import controls: Some countries have import restrictions for certain classes of literature.
  • 37. Page37 v) Dwindling Budgets: The dwindling budget of libraries and individual toward information procurements. vi) Royalties: The scope of royalties increases the price of the literature. c) Technical: The technical barriers can be of the following types- i) Poor presentation of documentary products. ii) Less number of copies. iii) Lack of special system / equipment: Certain classes of documents need special equipment for reading or viewing. Example: Microfilm / fiche. iv) Complicated System: The complicated nature of system needs lot of patience and practice to get the required information. v) Lack of Awareness: Many of the users are not aware as to what services are available and what service can provide him the needed information. vi) Underqualified staff of libraries / documentation centres. vii) Lack of proper organizational structure. viii) Lack of bibliographical control tool. d) Linguistic: The linguistic barriers can be of the following types i) Inter linguistic problem ii) Intra language problem: Jargon such an neologism (coining or using of new words), synonyms (words that have similar meaning), acronyms (words formed from the initial letter of a name), etc. e) Psychological and Social: Psychological characteristic of user i.e. unwillingness to changes, question of prestige, shyness, selfishness, ignorance, traditional boundaries, mistrust, etc. f) Administrative and Political: The closed societies who allow very little information to cross their border or allow very little information to flow in. Components of a Computer Components of a Computer: The computer unit is frequently called as the computer system because of its numerous parts, machinery units and complicated sequential operation. A computer system has three main parts i.e Hardware, Software and Humanware. A general purpose computer has two main parts Hardware and Software. 1. Hardware: The physical or mechanical parts of the computer system that can be seen and touched are known as hardware. It consists of a combination and collection of electro-mechanical and electronic components and devices, electronic circuits and microelectronic equipment assembled in metal boxes in the form of modules and cabinet. All these equipment and elements are
  • 38. Page38 interconnected by wiring and switching communication components like transistors, capacitors, resistors, diodes, printed circuits, integrated circuits, main and auxiliary storage systems, various types of magnetic media, communication media for carrying and transformation of data, coded instruction, etc. The different hardware parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires. Any computer system has three important hardware parts. They are input device, central processing unit and the output device. The central processing unit itself has three parts, namely memory unit, control unit and arithmetic and logic unit. These three units along with the input and output devices form the five important components of any computer system. In addition to the above five parts mentioned, computers also have secondary storage devices, which are used for storing data or instruction on a long term basis. A) Input Unit: The input devices are used to transfer the information into the memory unit of a computer. In simplest term, they bring information into the computer from the user’s hand, i.e. input unit feeds data into the computer. It is thus a communication medium between the user and the machine. The input devices are of the following types. i) Keyboard: Keyboards are the most commonly used input devices usually having 83-84 keys and enhanced with 101 keys or even more. The enhanced keyboards are more popular. ii) Mouse: It is a hand-held pointing device that allows controlling the computer without having to type the instruction through keyboard. The Scrolling mouse is a small unit with a round ball at the bottom and with two depression switches at the upper top portion having again a scroll button. Nowadays cord less as well as without scroll ball-type of mouse is also used. iii) Scanners: Scanners are used to store or feed an entire image / data or page of other information into the computer system. Image scanner is a general-purpose device which digitizes a two- dimensional image. iv) Track Ball: A trackball is just like a mouse lying on its back. It is stationary and does not need to move on any surface. To move the pointer only the ball should be rotated with the thumb / finger or with the palm. The buttons next to the ball are used just like mouse button. v) Joystick: A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. Joysticks are often used to control video games and they usually have one or more push-buttons whose state can also be read by the computer. Fig. 2: Elements of a joystick elements: 1. Stick 2. Base 3. trigger 4. Extra buttons 5. Autofire switch 6. Throttle 7. Hat Switch (POV Hat) 8. Suction Cup Fig. 3: A 6×8 Wacom Intuos3 graphics tablet with DuoSwitch erasing Grip Pen stylus and 5-button scrollwheel puck. Fig. 4: Front and back of a Canon PowerShot A95.
  • 39. Page39 vi) Digitizing Tablet: A graphics tablet (or digitizing tablet, graphics pad, drawing tablet, pen pad or digitizer) is a computer input device that allows one to hand-draw images and graphics, similar to the way one draws images with a pencil and paper. These tablets may also be used to capture data or handwritten signatures. vii) Digital Camera: A digital camera (or digicam) is a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. viii) Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): It allows the computer to recognize character printed using magnetic ink. MICR is widely used in banks to read the cheque number written on the bottom of the cheque. It is also used in the back of credit cards and bank debit cards and ID cards. ix) Optical Character Recognition (OCR): An optical character reader is used to read character of special type fonts printed on conventional paper with conventional ink i.e. it involves reading text from paper, book or from a magazine articles but they still have difficulty with handwritten text. x) Bar Code Reader: Bar code readers are photoelectric scanner that reads the bar codes or vertical zebra striped marks printed on the product container and the computer automatically tells the prices of the product at the terminals. xi) Speech Recognition and Voice Response Devices: In this type of device the user speaks into a microphone which is attached to a digitizer. The dizitizer converts the analog sounds waves to “0” and “1”s which can be easily understood by the computer. Speech recognition devices are necessary because spoken commands are much quicker than typing. It helps to give command to a remote computer over telephone. It helps the computer usable to the blind people. In computer assisted learning environment it helps in the interaction between the man and machine. xii) Touchscreen: A touchscreen is a display that can detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. The touchscreen has two main attributes. Firstly, it enables one to interact with what is displayed directly on the screen, where it is displayed, rather than indirectly with a mouse or touchpad. Secondly, it lets one do so without requiring any intermediate device such as a stylus that needs to be held in the hand. Such displays can be attached to computers or, as terminals, to networks. xiii) Touchpad: A touchpad (also trackpad) is a pointing device consisting of specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on screen. They are a common feature of laptop computers and are also used as a substitute for a computer mouse where desk space is scarce. xiv) 14 Light Pen: A light pen is similar to a mouse except that with a light pen one can move the pointer and select objects on the display screen by directly pointing to the object with the help of the pen. xv) Optical Mark Recognition (OMR): Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) is also called mark sensing. It is a technology where an OMR device senses the presence or absence of a mark such as pencil mark. OMR is used in test such as aptitude test.
  • 40. Page40 B) Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU is the brain of any computer system; all major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU and it is also responsible for activating and controlling the operations of other units of a computer system. It guides, directs and controls a computer performance. It also executes the instruction given to it. The CPU consists of the ALU, control unit, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor. a) Arithematic and Logic Unit (ALU): The input devices are used to transfer the information into the memory unit of a computer. Information from the memory can be transferred to the ALU where comparison and calculation are done and the results are sent back to the memory unit. The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine, etc) and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers with limited precision. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other. Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, and NOT. These can be useful both for creating complicated conditional statements and processing Boolean logic. b) Control Unit: It acts as a manager which controls all activities being carried out within the computer. The control unit strictly obeys the instruction given by us, follows the instruction in the same sequence and executes them one after another until the entire set of instruction is exhausted. CU brings one instruction at a time from the memory, interprets it and obeys it by coordinating the working of all other units. The CU tells the input unit what is to be read and addresses the memory as to where it is to be stored. The CU ensures that according to the stored instruction the right operation is done on the right data at the right time. It manages and coordinates the entire computer system. The simplified descriptions of the steps that are performed by the Control unit are given below. Some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU * Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter (program counter is conceptually just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU); * Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems; * Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction; * Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code; * Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register; * If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation;
  • 41. Page41 * Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device * Jump back to step one. c) Memory Unit: It is the workspace area within the computer where the data and instructions are stored. It holds all data, instruction and results temporarily. It stores the data to be processed, the intermediate results and the final results until they are displayed. It contains the programs that are currently being run and the data the programs are operating on. In modern computers, the main memory is the electronic solid-state Random Access Memory (RAM). It is directly connected to the CPU via a "memory bus" and a "data bus". The arithmetic and logic unit can very quickly transfer information between a processor register and locations in main storage, also known as a "memory addresses". The memory bus is also called an address bus or front side bus and both buses are high- speed digital "superhighways". Access methods and speed are two of the fundamental technical differences between memory and mass storage devices. Main memories are of the following types i) Random Access Memory (RAM): It is the key working area of the memory. It is possible to select randomly and use any location of this memory. It is also called the read/write memory because information can be read from RAM chip and can also be written into it. It is a volatile storage medium i.e. the contents of the memory are lost when power is switched off/cut, as it requires a steady flow of electricity to maintain its content. RAM is also quite expensive. RAM may be of VRAM, WRAM, NVRAM. ii) Read Only Memory (ROM): It holds permanent data or instruction that can only be read. That information is permanently recorded and cannot be changed by the programmer. It is non volatile in nature i.e. the contents of ROM are not lost when the computer is switched off. It contains instruction to get the computer started when the switch is on, holds instruction and data that control the various peripheral units of the computer such as graphic display, disk drives, etc. Most personal computers contain a small amount of ROM that stores critical programmes, as it is expensive to produce. Typically, ROM must also be completely erased before it can be rewritten, making large scale use impractical, if not impossible. ROM may be of the following types- * Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): A PROM is a memory chip on which set of instructions or information can be stored, but it cannot be modified or wiped out later on. Like ROM its memory is also non volatile. To write data on a PROM one will need a special device called a PROM programmer or PROM burner. The difference between a PROM and ROM is that PROM is manufactured as blank memory where ROM is programmed during the manufacturing process. * Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): EPROM is used widely in personal computers to enable the manufacturer to change the contents of PROM before the computer is actually skipped so that the bugs can be removed and new versions can be installed shortly before delivery. The EPROM is of two types - Electrically Erasable PROM (EEPROM), where high voltage electric pulses are used to erase the previous data or instruction and after that the disk can be reused and Ultra Violet Erasable PROM (UVEPROM), which retains its data or instruction until it is exposed to Ultra Violet light. The UV light clears its contents making it possible to reprogramme the memory.
  • 42. Page42 The difference between an EPROM and PROM is that while in PROM the data or instruction can be written only once and cannot be erased, in EPROM the content can be erased and reprogramming can be done. iii) Flash Memory: Many modern PCs have their Basic Input Output System (BIOS) stored on flash memory chip so that it can easily be updated if necessary. Such type of BIOS is sometimes called flash BIOS. Flash memory is also important for modem as it enables the modem manufacturer to support new protocols as they become standardized. EEPROM is similar to flash memory (sometimes called flash EEPROM). The principal difference between the two is that EEPROM requires data to be written or erased in byte at a time whereas flash memory allows data to be written or erased in blocks. This makes flash memory faster. iv) Cache Memory: It is a special type of internal memory used by many central processing units to increase their performance or "throughput". Some of the information in the main memory is duplicated in the cache memory, which is slightly slower but of much greater capacity than the processor registers, and faster but much smaller than main memory. Multi-level cache memory is also commonly used—"primary cache" being smallest, fastest and closest to the processing device; "secondary cache" being larger and slower, but still faster and much smaller than main memory. C) Output Unit: An output device is any product or machine that is capable of bringing information for user view. It presents the processed data or information to the user. It can be a printed page, a picture in monitor, and so on. Anything which comes out of a computer system is the output of it. The common output devices are- a) Monitor [Video Display Unit (VDU) / Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)]: It looks like a television. The advantage of having a video display unit is that as we write we can see what is being fed into the computer and by this way we can spot the mistakes and make the necessary correction. It also helps to display the stored information inside the computer system. b) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD): CRT screens are relatively heavy and bulky, therefore unsuitable for small portable computer like note book. Considering this the screen of a portable computer is effectively replaced by a flat panel LCD screen which is smaller in size and lighter in weight. c) Printer: A computer printer, or more commonly called the printer, is a device that produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are permanently attached by a printer cable to a computer which serves as a document source. The latest technology is combining printers with a scanner and/or fax machine in a single unit. The world's first computer printer was a 19th-century mechanically driven apparatus invented by Charles Babbage for his Difference Engine. d) Plotter: A plotter is a vector graphics printing device which operates by moving a pen over the surface of paper. Plotters are used in applications such as computer-aided design, though they are being replaced with wide-format conventional printers.
  • 43. Page43 e) Speaker: Speaker output the music or speech from the programme. A speaker or loudspeaker converts an electrical signal to sound. The speaker pushes a medium in accord with the pulsations of an electrical signal, thus causing sound waves to propagate to where they can then be received by the ear. f) Computer Output on Microfilm and Microfiche (COM): The output from the computer, instead of being printed is displayed on a high resolution cathode ray tube, and the output is obtained in microfilm or microfiche from which it is often used to store massive data in compact form. Then, when needed, with the help of a special microfilm reader it is used to read the output. g) Speech Output Unit: A speech output unit is one which reads string of character stored in a computer memory and converts it into spoken sentence. This type of speech output is very useful in many areas. Examples: A telephone where a message is given to the caller when the number dialed does not exist, railway and airlines enquires. D) Auxiliary Storage Devices: Auxiliary memory / storage devices or secondary storage supplements the main memory and it requires the computer to use its input/output channels to access the information. Secondary storage is also known as “mass storage devices”. It functions as back up device even if by some accident the computer is crashed and the data in it is unrecoverable. One can restore it from the backups. It acts both as input and output devices. The secondary storage devices are also used as a transport medium to transfer data or information from one computer system to another computer system. If we use keyboard as an input device we will waste a lot of valuable computer times because manual input is always slow. Secondary storage is also used for long-term storage of persistent information. Secondary storage device includes Magnetic tapes, Floppy disc, CD / DVD, Pen drive, External Hard Disc etc. The Floppy and Magnetic Tapes are now obsolete as secondary storage devices. i) CD-ROM: CD-ROM is an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-only memory. The standard CD-ROM holds 650 or 700 MiB of data. A "700 MB" CD has a nominal capacity of about 700 MiB. The CD-ROM is popular for distribution of software, especially multimedia applications, and large databases. ii) DVD: It typically may contain at least 4.4 GiB of data, nearly 7 times the amount of a CD-ROM. DVD capacities are given in decimal units: A "4.7 GB" DVD has a nominal capacity of about 4.38 GiB. iii) Pen Drive: A USB flash drive consists of a NAND-type flash memory data storage device integrated with a USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface. USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, much smaller than a floppy disk, and most weigh less than an ounce (30 g). Storage capacities can range from 64 MB to 256 GB with steady improvements in size and price per capacity. Some allow 1 million write or erase cycles and have 10-year data retention, connected by USB 1.1 or USB 2.0. 2. Software: A computer cannot perform on its own. It needs to be exclusively instructed on what it has to do, the programmes written for a computer to perform different operation are called software and it can be defined as ‘the set of computer programme, procedures and associated documentation
  • 44. Page44 or complete set of instruction which enable the computer to obtain solution of a problem that resides in the memory or storage device of a computer’. (The programme is a set of instructions written in computer language). Software is a general term that is used to describe only single programme or group of programme and makes the hardware run. It acts as an interface between the user and the computer. Computer softwares are generally classified into two broad categories: A) System Software: It is a set of one or more programs, designed to control the operation of a computer system. Generally, the system software supports the running of the other software, communicates with other peripherals devices, supports the development of other types of software and supervises the user of various hardware resources. System software is of the following types- a) Operating System: An operating system (OS) is an integrated set of computer programmes that manage the hardware and software resources and the overall operation of a computer system. The operating system is designed to support the activities of computer installation. It acts as an interface between a user and the hardware i.e. all computer resources. It forms a platform for other system software and for application software. Its prime objectives are to improve the performance and efficiency of a computer system, increase the facility and the ease with which a system can be used. Most operating systems have a command line interpreter as a basic user interface, but they may also provide a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for ease of operation. Operating systems are mainly of two types- i) Command / Character User Interface (CUI): In this type of OS the user has to type the commands at the command prompt mode, which will act as an input to execute and program. E.g. UNIX, MS DOS. ii) Graphic User Interface (GUI): In this type the user is able to select files, programmes or commands by pointing to graphical representations on the screen and thereby it avoids the typing of lengthy complex commands. E.g. Windows XP. b) Language Processor: Men use their own language (High Level Language) to write their programmes because it is much easier to code in such languages. However, the computer is unable to understand such a High Level Language; it only understands its own language i.e. Machine Language (Binary Language). Therefore, it becomes necessary to process a HLL to LLL. The computer programme that performs this job is the language processor. The language processors are of the following types- i) Assembler: In the 1950s to reduce programming complexity in Machine Language and to provide some standardization, assembly languages were developed. Assembly language is also known as Symbolic Language. Assembly language uses abbreviation or mnemonic code to replace the earlier 0s and 1s of machine language. i.e. it substitutes letters and symbols for the numbers in the machine language program. The function of an assembler is to translate an assembly code into the computer machine code / language. ii) Interpreter: This language processor converts a HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line. If there is any error in any line, it reports it at the same time
  • 45. Page45 and the programme execution cannot resume until the error is rectified. For error debugging the interpreter is very useful as it reports the errors at the same time, but, once errors are removed then also interpreter is present in the memory. So, unnecessary usage of memory takes place in this case. iii) Compiler: It converts the entire HLL program at one go and reports all the errors of the programme along with the line numbers. After all the errors are removed, the programme is recompiled and after that the compiler is not needed in the memory as the object programme is available. B) Application Software: These are the programmes written by the programmers to enable the computer to perform a specific task such as processing words, inventory control, handling calculation and figures, medical accounting, financial accounting, result preparation, railway reservation, billing, etc. It can be defined as “a set of programmes necessary to carry out operation for a specified application”. Application software can further be subdivided into three categories- a) Packages: The application softwares that are designed for the individual user, so that they can be used in a manner that suits their needs and requirements are known as packages. Actually it is a bundle of essential features for carrying out a particular task. There are different packages available in the market. Some of the most common categories are given bellow- i) Word Processing Software: It is the software that processes textual matter and creates organized and flawless documents. It provides a general set of tools for entering, editing and formatting text. A word processor has everything that a conventional type writer has; in addition, it also removes various barriers of the conventional type writers. eg. M.S. Word, Wordstar, WordPerfect, Softword, etc. ii) Spreadsheet: An electronic spreadsheet is a programme that accepts data values in tabular form and allows the users to manipulate / calculate / analyze data in the desired manner. It can also generate graphs and charts to show the relationship among numbers. Eg. MS Excel, Quattropro, etc. iii) Database Management System: A DBMS is a software that can effectively store, manipulate and handle bulk of data. Eg. Foxpro, MS Access, Oracle, etc. iv) Desktop Publishing Software: Desktop publishing packages handle page layout by combining the function of a traditional typesetter and a layout artist. v) Graphics: The application software that manipulates images is known as graphics software. vi) Multimedia: The software that incorporates images, text, sounds, animation, video sequences is known as multimedia software. vii) Presentation Software: The application software that concentrates on professional looking visual aids is called presentation graphics software. Eg. Corel Draw, Macro Media, Director, MS. Power Point, etc. b) Utilities Software: Utility software (also known as service program, service routine, tool, or utility routine) is a computer software designed to help, manage and tune the computer hardware,
  • 46. Page46 operating system or application software by performing a single task or a small range of tasks. Some utility softwares have been integrated into most major operating systems. i) Text Editors: Text and Hex / Editors directly modify the text or data of a file. These files could be data or an actual programme. ii) Backup Utility: Backup utilities can make a copy of all the information stored on a disk, and restore either the entire disk (e.g. in the event of disk failure) or selected files (e.g. in the event of accidental deletion). iii) Compression Utility: Disk compression utilities can transparently compress / uncompress the contents of a disk, increasing the capacity of the disk. iv) Disk Defragmenter: Disk defragmenters can detect computer files whose contents are stored on the hard disk in disjointed fragments, and move the fragments together to increase efficiency. v) Antivirus Software: Anti-virus utilities scan for computer viruses. c) Customized Software: Customized software (also known as Bespoke software) is a type of software that is developed either for a specific organization or function that differs from or is opposite of other already available softwares (also called off-the-shelf or COTSsoftware). It is generally not targeted to the mass market, but is usually created for companies, business entities, and organizations. The trained computer professionals who, by their knowledge are able to run the computer and can perform different operations are known as Humanware. They are the persons who programme, design and operate a computer installation such as System Analyst, Programmer and computer operator. Components of Information System Components of Information System: Information System consists of a number of organs or components. These organs or components work in harmony to achieve the define purposes. The main components of Information Systems are i) Libraries ii) Documentation Centres iii) Information Centres iv) Data Banks v) Data Centres vi) Information Analysis Centres vii) Referral Centres viii) Clearing Houses
  • 47. Page47 ix) Translation Centres, etc. 1. Libraries: Libraries are by far the oldest institutions charged with the responsibility of collecting, storing and disseminating of information. Library is a collection of books or other written or printed materials, as well as the facility in which they are housed and served the reader within an institution that is responsible for their maintenance. According to Ranganathan, the father of library science in India “a library is a public institution or establishment charged with the care of collection of books, the duty of making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every person in its neighborhood into a habitual library goers and reader of books.” Libraries are established by the government, academic institutions or by some other special organizations. Libraries can be grouped into three major divisions i.e Public (State Central Library, District Library, Sub divisional Library, Rural Library), Academic (University Library, College Library), School and Special (Libraries attached to industries, Doordarshan Kendra, All India Radio, etc). a) Collections: In ancient day libraries gathered huge collection of manuscripts and preserved them most efficiently for the posterity. Modern libraries may contain a wide range of materials, including manuscripts and pamphlets, posters, photographs, motion pictures, and videotapes, sound recordings, and computer databases in various forms. b) Services: Libraries are the carriers of information from one generation to the next generation. Most of the new technology based information businesses are still largely dependent on the library for their survival which includes information broker, consultants, referral centre. In the days of IT also libraries continue to serve millions of grateful users in new and improved ways and it is hoped that in neat future also it will be the only affordable source of information. The change in structure of libraries comes as an information system that consists of a number of organs or components. These organs or components work in harmony to achieve the define purposes. It is advantageous to discuss the changing role of library and information centers on the basis of such information unit or change in structure of the libraries. 2. Documentation Centres: ASLIB adopted the definition of the term documentation for the Journal of Documentation in 1945 as “recording, organization and dissemination of specialized knowledge”. Late Dr. S. C. Bradford defines it as “the art of documentation is the art of collecting, classifying and making readily accessible the records of all kinds of intellectual activities”. a) Origin of Documentation Centres: Books were not able to communicate latest scientific thought as a result importance of scientific periodicals had increased. With the acceleration of research scientific periodicals gained further importance. Along with the scientific periodicals new kind of literature like conference proceedings, annual reviews, patents, standards and specification, theses, secondary periodicals like indexing and abstracting journals, directories, research reports, etc. started appearing in big way. Further these paper based information sources are supplemented by CD, DVD, etc. As a result libraries started acquiring all these materials along with books. To have a
  • 48. Page48 comprehensive term for all these media of communication “Documentation” was brought into vogue. The reader for this kind of new literature steadily increases but the nature of complexity of information sources led to the demand of services that are outside the domain of traditional libraries and the traditional library techniques were found to be unsuitable hence, a new breed of organization known as documentation centres paved the way. b) Services: Documentation centres find out new vistas in serving the need of the user. It gives emphasis towards provision of information contained in document rather than serving the document themselves. It analyses the content of the documentation in finer details, provide indexing, abstracting, union catalogue, translation, etc. services to meet the need of the specialist users. Another basic function of any documentation centres is that it brings to the notice of specialist user, current and recent literature of value to them. Services of documentation centres are designed to satisfy the existing and anticipated needs of its users. The main purposes served by these units are - To answer the queries; - To help in finding the primary document; - To identify as accurately as possible all information of potential interest to users; - To see that the user receive the information. 3. Information Centres: An information centre can be defined as “an organization that a) Select, acquire stores and retrieve specific information in response to requests. b) Announces, abstract, extract and indexes information and c) Disseminate information in response to requests from documents or in anticipation”. Meltzer defines the information centre as “The Special library with added functions of analyzing and synthesizing information needed by management, staff and the technical personnel of the organization”. Thus information centres gives emphasis towards the provision of information contained in the document rather than document themselves which is the main consideration of traditional libraries. A library handles and provides address of a document containing information but an information centre gives information that is inside the document and also processes and disseminates it. The information centre differs from the library in following main areas i) Degree of delegation by the user i.e. the task of searching and evaluating information is dome by the staff ii) Exercise of judgment and evaluation as to the importance of the retrieved material in relation to the client’s request iii) The giving of information itself rather than document. iv) The processing of search input into a variety of search products
  • 49. Page49 v) Provides information to not only user of parent organization but also outside the organization too. vi) Not only acquire, process, store and retrieve information (the library function) but also reduce analyse and present information / data. 4. Data Banks: Data Banks are usually concerned with a broader field. They are very precise grids to extract the raw data from data collection and the relevant literature which they arrange in structured files so as to be ready for subsequent processing to answer user queries. The essential characteristic of data bank is storing information in a form (so data should be in a machine readable files i.e. for storing and retrieving of data computer should be used) which will allow continuous updating, augmentation and approach from different points of view and which has the capacity of supporting simultaneously a number of user at remote locations. To use the analogy of a bank, a user can deposit or withdraw from several branches. Satmana defines a data bank as an open information system with sets of data known as files. It is composed of the following elements i) The basic files known as data base. ii) A filing system that makes to integrate data from different files, relative to the same entities iii) A data processing system that allows users to extract relevant information from the files adopted to their needs and in a form suited to their decision pattern. Data centre and data banks are dissimilar only regarding the subjects they deals and type of data they handle. Simply stated data centres handle only numerical data and mostly for science and technology. Data banks are multidisciplinary and deal with all types of data particularly administrative, statistical, techno-economics, census and survey, and similar other that are produced by several institutions. Data banks handle data only while data centres handle data themselves or literature about data. 5. Data Centres: According to UNESCO a data centre “constitutes an organization handling quantitative numerical data” Such centers take the primary function of collecting, organizing, and disseminating data (mainly numerical) and also provide a measurement service and are in a position to advance relevant measurement techniques. They store data on a narrow field of specification. Data centres try to collect arrange and store numerical data pertaining to a specific subject field or to answer specific queries. Data centre activities are anticipatory operations planned keeping in view the requirements of its user. It also checks systematically all available data and organizes them into a number of categories for the purpose of showing the current state of knowledge together with comments on the precision or reliability of the data in regard to the various aspects of a product or phenomena. It may be stated here that the activities of a data centre may comprise of the following i) Data Collection ii) Data Control iii) Data Codification
  • 50. Page50 iv) Data Organization ans structuring into a database v) Data Retrieval Example of data centre include National Data Centre for Crystallography, University of Madras, India. 6. Information Analysis Centres: The COSATI standing panel wrote the following comprehensive definition of Information Analysis Centre (IAC) “An information analysis centre is a formally structured organizational unit, specifically (but not necessarily exclusively) established for the purpose of acquiring, selecting, storing, retrieving, evaluating, analyzing an synthesizing a body of information and / or data in a clearly defined specialized field or pertaining to a specified mission with intent of compiling, digesting, repackaging or otherwise organizing and presenting pertinent information and / or data in a form most authoritative, timely and useful to a society of peers and management”. The key activities of IAC s are analysis, interpretation, synthesis, evaluation and repackaging of information carried out by subject specialists, resulting in the production of new, evaluated information in the form of critical reviews, state of art, monographs or data compilation as well as substantive, evaluated responses to queries for the purpose of assisting a community of users more broadly representative than the staff of the parent institutes of laboratories. These centres have to closely monitor the literature produced in the field, evaluate the utility of each piece of information so gathered and the information are communicate to the users in a directly usable form. The results of analysis are communicated either through a regular publication or by way of sporadic reports. It is very much essential that these centres should verify the information so gathered with regard to the validity, reliability and accuracy before dissemination. 7. Referral Centres: These do not provide the user with the documents. Instead it refers or directs them to the source from where they can get the data or the documents. Mostly to secondary publication, information centres, professional organizations, research institutions, clearing houses and individual scientist, etc. They maintain files of sources, directories, etc. The referral centre may even bring out such documents. So, in simple referral centre provide switching mechanism among different types of information institutions. The referral service may be one of the activities of a documentation centre and it is difficult to find units performing this function exclusively. To achieve its objectives a referral centre has to perform certain basic operations. These includes i) A referral centre possesses an inventory of all significant information resources in different disciplines. ii) It compiles and publishes directories of scientific and technical information resources. iii) It analyzes the operating relationships that exist in the scientific information. The function of referral centres includes i) Collect information about information sources within the range of scope of either the subject or activity of the referral centre.
  • 51. Page51 ii) Prepares comprehensive inventory of types of information services available from these sources with a detailed subject index to facilitate access. iii) Functions as an intermediary between inquirers and the organization or individuals who possess specialized information of the subject of enquiry; iv)Guides users to appropriate sources where from the required information may be obtaining. The Examples of referral center includes a) British Library Lending Division (BLLD), UK. b) National Referral Centre, Library of Congress. 8. Clearing Houses: A clearing house is a central agency for collection, classification and distribution of information. It may include specialized information centres as well as conventional libraries. It represents a depository for document with the additional objectives of servicing as a central agency engaged in the distribution of information. It also includes such functions as collecting and maintaining records of research and development. Clearing houses provide a single point of access to documents originating from a number of sources from different places, in different languages. The producers of the documents inform the clearing house about the bibliographical details of the document and usually send them a copy. The clearing houses circulate the description of the documents to the organization that are interested in the field and to the participating organizations. They may provide a copy of these documents as well on request if available. These units are organized either on a cooperative basis or by an international or national agency. Most of the clearing houses have specialized as well as they developed collections. They have information gathering network to acquire documents in their subject areas. They also provide specialized information services in some selected areas. They answer specific and general type of questions and may act as central searching places for enquiry especially for research and development areas. The difference between a documentation center and a clearing house is that the documentation centre deals with conventional documents, whereas the clearing house deals with the non-conventional documents like conference proceedings, scientific reports, document of limited circulation, etc. 9. Translation Centres: In modern times in any discipline literature are published in many languages as a result, scientist in need of particular information find it difficult to be able to understand the contents of the documents. To solve the problem, some national and international level organization comes forward to help the scientist in this regard. They translate the content of the documents from one language to another to meet the needs of the user. In the field of science and technology following centre provides translation services. a) National Translation Centre, Chicago, America
  • 52. Page52 b) International Translation Centre, Delft, Netherlands c) British Library Lending Division, Boston 10. Data Consolidation and Evaluation Centre: It is an advance form of information units which check systematically all available data and organize them into a number of categories for the purpose of showing the current state of knowledge together with comments on the precision or reliability of the data in regard to the various aspects of a product or phenomenon. 11. Let Us Sum Up: In practical life each of the information unit performs more or less the same function, at least to a certain extent making it difficult to make a distinction between different components of information system. So it will not be correct to go by the name of the information unit. However Claire Guinchat and Michel Menou say that the most important criterion for distinguishing the information unit is the kind of information activity (or the primary function) they perform. Computer Computer: The industrial machine eliminates muscular effort from production; just like that the computing machine eliminates clerical and computational effort from administration, research, etc. The word “computer” is derived from the word “compute”, which means to calculate. It is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations according to a set of instructions called program. It is “a device that receives, processes and presents information” (McGraw Hill, 1997, p. 270). A computer is a device that solves problems by applying prescribed operation on data entered into it. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1991, p. 638). A computer can also be defined as a set of interacting elements, responding to input so as to produce desire output. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions. The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century. From the end of the 19th century onwards though, the word began to take on its more familiar meaning, describing a machine that carries out computations. Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word "computer" is now defined. By this standard, many earlier devices would no longer be called computers by today's definition, but are usually referred to as such in their historical context. The technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, but most still use the Von Neumann architecture. The design made the universal computer a practical reality. Vacuum tube-based computers were in use throughout the 1950s. Vacuum tubes were largely replaced in the 1960s by transistor-based computers. When compared with tubes, transistors are smaller, faster, cheaper, use less power, and are more reliable. In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, caused another generation of decreased size and cost, and another generation of increased speed and reliability. By the 1980s, computers became sufficiently small and cheap to replace simple mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. The 1980s also witnessed home computers and the
  • 53. Page53 now ubiquitous personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household. Experts don’t agree on computer classification because computer technology is changing so fast that within the span of a month, when a new system comes out, it is faced with two potential factors- one costs the same and has a much higher performance and the other has the same performance but costs much less. Thus, a recently introduced smaller system can outcome (outperform) the large model of a few years ago and a new PC can do the work of an earlier mini at a much lower cost. This is the Computer Age and these machines are beginning to affect our lives in many ways. There are so many applications of computers. The computer era appears before us with the promise of new and improved ways of thinking, living and working. Computers are all around us and avoiding them is virtually impossible. We have been exposed to the world of computer hype, computer advertisements and computer headlines. We interact with computers in our daily lives - whether we are at the cinemas, the school, or the public library. Computer Storage Computer Storage: The fundamental components of a general-purpose computer are Input Unit, Central Processing Unit (CPU) and Output Unit. The CPU consists of Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU), Control Unit and Memory. If memory is removed, the device we had would be a simple digital signal processing device (e.g. calculator, media player) instead of a computer. Computer storage, computer memory, and often casually memory refer to computer components, devices and recording media that retain digital data, to be used for computing at some interval of time. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers, and coupled with a CPU. Some of the commonly associated terminologies related to computer storage are discussed below a) Memory Unit: Memory is the work space area of a computer system where data and instructions are stored. Text, numbers, pictures, audio, and nearly any other form of information can be converted into a binary digits i.e. ‘1’ or ‘0’ and a digital computer can understand information only in terms of ‘0’s and ‘1’s. i) Bit: A binary digit i.e. ‘0’s and ‘1’s is called a bit and it can be define as an electronic signal, which is either On ‘1’ or Off ‘0’. It is also the smallest unit of information the computer uses. ii) Byte: A group of 8 bits is called a byte. There can be 256 different combinations possible in Byte (8 bit) and each character typed consumes one byte. The most common unit of storage is the byte. Bit = “0” and “1”. 1 Byte = 8 bits = 1 character. 1024 Byte= 1 Kilo Byte 1024 Kilo Byte= 1 Mega Byte. 1024 Mega Byte= 1 Giga Byte, and so on.
  • 54. Page54 b) Storage Capacity: It is the total amount of stored information that a storage device or medium can hold. It is expressed as a quantity of bits or bytes (e.g. 750 megabytes). c) Storage Density: It refers to the compactness of stored information. It is the storage capacity of a medium divided with a unit of length, area or volume (e.g. 1.2 megabytes per square centimeter). d) Latency: It is the time needed to access a particular location in storage. The relevant unit of measurement is typically nanosecond for primary storage, millisecond for secondary storage, and second for tertiary storage. It may make sense to separate read latency and write latency, and in case of sequential access storage, minimum, maximum and average latency. e) Throughput: It is the rate at which information can read from or written to the storage. In computer storage, throughput is usually expressed in terms of megabytes per second or MB/s, though bit rate may also be used. As in the case of latency, read rate and write rate may also be differ in throughput. f) Word length: The number of bits that a computer can process at a time in parallel is called its word length. It is nothing but the measure of the computing power of a computer. Commonly used word lengths are 8, 16, 32 or 64 bits. 1. Storage Media: Various forms of storage, based on various natural phenomena, have been invented. So far, no practical universal storage medium exists, and all forms of storage have some drawbacks. Therefore a computer system usually contains several kinds of storage, each with an individual need and purpose. A) Types of Storage Media Based on Memory Hierarchy and Distance from CPU: Based on memory hierarchy, or distance from the central processing unit the memory or computer storage can be categorize as primary, secondary, tertiary and network storage. a) Primary Storage: Primary storage or internal memory is directly connected to the central processing unit of the computer. It is used to store data that is likely to be in active use and is typically very fast, as in the case of RAM. It is present for the CPU to function correctly. Primary storage can be accessed randomly, that is, accessing any location in storage at any moment takes the same amount of time. A particular location in storage is selected by its physical memory address. That address remains the same, no matter how the particular value stored there changes. The primary storage sometimes also refers as memory (main storage / primary storage). Today, primary storage is typically random access memory, a type of semiconductor memory. The primary storage typically consists of three kinds of storage: The processor registers is internal to the central processing unit. Registers contain information that the arithmetic and logic unit needs to carry out the current instruction. They are technically the fastest of all forms of computer storage, being switching transistors integrated on the CPU's silicon chip, and functioning as electronic "flip-flops".
  • 55. Page55 The other two types are Cache Memory and Main Memory. b) Secondary and Off-Line Storage: Secondary storage, or external memory supplements the main memory and it requires the computer to use its input / output channels to access the information. Secondary storage is used for long-term storage of persistent information. Secondary storage is also known as “mass storage devices” or “auxiliary memory” and is much slower then primary memory. The need of secondary storage devices are felt due to the following reasons- i) Limited storage capacity in primary storage devices: The capacity of primary storage devices is limited so to store data and programs that are too large to fit into the random-access memory at one time, we require the auxiliary storage devices. ii) To make blank spaces in primary storage devices: If the capacity of the primary storage devices becomes full of information then we will be unable to use it for our day to day activities. iii) For easy transportation: Primary memories are not portable in nature, so for easy transportation we require auxiliary storage devices. iv) Security against physical calamities: If primary memory is destroyed due to some physical calamities or by some accident computer crashes and the data in it cannot be recovered then the data in the secondary storage devices can be used for backup utility. v) Multiple copies: To obtain multiplied copy of our information we require secondary storage devices. Some of the characteristics of secondary storage devices are- i) Storage medium can be easily removed from the computer system. ii) It uses input / output channel of the computer system to access the information. iii) Mainly used for data transfer and archival purposes. iv) The cost of secondary memory is very less as compared to primary memory. v) The secondary storage is more permanent in nature, non volatile and secures method for storing programs and data compared to RAM memory. vi) The Secondary or mass storage is typically of much greater capacity than primary storage (main memory). In modern computers, Hard Disks, CDs, DVDs, memory cards, flash memory devices including "USB drives", Zip disks and magnetic tapes are commonly used for off-line mass storage purposes. "Hot- pluggable" USB hard disks are also available. Off-line storage devices used in the past include punched cards, microforms, and removable Winchester disk drums. i) Hard Disks: A hard disk is a fixed unit placed within the cabinet of the computer system and it can not be removed like a CD. It consists of rigid circular platters of magnetizable material sealed in a
  • 56. Page56 metal box with associated read/write heads. In modern computers, hard disks are usually used for mass storage and it is no removable magnetic media as it is usually internal to the computer. The time taken to access a given byte of information stored on a hard disk is typically a few thousandths of a second, or milliseconds. By contrast, the time taken to access a given byte of information stored in random access memory is measured in thousand-millionths of a second, or nanoseconds. So, hard disks are typically about a million times slower than memory. This also illustrates the very significant speed difference which distinguishes solid-state memory from rotating magnetic storage devices. In today’s context 160 GB is of hard disk storage is minimal for personnel computer; one can also go for even 1 terabytes. ii) Optical Storage Devices: The computer storage devices in which data is placed and / or retrieved by means of a focused optical beam is called as optical storage device. Optical technology involves the use of lasers (i.e. by burning microscopic “pits” to represent 1s and 0s) to enable or recode the data from an optical laser disk. In case of optical disk nothing touches the encoded portion and so not worm out by the playing process and last long. Rotating optical storage devices, such as CD and DVD drives, are typically even slower than hard disks, although their access speeds are likely to improve with advances in technology. The term Worm drives/ device, optical disk libraries, jukebox / optical jukebox, write once read only device/ drives etc. are synonymous with optical storage devices. - Optical Disk: The laser optical disks are hard metal disk ranging in size from 4.72 inches to 14 inches. They were originally developed as a compact disk for audio and video application. Most optical disks are read only storage devices. Eg. of optical disk includes Jukebox, DVD, CD, etc. - Jukebox: A jukebox is an optical disk device that can automatically load and unload optical disk and provide as much as 500 GB of near line information. The device is often called as optical disk – libraries, Robotic drives or autochangers. - DVD: DVD (commonly known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc") is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. DVDs resemble Compact Discs as their diameter is the same (120 mm (4.72 inches) or occasionally 80 mm (3.15 inches) in diameter), but they are encoded in a different format and at a much higher density. A DVD typically may contain at least 4.4 GiB of data, nearly 7 times the amount of a CD-ROM and about 20 times faster than a CD-ROM. There are several possible successors to DVD being developed by different consortiums: Sony/Panasonic's Blu-ray Disc (BD), Toshiba's HD DVD and Maxell's Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD). However, as reported in a mid 2005 issue of Popular Mechanics, it is not yet clear which technology will win the format war over DVD. HD DVD discs have a lower capacity than Blu-ray Discs (15 GB vs. 25 GB for single layer, 30 GB vs. 50 GB for dual layer). Other speculations as to which format will win include Blu-ray Disc's larger hardware vendor and movie studio support, and HD-DVD's faster read times. - CD-ROM: CD-ROM is an abbreviation for "Compact Disc Read-only memory. It is a small plastic disk used to store information digitally. The disk is covered with a transparent plastic coating and is played on machine that uses laser to read the pattern of pitted and unpitted areas on the disk’s surface. Since nothing touches the encoded portion the CD’s is not worn out by the playing process. It is possible to produce composite CDs containing both data and audio with the latter capable of being
  • 57. Page57 played on a CD player, whilst data or perhaps video can be viewed on a computer. These are called Enhanced CDs. The standard CD-ROM holds 650 or 700 MiB of data. The CD-ROM is popular for distribution of software, especially multimedia applications, and large databases. A CD weighs less than 30 grams. - Optical Tape: The optical tape is similar in appearance to a magnetic tape, but data are stored by optical laser technique. Like other optical media the optical tape is also read only data storage device. - Optical Card: Optical cards are also called as laser card. It is in the size of a credit card and has an optical laser encoded strip that can store approximately 2 MB of data. - USB Pen Drive: USB Pen Drive is a small keyring-sized device that can be used to easily transfer files between USB-compatible systems. It comes with a very different size and capacities. c) Tertiary and Database Storage: Database storage is a system where information in computers is stored in large databases, data banks, data warehouses, or data vaults. It involves packing and storing large amounts of storage devices throughout a series of shelves in a room, usually an office, all linked together. The information in database storage systems can be accessed by a supercomputer, mainframe computer, or personal computer. Databases, data banks, and data warehouses, etc, can only be accessed by authorized users. In Tertiary or database storage a robotic arm will "mount" (connect) or "dismount" off-line mass storage media according to the computer operating system's demands. Tertiary storage is used in the realms of enterprise storage and scientific computing on large computer systems and business computer networks, and is something a typical personal computer user never sees firsthand. d) Network Storage: Network storage is any type of computer storage that involves accessing information over a computer network. Network storage arguably allows to centralize the information management in an organization, and to reduce the duplication of information. Network storage includes: i) Network-Attached Storage: It is secondary or tertiary storage attached to a computer which another computer can access at file level over a local-area network, a private wide-area network, or in the case of online file storage, over the Internet. ii) Storage Area Network: It provides other computers with storage capacity over a network, the crucial difference between Network-Attached Storage (NAS) and Storage Area Networks (SAN) is the former presents and manages file systems to client computers, whilst a SAN provides access to disks at block addressing level, leaving it to attaching systems to manage data or file systems within the provided capacity. iii) Network Computers: Network computers are computers that do not contain internal secondary storage devices. Instead, documents and other data are stored on a network-attached storage. Confusingly sometimes primary storage can be used to refer to local random-access disk storage, which should properly be called secondary storage. If this type of storage is called primary storage, then the term secondary storage would refer to offline, sequential-access storage like tape media.
  • 58. Page58 B) Based on Volatility of Information: Based on volatile and non volatile nature of information stored in the memory, memory can be of the following types- a) Volatile Memory: It requires constant power to maintain the stored information. It is typically used only for primary storage, but at the same time primary storage is not necessarily volatile, even though today's most cost-effective primary storage technologies are volatile. Non-volatile technologies have been widely used for primary storage in the past and may again be in the future. b) Dynamic Memory: It is volatile memory that demands to be periodically refreshed, or read and rewritten to store information without modifications. c) Non-volatile Memory: The Non volatile memory retains the stored information even if it is not constantly supplied with electric power. It is suitable for long-term storage of information, and therefore used for secondary, tertiary, and off-line storage. C) Based on Access: Based on the access provision, memory can be divided into the following categories- a) Random Access: In Random access one can access any point at random i.e. without passing through intervening points. It means that any location in storage can be accessed at any moment without wasting much time. This makes random access memory well suited for primary storage.Example: Magnetic disk, Optical disk, Zip disks b) Sequential Access: In sequential access the data stored in the media can only be read in sequence and to get to a particular point on the media one has to go through all the preceding points. It means to access a piece of information takes a varying amount of time, depending on which piece of information was accessed last. The device may need to seek (e.g. to position the read/write head correctly), or cycle (e.g. to wait for the correct location in a revolving medium to appear below the read/write head). Example includes magnetic tapes and such other media. D) Based on Ability to Change Information: Based on the provision of modifying the information, computer memory can be of the following types- a) Read / Write Storage, or Mutable Storage: It allows information to be overwritten at any time. A computer without some amount of read/write storage for primary storage purposes would be useless for many tasks. Modern computers typically use read/write storage also for secondary storage. Slow write, fast read storage is read/write storage which allows information to be overwritten multiple times, but with the write operation being much slower than the read operation. Examples include CD-RW. b) Read Only Storage: It retains the information stored at the time of manufacture, and write once storage (WORM) allows the information to be written only once at some point after manufacture. These are called immutable storage. Immutable storage is used for tertiary and off-line storage. Examples include CD-R. E) Addressability of Information: Based on the provision of addressability of information, computer memory can be of the following types-
  • 59. Page59 a) Location-addressable Storage: Here, each individually accessible unit of information in storage is selected with its numerical memory address. In modern computers, location-addressable storage usually limits to primary storage, accessed internally by computer programs, since location- addressability is very efficient, but burdensome for humans. b) Content-addressable Storage: Here, each individually accessible unit of information is selected with a hash value or a short identifier with number? Pertaining to the memory address the information is stored on. Content-addressable storage can be implemented using software (computer program) or hardware (computer device), with hardware being faster but more expensive option. c) File System Storage: Here, information is divided into files of variable length, and a particular file is selected with human-readable directory and file names. The underlying device is still location- addressable, but the operating system of a computer provides the file system abstraction to make the operation more understandable. In modern computers, secondary, tertiary and off-line storage use file systems. F) Based on Technologies, Devices and Media: Previously paper tape and punch cards have been used to store information for automatic processing since the 1890s, long before general-purpose computers existed. Information was recorded by punching holes into the paper or cardboard medium, and was read by electrically (or, later, optically) sensing whether a particular location on the medium was solid or contained a hole. Williams’s tube used a cathode ray tube, and Selectron tube used a large vacuum tube to store information. These primary storage devices were short-lived in the market, since Williams tube was unreliable and Selectron tube was expensive. Delay line memory used sound waves in a substance such as mercury to store information. Delay line memory was dynamic volatile, cycle sequential read/write storage, and was used for primary storage. In modern times the following types of devices are widely used. a) Magnetic Storage: Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization on a magnetically coated surface to store information. Magnetic storage is non-volatile. The information is accessed using one or more read/write heads. Since the read/write head only covers a part of the surface, magnetic storage is sequential access and must seek, cycle or both. In modern computers, the magnetic surface takes the forms of Magnetic disk, Floppy disk (used for off-line storage), Hard disk (used for secondary storage), Magnetic tape data storage (used for tertiary and off-line storage; In early computers, magnetic storage was also used for primary storage in a form of magnetic drum, or core memory, core rope memory, thin film memory, twistor memory or bubble memory. Also unlike today, magnetic tape was often used for secondary storage.) b) Semiconductor Storage: Semiconductor memory uses semiconductor-based integrated circuits to store information. A semiconductor memory chip may contain millions of tiny transistors or capacitors. Both volatile and non-volatile forms of semiconductor memory exist. In modern computers, primary storage almost exclusively consists of dynamic volatile semiconductor memory or dynamic random access memory. Since the turn of the century, a type of non-volatile semiconductor memory known as flash memory has steadily gained share as off-line storage for
  • 60. Page60 home computers. Non-volatile semiconductor memory is also used for secondary storage in various advanced electronic devices and specialized computers. c) Optical Disc Storage: Optical disks are non-magnetic auxiliary storage devices that resemble audio compact disks. Optical disc storage uses tiny pits etched on the surface of a circular disc to store information, and reads this information by illuminating the surface with a laser diode and observing the reflection. Optical disc storage is non-volatile and sequential access. It takes the forms of CD, CD- ROM (or compact disk, read-only memory), DVD (Read only storage, used for mass distribution of digital information such as music, video, computer programs etc), CD-R, DVD-R, DVD+R (Write once storage, used for tertiary and off-line storage), CD-RW, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM (Slow write, fast read storage, used for tertiary and off-line storage), Blu-ray Disc (BD), HD DVD, Ultra Density Optical (UDO), Professional Disc for DATA (PDD or ProDATA). Among the list Holographic Versatile Disc (HVD), Phase-change Dual is also can be proposed. Recordable CD-ROM disks, called WORM (write-once/read-many) are becoming an affordable alternative to tapes and hard disk, primarily for archival storage purposes. A single, small CD-ROM disk can hold more information than 1,000 floppy disks. i) Magneto-optical Disc Storage: Magneto-optical disc storage is optical disc storage where the magnetic state on a ferromagnetic surface stores information. The information is read optically and written by combining magnetic and optical methods. Magneto-optical disc storage is non-volatile, sequential access, slow write, fast read storage used for tertiary and off-line storage. ii) Ultra Density Optical Disc Storage: An Ultra Density Optical disc or UDO is a 5.25" ISO cartridge optical disc encased in a dust-proof caddy which can store up to 30 GB of data. Utilizing a design based on a magneto-optical disc, but utilizing phase change technology combined with a blue violet laser, a UDO disc can store substantially more data than a magneto-optical disc or MO, because of the shorter wavelength (405 nm) of the blue-violet laser employed. MOs use a 650-nm-wavelength red laser. Because its beam width is shorter when burning to a disc than a red-laser for MO, a blue-violet laser allows more information to be stored digitally in the same amount of space. Current generations of UDO store up to 120 GB, though up to 500 GB has been speculated as a possibility for UDO. iii) Optical Jukebox Storage: Optical jukebox storage is a robotic storage device that utilizes optical disk device and can automatically load and unload optical disks and provide terabytes of near-line information. The devices are often called optical disk libraries, robotic drives, or auto changers. Jukebox devices may have up to 1,000 slots for disks, and usually have a picking device that traverses the slots and drives. The arrangement of the slots and picking devices affects performance, depending on the space between a disk and the picking device. Seek times and transfer rates vary depending upon the optical technology. Jukeboxes are used in high-capacity archive storage environments. HSM is a strategy that moves little-used or unused files from fast magnetic storage to optical jukebox devices in a process called migration. If the files are needed, they are migrated back to magnetic disk.
  • 61. Page61 Concepts Related to Software Packages Concepts Related to Software Packages: Open-source software is computer software whose source code is available under a licence that permits the users to study, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. When we talk about the software packages especially Open Sources Software, we will come across some concepts or terminologies or term. Some of such popular concept or terminologies are discussed below- a) Open Archives Initiative (OAI): The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) is an attempt to build a low- barrier interoperability framework for archives or institutional repositories containing digital content. It allows service providers to harvest metadata from the data providers. The collected metadata thus obtained is used to provide "value-added services". More: http://www.openarchives.org/ b) Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH): It is a protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. It is used to harvest (or collect) the metadata descriptions of the records in an archive so that services can be built using metadata from many archives. A number of software systems support the OAI-PMH, including GNU EPrints from the University of Southampton and DSpace from MIT. The OAI Protocol has been widely adopted by many digital libraries, institutional repositories, and digital archives. Commercial search engines have started using OAI- PMH to acquire more resources. Google has started to accept OAI-PMH as part of their Sitemap Protocol, and they are using OAI-PMH to harvest information from the National Library of Australia Digital Object Repository. In 2004, Yahoo! acquired content from OAIster (University of Michigan) that was obtained through metadata harvesting with OAI-PMH. The mod_oai project is using OAI- PMH to expose content to web crawlers that is accessible from Apache Web servers. A number of large archives support the protocol including arXiv and the CERN Document Server. c) Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR): OpenDOAR is an authoritative directory of academic open access repositories. It provides the facility to “search for repositories” or “search repository contents”. It also provides tools and support to both repository administrators and service providers in sharing the best practice and improving the quality of the repository infrastructure. Website: http://www.opendoar.org/ d) Richard Matthew Stallman: Richard Matthew Stallman often abbreviated as “rms” (http://stallman.org/) is an American software freedom activist and computer programmer. In September 1983, he launched the GNU Project (http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial- announcement.html) to create a free Unix-like operating system. In October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation (FSF). Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft and he is the main author of several copyleft licences including the GNU General Public Licence, the most widely used free software licence. e) Application Programming Interface (API): An Application Programming Interface (API) is an interface implemented by a software programme which enables it to interact with other software. It facilitates interaction between different software programmes similar to the way the user interface
  • 62. Page62 facilitates interaction between humans and computers. An API is implemented by applications, libraries, and operating systems to determine their vocabularies and calling conventions, and is used to access their services. f) The Digital Library Federation (DLF): The Digital Library Federation (DLF) is an international consortium of libraries and related agencies that are pioneering the use of electronic-information technologies to extend collections and services. Since its formation in 1995, DLF has made a number of significant contributions to the academic library and library services vendor communities. Website: http://www.diglib.org/ g) The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, or "DCMI", is an open organization engaged in the development of interoperable metadata standards that support a broad range of purposes and business models. The Dublin Core set of metadata elements provide a small and fundamental group of text elements through which most resources can be described and catalogued. It can describe physical resources such as books, digital materials such as video, sound, image, or text files, and composite media like web pages. Metadata records based on Dublin Core are intended to be used for cross-domain information resource description and have become standard in the fields of library science and computer science. Implementations of Dublin Core typically make use of XML and are Resource Description Framework based. Website: http://dublincore.org/ h) Search / Retrieval via URL (SRU): SRU is a standard XML-focussed search protocol for Internet search queries, utilizing Contextual Query Language (CQL), a standard syntax for representing queries. Website: http://www.loc.gov/standards/ or http://www.loc.gov/standards/sru/ i) Free Software Foundation (FSF): The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded by Richard Stallman in October 1985 to support the free software movement, a copyleft- based movement which aims to promote the universal freedom to create, distribute and modify computer software. Website: http://www.fsf.org/ j) Open Source Software (OSS): The Open source software (OSS) is defined at the website www.opensource.org as “Open source promotes software reliability and quality by supporting independent peer review and rapid evaluation of source code. To be certified as open source, the license of a program must guarantee the right to read, redistribute, modify, and use it freely.” Open source software is normally created and maintained by developers crossing institutional and national boundaries, collaborating by using internet-based communications and development tools. In case of OSS, the developers take personal pride in seeing their working solutions adopted but not gaining profit drive. k) Copyleft Licenses: Copyleft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free, and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well. It means releasing the content giving with permission for anyone to use, copy, and distribute, either verbatim or with modifications, either gratis or for a fee. The GNU General Public License, originally written by Richard Stallman, was the first copyleft license to see extensive use, and continues to dominate the licensing of copiloted software. Creative Commons, a non-profit organization founded by Lawrence Lessing, provides a similar license called Share Alike.
  • 63. Page63 Content Management System (CMS) Content Management System (CMS): A Content Management System (CMS) is a computer application used to create, edit, manage, search and publish various kinds of digital media and electronic text. CMSs are frequently used for storing, controlling, versioning, and publishing industry-specific documentation such as news articles, operators' manuals, technical manuals, sales guides, and marketing brochures. A CMS may support the following features- a) Identification of all key users and their content management roles; b) Ability to assign roles and responsibilities to different content categories or types; c) Definition of workflow tasks for collaborative creation, often coupled with event messaging so that content managers are alerted to changes in content (for example, a content creator submits a story, which is published only after the copy editor revises it and the editor-in-chief approves it.); d) Ability to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content; e) Ability to capture the content (e.g. scanning); f) Ability to publish the content to a repository to support access to the content through different search and retrieval techniques; Besides the above, a CMS may also have the following provisions: g) Communication application such as video conferencing; h) Administration components such as whiteboards for brainstorming, appointment scheduling, project management, etc. A CMS has the following advantages over other paper based information sources a) Reduction of paper handling and error-prone manual processes; b) Reduction of paper storage; c) Reduction of lost documents; d) Faster access to information; e) Online access to information that was formerly available only on paper, microfilm, or microfiche; f) Improved control over documents and document-oriented processes; f) Streamlining of time-consuming business processes; g) Security over document access and modification; h) Providing reliable and accurate audit trail;
  • 64. Page64 i) Improved tracking and monitoring, with the ability to identify bottlenecks and modifying the system to improve efficiency. In the following paragraphs a few widely used CMS are discussed in brief. a) Drupal: Drupal is a free and open source content management system (CMS) written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. The Drupal contains basic features common to most CMSs. These include user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS-feeds, page layout customization, and system administration. The Drupal core installation can be used as a brochureware website, a single- or multi-user blog, an Internet forum, or a community website providing for user-generated content. Website: http://drupal.org/ b) Joomla: Joomla is a free and open source content management system for publishing content on the World Wide Web and intranets. It includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and support for language internationalization. Website: http://www.joomla.org/ c) MediaWiki: MediaWiki is a popular free web-based wiki software application developed by and used on all projects of the Wikimedia Foundation, as well as on many other wiki websites worldwide. The first version of the software was deployed to serve the needs of the free content Wikipedia encyclopedia in 2002. Now it is deployed by many companies as a content management system for internal knowledge management. Website: http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/MediaWiki d) Zope: Z Object Publishing Environment (Zope) is a free and open-source, object-oriented web application server written in the Python programming language. Zope is used for building web applications, content management systems, and dynamic websites of all kinds. Website: http://www.zope.org/ Copyright Library Copyright Library: A copyright library is a library that is instituted by certain legislative that acts in a country. India has enacted copyright acts with certain stipulation such as the publishers must compulsorily deposit a few copies of a book in the National Library, Kolkata, which is authorized to be a copyright library. Criteria for Selection and Evaluation of Library Software Packages Criteria for Selection and Evaluation of Library Software Packages: In any endeavour in which we make a substantial investment of money, energy, and time or other resources, we like to know what kind of return we are getting. The ability to evaluate the return on our investment gives us the basis on which to choose between alternatives. So an evaluation is basically a judgment of worth, it is a matter of comparison of actual result with external standard, in the light of existing institutional realities which may be relevant to evaluating the future trajectory of the programme or services and provide an objective basis for decision making. Like any evaluative process, library software evaluation is also quite a difficult task. It mainly involves four basic aspects i.e.
  • 65. Page65 a) Whether software will be commercial; b) In-house developed software packages; c) Freeware d) Open Source Software In case of commercial software, it will cost a huge investment. In case of In-house developed software packages, it will consume much of the library budget, time from the library staff (in the form of constant evaluation and modification to the library software packages to become stable) and create problem in retrospective conversion. In case of freeware, there is a problem with technical support. But the Open Source Software has not any major disadvantages, if it has a online community for technical support. But in all cases, we have to consider the following procedure, features and aids to evaluate the software package. A) Preliminary Steps a) Consulting Others: No one wants chosen software to stop unexpectedly, slow down on large network, report error message. So, before making a choice, it will be better to consult a person who has already used the software in the same way or consult people who have already gained experience on that software package. b) Reputation of the Referrer: The reputation of a person or the institution, his/her/its experience on that particular software is the next point to be considered. The relation between the evaluator and the referrer should also be justified at this point. c) Existing Literature: It is better to go for the software after carefully examining the existing literature and documentation on the particular software packages. B) Manufacturers and Vendor a) Reputation of the Manufacturer and Vendor: What is the reputation of the software vendor or manufacturer in the market or for how long they are working in the field is the next important thing to consider. b) Training: Does the company or authority of the particular software provide training? Where and how the training is conducted, whether it is online, onsite? It is another point to be considered. c) Documentation / Manual: Is training accompanied by easy-to-follow supporting print material or manual. How good the manual is? It is also an important point to consider. d) Updating: Does the library automation system company from their own website help to install, upgrade (web based updates), and patches or simply help one with a particular function. How is the new modification / new version of the software to be obtained by the librarian? e) Post Installation Support: Post installation support from the vendor.
  • 66. Page66 C) General Features of the Software Package a) Multiple Platforms: The software package chosen should run on various computer platforms i.e. server, mainframe to simple PCs. The software should also be able to run in multiple platforms such as windows XP, windows 2000, windows N.T., etc. b) Existing Standard: Software should support internationally known standards such as MARC 21, CCF, AACR2, LCSH and data export/import in ISO 2709 (MARC/ CCF). If possible, the software chosen should also comply with UNICODE. c) Integrated: The software should permit collaborative working and all modules should be integrated in nature. d) Flexibility: The software should make it easy to switch between the OPAC and writing station because there are times when one would want the public OPAC station to function as writing station and at other times when would like the writing station to function as OPAC. The software package chosen should also be so flexible as to handle the records of variable sizes. e) Capacity: The restriction in total number of database / information / records in a database enable the software to be handled effectively. f) Speed: Speed of operation in different environment. g) Standardize Data Format for Import and Export: The software should use standardized data format for importing and exporting of data from and to the software. h) De-Bugging Facility: De-bugging facility and scope of proper error message while executing the software are to be ensured. i) User Friendliness: The software should build on GUI based environment. It should provide expert advice and assistance in performing any task. It should empower the experienced user with short cut and inexperienced user with menu driven icon, dialogue box, etc. giving clickable access to the software. The software that is built on other platform should have the mnemonic based command. j) Object Linking and Embedding (OLE): The Object Linking and Embedding feature helps to create objects in one application and then to embed it in a record of the software package running on the computer. If the software package chosen has this feature then it is good. k) Effectiveness: Does the system meet the specification? l) Reliability: Does the search in the software give consistent result? m) Customization and Expandability: The system should permit addition of new feature to meet the local need and use. D) Services
  • 67. Page67 a) Acquisition: Does the system carry out duplicate checking while entering the data. Does it have the capacity to print accession register? How effective the system is for data entry? Does the software provide an easy way for editing records? Are insertion and deletion of records easy? b) Cataloguing: Cataloguing through retrospective conversion facility, provision of catalogue card printing, etc. c) Circulation: Provision for issue, return, renewal, grace period, overdue alert, computation of fines, reservation of document, etc. d) Serial Control: Provision of monitoring multiple issue of a serial, provision of grace period for receiving the serial, provision of renewal, overdue alert, entering the abstract of a serial. e) OPAC: Provision of reservation through OPAC, provision of searching OPAC from outside the library, provision of searching the OPAC and web simultaneously (Meta search) using a single word search. f) Library Administration: The software should allow generation of different kinds of reports i.e. collection statistics, circulation statistics and also should be helpful to create one’s own specialized report to meet the specialized need. It should also have the facility to assign different right to the software for different categories of library staff. E) New Technologies: The library software package should keep pace with global technology, web enhancement, online information, virtual services, provision of barcode facility, handling un- catalogued item, etc. a) Network Capabilities: Provision of LAN connectivity, scope of integration of the software package with other school department, provision of accessing the software from computer outside the school walls via a web browser. b) Web Enabling: Provision of web enabling through link to the Application Service Provider (ASP) or to the school web server, provision of internet connectivity, Email connectivity, etc. This is an advantage, where the cataloguer can work from remote location and OPAC can be accessed from both home and school, 24 hours a day. c) Enhanced MARC Data: Many softwares allow to catalogue website, E-Books, AV resources in addition to the library resources. The websites are added by the library media specialist manually. d) Open Standard Technologies: Is the database built on open standard technologies such as SQL, cold fusion, or XML that allows different types of software to talk to each other? That means, different modules of the software can easily and automatically share and update any information is common e.g. students name, address, etc. F) Securities a) Log on/off: The software should provide the students and staff members the user id and passwords to log on/off facilities on their own. The system must also allow the administrator to
  • 68. Page68 provide access restriction to certain records/ fields of importance. b) Power out Feature: Is any power out feature included? The system should be with a manual hand scanner available to check the material in and out in the event of power failure that can later on easily be connected to the computer system. G) Cost Factor of the Software Package a) Total Cost of the Software Package: If the system comes in different modules (available in only circulation module, circulation plus cataloguing module) then the total cost of the system. Is to be considered whether the total cost is affordable or justified. b) Cost of Support: Cost of training, on site support, etc. c) Cost of Upgrade: Cost of future upgrades. d) Future Exist Cost: In near future, if one wants to switch over to another package then the cost involved in such cases should also be considered. e) Warranty: The software should come with performance and service warranty. The technologies are shifting the horizon of library software packages every day, so, in choosing any software for library automation, if possible, we should look for the software package that has also the facility for federated search, and comply with the Open URL and Barcode and RFID technologies. Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom: Data, Information, Knowledge and Wisdom are the products of the mind. The Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom are evaluated in an ascending scale of values, Data having the least value, Wisdom the greatest. a) Data: The word “data” is Latin in origin and literally, it means anything that is given. In sum, the term includes facts, figures, letters, symbols, words, charts and graphs that represent an idea, object or condition. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary defines data as “something given or admitted facts or principles granted or presented, that upon which an interference or argument is based, or from which an ideal system of any sort is constructed.” According to Oxford Encyclopedic English Dictionary, Data are “Known facts or things used as a basis for interference or reckoning." UNESCO defines data as “facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human or automatic means”. In simple, Data is a unit of fact and a raw material of information. It is derived by observation and experiences. By nature, data are either quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative data are numerical and qualitative data are descriptive. It is also possible to transform qualitative data into numerical values. Additionally, in science, data can also be graphic in nature. The data possesses the following characteristics. The following are the properties of data:
  • 69. Page69 i) Amenability to Use: Data must be amenable to use. The use may differ with the context. ii) Clarity: Data should necessarily display clarity. iii) Accuracy: Accuracy is an essential property of data. iv) Essence: Data should be compressed and refined. Only the refined data can present the essence of value. b) Information: The word “information” is derived from two Latin words “forma” and “formatio”. Both the words convey the notion of giving shape to something and of forming a pattern. Information is the processed data, organized and presented by someone. The data becomes information when these are collected, processed, interpreted, presented or communicated to some one in an organized or in logical form to facilitate a better comprehension of the concerned issue. Information is the knowledge concerning some particular fact, subject or events in any communicable form. It is a structured collection of data i.e. sets of data, relation between data. It consists of data that have been retrieved, processed or otherwise used for informative or inference purpose, argument or as a basis for forecasting or decision making. Let us mention some of the definitions of Information- According to Harrod’s Librarian’s Glossary and Reference book compiled by Ray Prytherch, 7th ed, 1990, information is “an assemblage of data in a comprehensible form capable of communication”. Mikhailov et.al (1966) has cited Brillounin’s definition. According to them “information is the raw material and consists of a mere collection of data”. Hayes (1969) defines information as “result of data, usually formalized in processing”. Davis (1974) has defined information as “data that has been processed into a form that is meaningful to the recipient and is of real perceived value in current or prospective decision”. Stevens (1986) has defined information as “the factual data, ideas and other knowledge emanating from any segment of society that are identified as being of value sometimes gathered on a regular basis, organized in some fashion, transmitted to others and used in some meaningful fashion”. According to S. C. Blumenthal in “Management Information System” (1969), “information is data, recorded, classified, organized, related or interpreted within context to convey meaning”. According to A. J. Evans et al, information is a “sensible statement, opinion, fact, concept or idea, or an association of statement, opinions or ideas. It is closely associated with knowledge in that once information has been assimilated, correlated and understood it becomes knowledge”. c) Knowledge: The word “knowledge” means an assured belief or that which is known. It is the information read, heard or seen and understood. It is an organized set of statements of facts or ideas – presenting a reasoned judgments or an experimental result which is transmitted to others through some communication medium in some systematic form. When information is stored in mind, it
  • 70. Page70 constitutes knowledge, particularly when relationships are established between items of information. The Webster’s New International Dictionary of English language defines knowledge as, “Familiarity gained by actual experience, practical skill, technical acquaintance”. It has also been defined by Webster as “Acquaintance with fact; the state of being aware of something or of possessing information; hence scope of information”. When man knows the entities (things or concepts), knowledge is established. As man knew more and more about entities knowledge grew. In order that knowledge already gathered is not lost from the scope of posterity it must exist in recorded and stored format. Due to the comparatively larger age of human, living of three generations in a family within society, ability to reason and analyse and ability to transfer the accumulated knowledge to its posterity increase his/her stock of knowledge. Knowledge is the ability of an actor to respond to a body of facts and principles accumulated over a period of time. The quality of knowledge depends on the properties of the agent. Knowledge can be viewed in terms of the following i) Knowledge is the structure or organization of information including the relationship among items of information. ii) Knowledge is created and modified by new information. iii) When information is applied by people it becomes knowledge. iv) Knowledge is universally regarded as a much wider concept than information, both in the everyday world and within the specialty theory and practice. Further, knowledge is individual to each person and does not depend upon humans to exist; when it exists apart from information it can only be useful if it becomes a commodity or a resource. Knowledge can only reside in an organic brain. As soon as it is objectified outside of a biological organism it becomes disembodied information, capable of entering production similar to a manufactured product or commodity. Some of the characteristics of knowledge are i) It is dynamic, ever growing and continuing. ii) It is contained in the subjective realm. iii) It is structured, coherent and often of enduring significance. iv) It is a stock, largely resulting from the flow, inputs of information. v) It is the basis for action. d) Wisdom: Wisdom is the distilled and integrated knowledge and understanding. It is the most precious human capital in all developmental processes.
  • 71. Page71 Cleveland, Ohio Association for System Management, 1979 has treated raw data from “birth” into evaluated form as information, through maturity as knowledge, to “death” and inclusion in the knowledge base. It may be noted in passing that in common social process, data, information and knowledge are regarded as mutually sustaining elements at times distinctly different, on occasions overlapping, and interchangeable. Both data and information have intrinsic properties. While information is shareable, knowledge is individual to each person. Again, information depends upon humans to exist but knowledge does not depend upon only humans to exist. Information is the aggregation and assemblage of data in a comprehensible form recorded on paper or in some other medium and is capable of communication. Knowledge is the potential for action on information. The information, knowledge and wisdom in their totality constitute valuable human intellectual assets. Database 1. Introduction: A database is an organized set of data stored in a computer that can be search automatically. A database is a self describing collection of integrated records. It is self describing because it contains as part of itself a directory or dictionary of its context. It is a collection of records or a file or a collection of files brought together as a single file commonly accessible by a given set of programme. According to John Convey, databases are a collection of records in machine readable form that are made available for searching from remote computer terminals. A database is an organized, integrated and often inter- related collection of computer based data, records, files or information. A random assortment of data cannot be referred to a database. Databases may be stored on magnetic tape; optical media such as CD- ROM, DVD ROM, and Hard Disk etc. can be accessed either locally or remotely. 2. Characteristic of Database: The characteristic of a database are as follows a) It is an organized, integrated collection of data. b) It can be referred to by all relevant application with relative case and number. So duplication of data can be avoided. c) It is a model of natural relationship of the data in the read- world environment. d) Database enhances data independence by permitting application programme to be incentive to changes in the database. e) Databases provide facilities for centralized control of accessing and security control functions.
  • 72. Page72 The database approach can be employed wherever storage and manipulation of data are required. It is most useful when relationships between data are numerous and complex and information requirements are subject to change. Common examples of databases is: A student database containing enrolment data for all persons currently attending classes. 3. Types of database: Databases are of the following types: a) Bibliographic: In bibliographic databases the data stored comprises input of bibliographical details of a document for identification, storage and retrieval purposes. The bibliographic details to a document may include titles, authors, journal names, volume, issues, place of publications, publisher, year of publication, ISBN/ISSN number, classification number, book number, location keyword, abstract etc. A bibliographical databases may be a library catalogue or a database of theses, dissertation, research papers published in technical journals, conferences etc. Bibliographical databases can be divided into two categories: i) Internal database and associated services: The internal bibliographic databases are those created by libraries and information centres of their published holdings such as books, serial, articles in periodicals, proceedings in conferences, theses etc. ii) External database and associated services: External bibliographic databases comprise online catalogues such as SCISEARCH. The machine readable counterparts of Science Citation Index, Current Content, the publication of the Institute for Scientific Information, USA, National Union Catalogues of Scientific Serials in India (NISCAIR) etc. b) Numerical Databases: It contains numeric or statistical or survey type data of information to give answer of numeric queries. c) Full Text Database: Full text databases contain the full text of a publication, i. e. provide relevant information directly. E.g.: Harvard Business Review (HBR); The New York Times via Naxis d) Factual Database: Factual database contains directory type data e) Research in Progress Database: It contains description of research in progress. Many of the world databases are now made accessible to the users by vendors (computer based agencies that arrange access to various world databases for a fee). Such vendors include DIALOG, SDC etc. 4. Evaluation of Database: The evaluation of a database includes the following- i) Scope: The bibliographical database should include full bibliographical information such as ISBN/ISSN number, author, title etc.
  • 73. Page73 ii) Indexing System: Which method is used in indexing the database is a prime factor to be considered in evaluation. It should also include the indexing is done by manual or by using automatic method. iii) Searching facilities: The database should have multiple accesses using various keywords or access point. It should also support Boolean operators. iv) Vendors Support: Whether the vendor of the database has provide rules, regulation and guidance for using the database or not. Decision Making Decision Making: Decision is the act of determining in one’s own mind upon an opinion or course of action. It is choosing one alternative among several alternatives given in a particular situation. In the words of Terry, it is “the selection of one behaviour alternative from two or more possible alternatives”. In fact, decision is a conclusion to long deliberation. Franklin points out that decision making is understood as an act of determining in one’s own mind a course of action, following more or less deliberate consideration of alternatives and by decision is understood that which is determined. On the basis of the different points of view expressed above it can be concluded that a decision is a chosen course of action(s) selected out of all perceived or available alternatives by the decision maker based on some criteria and in the light of objectives or purpose to be fulfilled. Decision is a means; it is not an end itself. Decisions have to be made and re-made in the light of the ends to be achieved. Decisions have to be responsive to varying situations. a) Need of Decision Making: Decision making is the most important process and an essential element in every activity of library management. It is to be done every day, every time, every point when manager faces problem, when they have to make choices between alternatives, etc. The success and failure of the individual at the top position as well as efficiency of the organization depends much upon taking right and wise decisions. In taking decision it should be remembered that taking no decision is bad but worse is taking a wrong decision. b) Decision Makers: Decision making in any organization is a cooperative effort. Decisions are the product of long deliberations or collective activity to which many people and agencies participate. If the skills, expertise, knowledge and creativity of the staff member are properly utilized then they can contribute to improve decision making. But at the top of administration is a person who must have a final say, who must ultimately give the final word. This is because of the fact that in the final analysis it is he who has to own the burden of responsibility of the consequences of a particular decision. No doubt as he rises up the ladder, his function will decrease but his responsibilities will increases. It is he alone who can see the enterprise as a whole. So, the power of final decision making must rest with him.
  • 74. Page74 c) Model of Decision Making: John Cowley has mentioned five points on the model of decision making. They are- i) Own Decision without Detailed Explanation: The manager himself takes the decision without reference to colleagues and does not make any attempt to explain why he has taken the decision. ii) Own Decision with Detailed Explanation: Taking decision by the manager himself and giving reason later to his subordinates. iii) Prior Consultation with Subordinate: Prior to making decision, discuss with subordinate and then making decision with or without taking into account the advice offered by subordinate. iv) Joint Decision Making with Subordinate: Taking joint decision by genuine participation of other staff. v) Delegation of Decision to Others: Managers may hand over a problem to a member of team for decision making. In such cases although the decision may be reported back but the manager will have little influence in the matter. d) Factors that Influence Decision Making: Decision making are influenced by the following factors- i) Institutional Factor: The aspiration, tradition, attitude, objective of the institution influence the decision. ii) Personal Factor: The academic, professional qualification of the person, his conduct, behaviors, etc influence his own decision. The personal mode of thinking plays a high role in decision making process. iii) Knowledge: Decision making depends on the availability of facts and necessary data. iv) Budget: The budget or other resource of the organization also influences the decision. In the library system, the aims and objectives of the library and parent organization, five laws of library science, readers and users, available staff, etc also play important role in decision making. e) Process of Decision Making: There are no universally accepted techniques of decision making. In fact decision making is a practical experience and can be learnt by actually taking it. In general, the following sequence of steps can be considered in decision making. i) Identification of Problem: The librarian should be a diagnostician who should look for the problem underlying apparent symptoms. ii) General Information: Acquire general background information and different view points about the problem. Collection of all relevant data regarding the problem. iii) Development of Alternative Solution: There is not a single problem which cannot be solved in more than one way. So find out all the possible method of solution. iv) Evaluation of the Alternative: Against the decision criteria, the alternative solutions are evaluated.
  • 75. Page75 v) Selection of the Best Alternative: The decision maker has to weigh each alternate in terms of associated risks and gains and decide how much risk he can take and identify which is optimum for this view point and select the solution accordingly. vi) Consult Others: In taking the decision in the above step some important points may be missed by the decision maker so at this step consult others for knowing certain points which are missed and for getting an opportunity to clarify the decision makers own thought and feelings. vii) Flexibility: The decision should not be rigid. It should have the provision to change according to circumstances. viii) Implementation of the Decision: Putting the decision into action. f) Types of Decision: Generally, decision can be classified into three broad categories- i) Personal and Organisational Decision: The personal decision attempts to achieve personal goals and generally cannot be delegated to other. The organizational decision attempts to achieve organizational goals and can often if not always be delegated. ii) Basic and Routine Decision: Basic decisions are those which are permanent in character and are taken for long duration and a degree of importance is such that a mistake would seriously injure the entire organization. Routine decisions are the everyday repetitive management decision which do not bear any great impact on the organization as a whole but play an important role in the successful working of an organization. iii) Programmed and No-programmed Decision: The programmed decision are those where the problem are of repetitive character and well defined involving tangible consideration to which the economic model that call for finding the best among a set of pre-established alternative can be applied rather literally. The non-programmed decision refers to problem of no-repetitive sort often involving basic long range question about the whole strategy. The decisions are novel. In structural method of handling the problem because it has not arisen before or because its precise nature and structure are elusive or complex or because it is so important that it deserves a custom tailored treatment. g) Problems in Decision Making: In general, in the process of taking decision, the following factors creates problems- i) Routines take too much time: Routine work in the library takes too much time from the librarian so they do not get enough time to devote to this aspect. ii) Confusion: The librarian is always surrounded by problems. Each problem looks more urgent than the other. The librarian finds it extremely difficult to determine the priority of these problems which take much of their time and create constant worry in them. iii) Lengthy procedure: Decision taking is a lengthy procedure, so in case of emergency this is generally avoided.
  • 76. Page76 iv) Politics: Today’s society is a group oriented society. Each member of the library is generally the member of some religious or political party. So each person has a different preference and preference rating. This limits the decision making. v) Lack of information: Lack of knowledge about the available alternative between which choice has to be made also creates problem in decision making. vi) Changing environment (future as anticipates): The surrounding environment of the library is continuously changing. So a decision taken today may not be relevant tomorrow. This creates another problem in decision making. Digital Library Digital Library: The IT has almost converted the whole world into a global village. The revolution in the IT sector is influencing the information industry at its peak and revolutionized the concept of libraries where it has been used extensively to record, store, and disseminate the information in the digital form. Each and every library step by step shifts over to this dimension to meet the demand put on it. If one considers that the information is for use and for all then why should not libraries be for all? Why should libraries not become universal for all those who seek information, considering that a large number of organization in the USA and Europe has already more or less switched over to digital mode i.e. they are making the digitized images of periodical which are not available in electronic format and there after no new procurement are being made on print media. Example of such organization are University of Micrographic Inc (UMI of USA), National Institute of Scientific and Technical Information (INIST of France), etc. A twenty first century library if not at all digitized, has at least a section devoted to accessing the growing collection of computer readable materials, the subscribed bibliographic and full text database, E-Journal, etc. for the end user. Along with the access of the subscribed databases it also provides the Internet browsing and searching, E-Mail, Chat, Video Conferencing facilities to the user. Sometimes it also provides OPAC terminals. The downloaded articles can be printed upon request. Back issues of selected journals and newspapers are also available in some library as microfiche or microfilm, with readers and printers provided for access. All these collection together constitute the digital library. A digital library is nothing but a large database of organized collection of multimedia, data that are globally available directly or indirectly across a network and eventually act as a portal site providing access to digital collections held elsewhere for the people who are working on hypertext environment. Electronic resources accessible on the web for free or for a fee are undeniably major and important constituent of a digital library. To build a digital library all these resources need to go through the process of selection, acquisition (by way of linking) and management. The information contents of a digital library, depending on the media type, may include a combination of structured / unstructured
  • 77. Page77 text, numerical data, scanned images, graphics, audio and video recordings. Different types of resources need to be handled differently in digital library environment. 1. Definition: In 1938 H. G. Wells dreamed of a world encyclopedia in which all-human knowledge would be available elsewhere. Today Internet in collaboration with digital libraries are moving fast to fulfill the dream of H. G. Wells. The term "Digital Library" has a variety of potential meanings, ranging from a digitized collection of material that one might find in a traditional library to the collection of all digital information along with the services that make that information useful to all possible users. In simple a DL is a library having all it’s holding in the digital form or in a form that can be stored, processed by the computer system. It is nothing but a large database for the people who are working on hypertext environment. It is a system of organized collection of multimedia, data that are globally available directly or indirectly across a network. According to Lesk (1997) “Digital libraries are organized collections of digital information. They combine the structuring and gathering of information, which libraries and archives have always done, with the digital representation that computers have made possible”. According to Arms a digital library is a managed collection of information with associated services where the information is stored in digital format and accessible over a network. The digital library federation in the USA defines the digital library as Digital libraries are organizations that provide the resources, including the specialized staff, to select, structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure the persistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economically available for use by a defined community or set of communities. A digital library is a library in which a significant proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format (as opposed to print or microform), accessible by means of computers. The digital content may be locally held or accessed remotely via computer networks. It comprises digital collections, services and infrastructure to support lifelong learning, research, scholarly communication and preservation. It is an environment which supports full life cycle of creation, storage, preservation, dissemination and use of data, and information. It is a process of democratization of information. Project Gutenberg, Google Book Search, Cornell University, The Library of Congress World Digital Library, The Digital Library at the University of Michigan, and CMU's Universal Library are considered leaders in the field of digital archive creation and management. 2. Characteristic: A digital library is an organized collection of digitized material or its holding in the digital form which can be accessible by a computer on the network by using TCP/IP or other protocol. The main characteristics of digital libraries are as follows a) The function of acquisition, storage, preservation, retrieval is carried out through the use of digital technology.
  • 78. Page78 b) Organized collection of information objects may be a digital text or any other. c) Resources are available in computer readable form. d) Access to the entire collection is globally available directly or indirectly across network. e) Support users in dealing with information objects. 3. Need for a Digital Library: Digital libraries are needed to provide quality based service at the user desktop. a) Easy to Understand: The visual or graphical information system of digital libraries is more popular as compared to text based information system. b) Shifting of the Environment: The new generation user becomes only happy when they will be able to read from the computer screen. The new generation whose demand for information is never met demands that traditional libraries should be developed as a well equipped and interconnected DL. c) Multiple Function of Same Information: In case of digital libraries by using hypertext it is possible to structure and organize the same digital information in a variety of ways which serve multiple functions. d) Information Explosion: Digital library is expected to be able to handle the problem of information explosion somehow. It will be able to handle and manage large amount of digital content by simply providing link, without actually procuring the document. e) Searching Problem in Traditional Libraries: By using digital library one will be able to retrieve information specifically for e.g. a particular image, photo, a definition, etc. f) Distance Learning: Time is a major factor for each modern user of the library which is otherwise spent in coming and going to the library, but digitization will facilitate learning from home, office or other places which are convenient to users. g) To Provide Access to Online Publication: As more and more information are published over internet, digital library needs to procure and provide link to the online publication and other important sources of information. h) Limited Buying Power of Libraries: The collection of every library is limited to only a fraction of the total. Introduction of digital library will help to enhance the collection considerably. i) Storage Problem in Traditional Libraries: Libraries are spending much of its budget by way of maintaining the collection in a usable form that also demands a huge physical space. Digitization hopes to overcome this. Digital Medias comes with a huge storage capacity. j) Low Cost of Technology: The cost of technologies is much more less than that of traditional libraries. k) Environmental Factor: The use of digital libraries is one of the cleanest technologies to fulfill the slogan “Burn a CD-ROM save a tree”.
  • 79. Page79 4. Requirement for Digital Libraries: The internet and World Wide Web provide the impetus and technological environment for the development and operation of a digital library. The internet provides the TCP/IP and or its associated protocol for accessing the information and web provides tools and technique for publishing the information over internet. Still, for introducing any digital libraries, the following infrastructure will be needed:- a) Computer Hardware: Server, P.C. with multimedia, U.P.S. Etc b) Software: Any suitable software from GSDL, DSpace, etc which is interconnected and suitable for LAN and WAN connection. c) Network: LAN, MAN, WAN, etc. d) Printer: Laser printer, Dot matrix, Barcode printer, Digital graphic printer, etc. e) Scanner: H.P. Scan jet, flatbed, Sheet feeder, Drum scanner, Slide scanner, Microfilming scanner, Digital camera, Barcode scanner etc f) Storage Devices: Optical storage device, CD-ROM, juke box, etc. As in the digital environment it is reasonable to say that a central back up or archive should be created at the national level which will store information out put of the region as well as information from out side the country. g) Other Audio Visual Aid: Color T.V., V.C.R., D.V.D., Sound box, Telephone, etc. h) Humanware: Well trained manpower for online help. The use of search engines, Optical Character Recognition and metadata will allow digital library to operate. 5. Resources of a Digital Library: The resources of a digital library are those, which the computer can store, organize, transmit and display without any intervening conversion process. The resources of a digital library mainly consist of e-book, v-book, electronic tax, map, image, sound, and video. The digital material may be of multimedia types or any other i.e. only digital audio, video, full text information, photograph, drawing, digitized sound, 3D representation, etc. The collection may include structured /unstructured text, scanned images, graphic audios, video recording, etc. In the digital environment any one who has access to the internet can be a publisher by merely posting messages to an online discussion group or other, so digital libraries collection should also be enhanced with links to such resources. a) On line Resources: Local database of traditional books in machine-readable form, E-book, v-book, electronic tax, map, image, sound, video, and multimedia, E-journal, etc. b) Off line Resources: C.D-ROM, Juke Box, etc. 6. Advantages of the Digital Library: A digital library is not confined to a particular location or so called building, it is virtually distributed all over the world. The user can get his/ her information on his own computer screen by using the internet. Actually it is a network of multimedia system which provides finger tip access. The spoken words or the graphical display of a digital library is again
  • 80. Page80 having a different impact from the words that are printed. In the new environment owning a document will not be problem for the library because the user will pay for its uses. a) No Physical Boundary: The user of a digital library need not go to the library physically; people from all over the world could gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available. b) Round the Clock Availability: Digital libraries can be accessed at any time, 24 hours a day and 365 days of the year c) Multiple Accesses: The same resources can be used at the same time by a number of users. d) Structured Approach: Digital library provides access to much richer content in a more structured manner i.e. we can easily move from the catalog to the particular book then to a particular chapter and so on. e) Information Retrieval: The user is able to use any search term bellowing to the word or phrase of the entire collection. Digital library will provide very user friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources. f) Preservation and Conservation: An exact copy of the original can be made any number of times without any degradation in quality. g) Space: Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them. When the library had no space for extension digitization is the only solution. h) Networking: A particular digital library can provide the link to any other resources of other digital library very easily. Thus a seamlessly integrated resource sharing can be achieved. i) Cost: The cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries do away with these fees. 7. Disadvantages of the Digital Library: The computer viruses, lack of standardization for digitized information, quick degrading properties of digitized material, different display standard of digital product and its associated problem, health hazard nature of the radiation from monitor, etc. makes digital libraries at times a handicap. a) Copyright: Digitization violates the copy right law as the thought content of one author can be freely transferred by others without his acknowledgement. One difficulty to overcome for digital libraries is the way to distribute information. How does a digital library distribute information at will while protecting the copyright of the author? b) Speed of Access: As more and more computer are connected to the internet its speed of access is reasonably decreasing. If new technology will not evolve to solve the problem then in near future internet will be full of error messages.
  • 81. Page81 c) Initial Cost is High: The infrastructure cost of digital library i.e. the cost of hardware, software, leasing communication circuit is generally very high. d) Band width: Digital library will need high bandwidth for transfer of multimedia resources but the band with is decreasing day by day. e) Efficiency: With the much larger volume of digital information, finding the right material for a specific task becomes increasingly difficult. f) Environment: Digital libraries cannot reproduce the environment of a traditional library. Many people also find reading printed material to be easier than reading material on a computer screen. g) Preservation: Due to technological developments, a digital library can rapidly become out-of-date and its data may become inaccessible. 8. Role of Librarian in Digital Environment: Though the digital environment is built as a system which can be used by its ultimate end user directly from their desk top PC but the role of librarian cannot be overlooked. In digital environment also the librarian and information scientist will be needed for packaging and repackaging of information, for electronic publishing, for reference purpose, to advice the user about the strategy to identify relevant electronic sources, etc. Thus the librarian will be more or less a hypertext engineer. In the new environment it will be very difficult for the librarian to decide what should be organized; how to give citation; how to organize the collection; etc because the new environment will be really challenging one for the librarian to decide who the authors are, who the publishers are and who the users are? 9. Conclusion: Digital libraries are not going to replace the physical existence of document completely but no doubt to meet the present demand, to satisfy the non local user digitization must be introduced so that at least libraries becomes of hybrid nature. The initial cost of digitization is high but experiment shows that once digitization is introduced then the cost to manage this collection will be cheaper than that of any traditional library. Day by day the cost of digitization is also decreasing, the online publication is increasing, the need of users are shifting towards a different environment so it is needless to say that after one or two years all library will shift over to digital mode, if not fully at least to some extent. So it is the pick time to all library and informational science professional to gear them in building digital library and taking it as a challenge. Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, MSN, and Yahoo!. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and e-books, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity Digital Media Preservation and Conservation Techniques Digital Media Preservation and Conservation Techniques: Digital preservation is defined as a long- term, error-free storage and management of digital information, with means for retrieval and interpretation. Digital preservation requires more constant and ongoing attention than preservation of other media. This constant input of effort, time, and money to handle rapid technological and organizational advance is considered the main stumbling block for preserving digital information.
  • 82. Page82 Indeed, while we are still able to read our written heritage from several thousand years ago, the digital information created merely a decade ago is in serious danger of being lost, creating a digital Dark Age. The following two terminologies are used in conjunction with digital preservation a) Digital Curation: Digital curation is the selection, preservation, maintenance, and collection and archiving of digital assets. It is the process of establishing and developing long term repositories of digital assets for current and future reference by researchers, scientists, and historians, and scholars generally. b) Digital Obsolescence: Digital obsolescence is a situation where a digital resource is no longer readable because the physical media (modes of digital encoding, data –storage medium, standards for encoding images and films), the reader required to read the media, the hardware, or the software (operating systems and general or specialized software) that runs on it is no longer available. Digital technology is developing extremely fast, and one retrieval and playback technology can become obsolete in a matter of years. When faster, more capable and cheaper storage and processing devices are developed, the older version gets replaced almost immediately. Even different computer "standards" are only for some time, and in the end are always replaced by new versions of the software or completely new hardware. Only continual forward-migration of files and information to the latest data-storage standards can address the issue of digital obsolescence. File formats should be widespread, backward compatible, often upgraded, and, ideally, open format. The National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage cites uncompressed Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Portable Document Format (PDF) (for images) and American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) and Rich Text Format (RTF) (for text) as “de facto” formats that are unlikely to be rendered obsolete in the near future. The preservation of digital media includes the following techniques- a) Avoiding Physical Deterioration of Media: The media on which digital contents are stored are more vulnerable to deterioration and catastrophic loss than some analog media such as paper. While acid paper is prone to deterioration in terms of brittleness and yellowness, the deterioration does not become apparent for at least six decades; and when the deterioration begins, it progresses slowly. It is also highly possible to retrieve all information without loss after deterioration is spotted. The recording media for digital data deteriorate at a much more rapid pace, and once the deterioration starts, in most cases there is already data loss. This characteristic of digital forms leaves a very short time frame for preservation decisions and actions. So it should be avoided as far as possible by maintaining an appropriate environmental condition. b) Refreshing: Refreshing is the task of transferring contents between two types of the same storage medium. Sometimes transferring the data from one long term storage medium to another is also termed as refreshing. It addresses the issues related to media obsolescence. Examples include transferring contents from floppy to CD and then to DVD and then to Blue ray and so on. Transfersing census data from an old preservation CD to a new one is also one example of refreshing.
  • 83. Page83 The refreshing strategy may need to be combined with migration when the software or hardware required to read the data is no longer available or is unable to understand the format of the data. Refreshing will always be necessary due to the deterioration of physical digital media. c) Replication: Replication is the process of creating multiple copies of the digital document and keeping them in multiple locations. Sometimes it is the best means of preserving cultural resources by lowering the risk of loss. Data that exists as a single copy in only one location is highly vulnerable to software or hardware failure, intentional or accidental alteration, and environmental catastrophes like fire, flooding, earthquake, etc. Digital data is more likely to survive if it is replicated in several locations. This goal may be facilitated by following standards and guidelines that mandate producing a master copy for long-term storage and preservation, and producing used copies derived from the master copy in the format that best satisfies the users’ needs. d) Bit-stream Copying (Backing up data): Backing up data refers to the process of making an exact duplicate of the original digital object and it should be followed by remote storage so that the original and the copy document does not become victims of the same disastrous event. This is an essential preservation strategy for data loss due to hardware and media failure, normal malfunction and decay, malicious destruction or natural disaster. e) Migration: The biggest problem to the digital media preservation is the storage format evaluation and its obsolescence. Migration can address this issue. It is the transferring of data to newer system environments and the process of transferring information from one generation computer system to the next available computer generation that is advanced in nature. It also deals with the process of transferring information from one obsolete file format to a new standard file format. This may include conversion of resources from one file format to another (e.g. conversion of Microsoft Word to PDF or Open Document), from one operating system to another (e.g., Windows to Linux) or from one programming language to another (e.g., C to Java) so that the resources remain fully accessible and functional. Resources that are migrated face the risk of losing some type of functionality since newer formats may be incapable of capturing all the functionality of the original format, or the converter itself may be unable to interpret all the functionality of the original format. The latter is often a concern with proprietary data formats. f) Emulation: Emulation uses emulator, a special kind of software that translates code and instructions from one computing environment (original obsolete software) to execute in a new platform so that the digital form can be viewed and used. Emulation is the replicating of functionality of an obsolete system. Examples include emulating an Atari 2600 on a Windows system or emulating WordPerfect 1.0 on a Macintosh. Emulators may be built for applications, operating systems, or hardware platforms. Emulation has been a popular strategy for retaining the functionality of old video game systems, such as with the MAME project. g) Metadata Attachment: Metadata is data on a digital file that includes information on creation, access rights, restrictions, preservation history, and rights management. Metadata attached to digital files may be affected by file format obsolescence. ASCII is considered to be the most durable format for metadata because it is widespread, backwards compatible when used with Unicode, and utilizes
  • 84. Page84 human-readable character, not numeric codes. It retains information, but not the structure information it is presented in. For higher functionality, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) or Extensible Markup Language (XML) should be used. Both markup languages are stored in ASCII format, but contain tags that denote structured format. The long term storage of digital information is assisted by the inclusion of preservation metadata. h) Analogue Backups: It is the process of the conversion of digital objects into analogue format. It is useful to the document that deserves the highest level of merit and protection from being lost. The analogue backup of printed document can be created by taking a printout of the document and then binding it. i) Technology Preservation (Computer Museum): It deals with the preservation of the technology in which the digital information was created and maintained. It deals with the issues of preserving the technology including hardware and software configuration. It is very helpful in extending access to media obsolescence and file formats. j) Digital Archaeology: Digital archaeology includes methods and procedures to rescue the content from damaged media, hardware or software environments. Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA): DMCA is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Passed on October 12, 1998 by a unanimous vote in the United States Senate and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on October 28, 1998, the DMCA extended the reach of copyright, while limiting the liability of the providers of on-line services for copyright infringement by their users. It criminalizes production and dissemination of technology, devices, or services intended to circumvent measures (commonly known as digital rights management or DRM) that control access to copyrighted works. It also criminalizes the act of circumventing an access control, whether or not there is actual infringement of copyright itself. In addition, the DMCA heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. Document Delivery Service (DDS) Document Delivery Service (DDS): The requested material for DDS may be articles from journals, papers from conference proceedings, any other materials required for academic and research purposes, depending on the availability. Modern computer and telecommunication technology made it possible to transfer the electronic text of the document to long distances at extremely fast speed. a) Definition: DDS is concerned with the supply of document to the user on demand either in original or its photocopies irrespective of the location and form of original document. The Document Delivery Centre (DDC) on demand, deliver the copies of papers from learned journals, conference proceedings and other material available in their collection. Every DDC will also make the required effort to procure and supply the paper from other institution.
  • 85. Page85 b) Need: The need for DDS felt due to ever increasing subscription cost of learned journal that leads to a situation where no library can hold every item required to meet the needs of its user. c) DDS Providers: The British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston and University Microfilm International, Ann Arbor provide the DDS at international level In national level, INFLIBNET Centre in collaboration with the following universities provides DDS. The role of INFLIBNET here is mainly to act as a catalyst in promoting this service. * Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi: For the region of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh. * University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad: For the region of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal. * Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore: For Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadeep, Pondicherry, Tamilnadu. * Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi: Covers Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan. * Punjab University, Chandigarh: Covers Chandigarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab. * Tata Institute of Social Science, Mumbai: Includes Diu and Daman, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra. d) Placing Request and Delivering the Material: The request, listing the items required with complete bibliographical information are generally made using Email, normal letter by post, fax, telephone (in case of urgency) or requests in person. The delivery is also made accordingly. e) Charging Pattern: Some DDS services are provided on No Profit – No Loss Basis while others are on profit. Each Document Delivery Centre makes best effort to deliver the requested materials as early as possible. The fee for the service is charged depending on the type of members and mode of delivery (electronic copies through email / print out copy of electronic document / photocopy (Xerox) of printed material by hand scanning the printed page through electronic / photocopy of printed material by Fax / Courier / speed post). The members and associated member libraries of DDC can make the payment on supply of requested materials. However, there is some time bound to settle the account. All non-member, commercial organizations and individuals will have to pay in advance. To avoid the delay and paper work, in many case it is suggested that a deposit account with a minimum of amount may be opened. In today’s era many DDC also have the facility of online transfer of money through credit card or internet banking while some others are still functioning by taking account of the Demand Draft, cheque or by cash. f) Let Us Sum Up: The requesting library / individual for the DDS will have to follow the copyright regulations and therefore will have to give an undertaking in the request itself that the requested material will be used only for academic and research purpose and not for any commercial gains.
  • 86. Page86 Dubline Core Metadata Elements Set The Dubline core metadata set is a vocabulary of fifteen properties for issue in resource description. the name " Dublin " is due to its origin at a 1995 invitational workshop in dublin, Ohio. " Core " because its elements are broad and generic, usable for describing a wide range of resources. The fifteen element Dublin core described in this standard is part of a largest set of matadata vocabularies and technical specifications maintained by the Dublin Metadata (DCMI),the full set of vocabularies DCMI Metadata terms also includes sets of resources, classes, vocabulary encoding schemes, and syntax encoding schemes. The term in DCMI vocabularies in the context of application profiles and on the basis of the DCMI abstract mode (DCAM) all changes made to terms of the Dublin core metadata elements set since 2001 have been reviewed by DCMI usage board in the context of a DCMI name space policy, the name space policy describes now DCMI terms are Assigned uniform resources identifiers (URIs) and sets limit on the range of editorial changes that may allowably be made to the labels , definitions, and usage comments associated with existing DCMI Terms Duties and Responsibilities of the Librarian Duties and Responsibilities of the Librarian: The main duties and responsibilities of the librarians are as follows a) Policy Formulation: The librarian is to formulate and administer policies, rules and regulation for the purpose of securing the most complete use of the library and to participate in the formulation of educational policies of the parent organization. b) Ex Officio Member: The librarian acts as an ex officio member of all the academic bodies of the parent organization. c) Library Budget: The librarian has the responsibility to prepare and execute the annual budget of the library. d) Library Documents: He is responsible for all the professional job related to selection, acquisition, classification, cataloguing and maintenance of the library documents. e) Library Service: The librarian is also responsible for providing the various types of services such as CAS, SDI, Reference and also for creating reading habit. f) Secretary of Library Committee: He acts as a secretary of the library committee where he/she is responsible in preparing the agenda for the committee meeting by giving facts of each item, to issue the library committee meeting notice and to keep the minutes of the library committee meeting. The librarian is also responsible for keeping the library committee well informed about the day to day happening of the library. vii) Library Representative: The librarian represents the library before the patrons of the library, the general public etc and act as the chief executive of the library.
  • 87. Page87 E- Journal 1. Introduction: According to Covi 1996, the “Electronic Journal” is ambiguous and it is not always clear whether the producers of a given title are referring to a distribution format for a print journal, an electronic archive of a print journal or a journal published exclusively in an electronic format. Broadly, E- journal may be defined as any journal, magazine, newsletter etc. which can be electronically accessed and are available over the internet. 2. Characteristics: The characteristics of E-journals are a) Articles in e- journals are electronically submitted which help in the rapid publication of an issue. b) It gives innovative ways of representing research results and other form of data, information, text, motion, sound, hypertext, hypermedia linkages. c) The files or articles are electronically accessed using different technologies such as www, gopher, FTP, Telnet etc. d) Ability to link reader comment and evaluation to published articles. e) It helps in more efficient dissemination of information, rapid SDI services by libraries through e- mail. f) It lower cost per successful match between articles and reader. E-documents E-documents: The term e-document or e-text is a broader term that includes the document in ASCII text format. It may be content from a website, blog, wiki, discussion forum, discussion group, online journal and so on. The salient features of electronic documents are: i) They can be delivered to the desktop (although the desktop needs a computer) ii) They can be read by more than one person at a time. iii) The text can be searched. iv) They can include multimedia and graphics, in color, at marginal cost. v) They can be published more quickly than paper publications. vi) They can be interactive; that is, they can foster an online exchange of ideas by e-mail. vii) Have the ability to make hyperlinks, both internally and to other publications. This means that readers can link directly to references cited in an article and also, with additional effort on the part of publishers and indexers, to later articles that cite the article they are reading. viii) Articles can be retrieved directly through links from abstracting and indexing databases.
  • 88. Page88 ix) The content can be reproduced, forwarded, modified leading to possible problems with copyright protection and preserving authenticity. The main disadvantage is that, unless they are also printed on paper, they require specialized equipment for reading. a) E-journal: E-Journal is an all-electronic, peer-reviewed periodical in a specific field or in a general field of interest. In the E-Journal environment the creation, transmission, storage, interpretation, alteration and replication of electronic "text" including "display" takes place in electronic form. Some electronic journals are online-only journals; some are online versions of printed journals, and some consist of the online equivalent of a printed journal, but with additional online-only material. Some journals are subscription-based, or allow pay-per-view access. An increasing number of journals are now available as open access journals, requiring no subscription. Most working paper archives and articles on personal homepages are free, as are collections in Institutional repositories and Subject repositories. Most electronic journals are published both in HTML and Portable Document Format (PDF) formats, but some are available in only one of the two. Some e-journals are available over the internet while some others are distributed on CD-ROMs, or by way of e-mail. b) E-book: An e-book also called eBook, ebook, electronic book, is an electronic (or digital) equivalent of a conventional printed book and is a proprietary file formats. Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed book, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from pre-existing hard- copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of Robotic Scanners, having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces an image file, which must then be converted into text format by an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) program. Occasionally, an e-book may also be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard. As a newer development, sometimes only the e-book form is produced by the publisher; it is usually possible technically to convert this to a printed book by short-run printing. A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to choosing a format for production of e-book. Formats available include, but are by no means limited to image file (.png, .jpg), Microsoft Word or plain text files (.doc or .txt), Rich Text Format (.rtf), Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) (.html), Open Electronic Book Package Format (OPF), Portable Document Format (.pdf), etc. The hardware device used to read books in digital format is known as an e-book device or e-book reader. The e-book reader includes FlipViewer®, Haali Reader and FBReader, Plucker, Acrobat Reader or Adobe Reader, Mobipocket (.prc), Cybook (Bookeen), iRex iLiad (based on eInk), Sony Reader (based on eInk), eBookwise-1150 (based on former Gemstar technology), Jinke Hanlin Reader (based on eInk), DNL Reader (http://www.dnaml.com/), eReader (formerly Palm Digital Media) (.pdb), etc.
  • 89. Page89 Among the first Internet-only publishers of new e-books were Boson Books, Hard Shell Word Factory and Online Originals, all founded in the mid-1990s. Online Originals was the first e-book publisher to win mainstream book reviews (in the London Times) and a nomination for a major literary prize (the Booker Prize). Some of the free notable e-book repositories that are available over the web are i) Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org/). ii) Facsimile Books & other digitally enhanced Works from: The University of Georgia Libraries (http://fax.libs.uga.edu/). iii) The Internet Public Library Online Texts Collection (http://www.ipl.org/div/subject/browse/hum60.60.00/) iv) ManyBooks.net (http://manybooks.net/) v) Econlib (http://www.econlib.org/) vi) Higher intellect project (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higher_intellect_project) vii) epalm.org (http://www.epalm.org) viii) Explorion (http://explorion.net/). vix) PocketPCBooks.net (http://www.pocketpcbooks.net/) The main advantages of e-books are i) Searching: Text can be searched, except when represented in the form of images. ii) Take up Little Space: Hundreds (or thousands) may be carried together on one device, Approximately 500 average e-books can be stored on one CD (equivalent to several shelves' worth of print books). iii) Royalties Generation for Authors: E-books can be offered indefinitely, with no “out of print” date, allowing authors to continue to earn royalties indefinitely, and allowing readers to find older works by favorite authors. iv) Zooming Facility: Type size and type face may be adjusted. v) Backup Copy: A backup can be kept in a remote place, so cannot be lost by fire, etc. vi) Low Cost: Can be distributed at low cost since coloring copy also does not cost much. vii) Speedy Distribution: Distributed instantly, allowing readers to begin reading at once, without the need to visit a bookstore. viii) Sharing: Can be simultaneously shared with many readers. ix) Environmentally Viable: Economically and environmentally viable by cutting down on paper and lumber production, economically viable by cutting down on ink production
  • 90. Page90 x) Preservation: Does not wear over time, no risk of damage, vandalism, etc. on the pages. Some of the disadvantages of e-books are: i) Can be incompatible with the development of new hardware or software. ii) To avoid damage or loss care must be taken in handling and storage of the books. iii) Continuous reading can be harmful to the eyes. iv) Always need some equipment to read the book. Since the late 1990s, the many newcomers to e-book publishing have included most major print publishers. At the same time, many established e-publishers started to offer print versions of some of their titles. Thus the line between the two is fast blurring. E-books have their own bestseller lists, including those compiled by IDPF and Fictionwise. They even have two yearly awards for excellence in e-books. The longest-standing and most inclusive of these is the EPPIE award, given by EPIC since 2000. The other is the Dream Realm Award, first awarded to speculative fiction e-books in 2002 Environmental Information System (ENVIS) Realising the importance of Environmental Information, the Government of India, in December, 1982, established an Environmental Information System (ENVIS) as a plan programme. ENVIS is a decentralised system with a network of distributed subject oriented Centres ensuring integration of national efforts in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to all concerned. Presently the ENVIS network consists of Focal Point at the Ministry of Environment and Forest and ENVIS Centres setup in different organizations / establishments in the country in selected areas of environment. These Centres have been set up in the areas of pollution control, toxic chemicals, central and offshore ecology, environmentally sound and appropriate technology, bio-degradation of wastes and environment management, etc. ENVIS India has already established Eighty One partner nodes, which include thirty government departments, Thirty Six Institutions and Fifteen NGOs. These nodes are supposed to create websites on specific environment related subject areas. 1. Aims and Objectives: ENVIS focal point ensures integration of national efforts in environmental information collection, collation, storage, retrieval and dissemination to all concerned. 1.1 Long-term objectives a) To build up a repository and dissemination centre in Environmental Science and Engineering; b) To gear up the modern technologies of acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information of environmental nature; and c) To support and promote research, development and innovation in environmental information technology.
  • 91. Page91 1.2 Short-term objectives a) To provide national environmental information service relevant to present needs and capable of development to meet the future needs of the users, originators, processors and disseminators of information; b) To build up storage, retrieval and dissemination capabilities with the ultimate objectives of disseminating information speedily to the users; c) To promote, national and international cooperation and liaison for exchange of environment related information; d) To promote, support and assist education and personnel training programmes designed to enhance environmental information processing and utilization capabilities; e) To promote exchange of information amongst developing countries. 2. Functions: i) EMCBTAP: ENVIS has started implementing the World Bank assisted Environment Management Capacity Building Technical Assistance Project (EMCBTAP) since January, 2002 which aims at structuring the ENVIS scheme by extending its reach through involvement of Institutions / Organizations in State Governments, academia sector, corporate sector, NGO sector, etc. ii) ENVIS-Nodes: To strengthen ENVIS in disseminating information pertaining to environment and sustainable development, ENVIS India establishes different ENVIS Nodes by involving Organizations, institutions, Universities and Government departments working in diverse areas of environment. 3. Conclusion: ENVIS due to its comprehensive network has been designed as the National Focal Point (NFP) for INFOTERRA, a global environmental information network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). In order to strengthen the information activities of the NFP, ENVIS was designated as the Regional Service Centre (RSC) of INFOTERRA of UNEP in 1985 for the South Asia Sub-Region countries Evaluation of Reference Sources Introduction: Reference sources are the backbone of a library. It helps the libraries and librarian in maintaining the question banks from which answer to queries of the users and material required by users are available. It may be added that the border line of demarcation between a reference book and others is not always sharp. The decisions as to whether or not to regard a given book as a reference book will sometime different from library to library. The checklists for evaluation of reference sources are more or less same for all types of work. They can be applied to all sources with slight modification. The mnemonic form APPARATUS can be used as a check points for their appraisal. The APPARATUS indicates: A-Authority
  • 92. Page92 P- Purpose, Price P- Physical format, Picture A-Arrangement R- Receney, Revision A-Accuracy T- Treatment U- Use S- Scope Authority: The work should be authoritative. The authoritiveness of a reference book can usually be judge on the basis of qualification, experience and reputation of the sponsoring body (if any), publisher, distributor, author(s), Editor(s), Compiler(s). Purpose, Price: What is the purpose of the work as stated by the editor himself? Has this purpose been full field in the main work? What is the total cost of the work and whether the cost can be justified on the basis of its content? Physical Format, Picture: It refers to the physical make up of the book. All reference works should be a handy volume easy to withstand wear and tear. Format refers to binding quality of paper, typefaces, page make up, illustration, plates, diagrams, maps etc. Binding is of special consideration for bulky works likely to be used heavily. Type face should be clear and legible with suitable headings and subheading in bold types for the guidance of the readers. Arrangement: A reference sources demand easy and quick location of recorded entries. Goods arrangement adds to the value of a reference sources. The information must be systematically arranged. It is essential to have a detailed index which should provide for various kinds of approaches. The arrangement of the main text can be classified or chronological or geographic or alphabetical or some other. The kind of arrangement used should have a sound basis. Index to the main text is extremely important. The index should be detailed one providing reasonable number of approaches complemented by cross references. The index can be alphabetical or classified or some other. Receney, Revision: Information is always developing, some old becomes obsolete and some new are added. So in the evaluation process, the evaluator should keep it in mind to check whether the work is current and update or not. A continuous revision policy must be followed. Some works may issue supplements containing new information. What devices it uses to keep the bibliographies up to date. Though some reference sources may contain some retrospective information, every year it should be thoroughly revised and updated. The time lag is important for current sources. Accuracy: The work should be judged by the accuracy of the facts mentioned in the work.
  • 93. Page93 Treatment: It is to be ascertained whether the information is reliable and accurate or not, whether the treatment is biased or unbiased. It includes how through, reliable and complete is the information e.g. Facts, statistics, place, names, names of persons, names of organization, bibliography whichever is applicable. Treatment should also include questions like does it show any bias on controversial topics. Has the space allocated for a topic related to the degree of importance attached to a topic? Has the work written for scholars or layman, adults or children? How readable is the writing etc. Use: If the work will be purchased then who will be the user, who will benefit from the work. Does the library have such kind of user base or not? Scope: The kind of information included would depend upon the scope of the work. Some work may cover a particular country or the whole world or all subjects while others may be restricted to some specific or minute topic only. The date or period covered is an important criterion. Sometimes it may relate to a particular subject, organization also. The content page, preface, and introduction may give an idea of the information contained in the work. What are the limitations of the reference work with regard to subject, class of reader, up- to-dateness of material, what is the overall coverage? Does it follow a definite plan consistently? What is the extent of supervision provided by the editor(s)? Some works have a long history. It would be useful to add history as an additional check point. Overall Judgment: The evaluated reference sources are useful for what kind of library. Formulation of Research Topic / Proposal Formulation of Research Topic / Proposal: A research proposal is a chosen plan of action to follow in conjunction with a research work. It is a tool to identify potential research interest. The objectives of a research proposal are - i) Research proposal gives direction to the research work; ii) It is needed to submit to the funding agency / supervisor; iii) It is the foundation on which the future research work will grow. The researchers own academic, personal, and professional expertise is the main asset to choose a relevant topic of interest for research. Before taking any topic for research one should ask himself / herself two questions - what is the significance of the topic and why is this particular topic need of being researched? 1. Steps in Formulating a Research Proposal: Though there is no thumb rule for formulating a research topic, yet the following will throw a light in this direction. i) Identifying Area of Specialization: In choosing any topic for research the first and foremost thing is the identification of the areas what one likes most. ii) Discussion with Peers: In the very second step one should ask or talk with his / her peers (including seniors and teacher) about the topic and by this way should try to collect some more information on the topic at hand.
  • 94. Page94 iii) Using Science: The person concerned in the next step should employ science in way of viewing the topic based on the concept of order, external reality, reliability, parsimony, and generality. iv) Literature Search: Literature search is essential in order to be aware of the existing research and to know what has already come out to the surface. Different form of literature both macro, micro and web covering all aspect of the topic should be studied at this step itself. Literature searching tool includes guides to literature; bibliographies, citation analysis (forward search); library catalogue, indexing and abstracting journals, search engines; Meta search engine; wiki search engines, etc. During literature search activity one should collect all the relevant documents. It will be needed to summarize the results of previous research to form a foundation of the present one and to collect ideas about what methodologies, techniques and tool were used by previous researchers in case of near topic that one is supposed to choose for and to assess the success of the previous research work based on the methodologies, techniques and tools undertaken. v) Research Method, Tools and Techniques: Based on the literature search, the research scholar should seek for alternative, judge himself/herself why earlier investigators choose their course of action, what are their shortcomings, whether other approaches can be used for such type of investigation and so on. vi) Key Concepts: In the next step, the research scholar should try to list and define key concepts and terms and also be alert to the latest happenings on the subject; vii) Problem Identification: The research scholar now should find out, what is missing in the existing literature. In doing so he/she should go from general to particular problem, and then should break the problem. viii) Judging Yourself: Now after identification of the problem one should judge himself/herself whether he/she is fitted to take this topic, in regard to his/her expertise, time and skill, if not he/she must again start from the point number (i) and choose other alternatives; ix) Research Proposal: In this step the research scholar should prepare the research proposal, making judgment to make others convinced regarding the value of the research work, map out all the arguments in the form of research proposal and so on. x) Communicating the Proposal: The proposal should be communicated with the expected research supervisor. 2. Contents of a Research Proposal: A research proposal in general consists of the following parts- Sl. No. Contents Page 1 Title Page 1 2 Introduction 1 3 Statement of The Problem 1 4 Aims and Objectives ½ 5 Topic Justification 1 6 Scope and Limitation ½ 7 Literature Review 5 8 Methodology 2 9 Ethical Consideration: the ethics you adopt 1
  • 95. Page95 10 Risk Analysis 1 11 Schedule* 1 12 References 1 * The Schedule will include time needed for extensive literature search, research design to conduct the main study, and time needed to write the research findings. 3. Writing Research Proposal: Though it is not mandatory, the following steps are followed in writing a research proposal- a) Setting up Template: Template like using of Font = Times New Roman; Font Style = Regular; Font Size = 12; Alignment = Justify; Line Spacing = 1.5. For heading purpose one can use Font Style: Bold, rests are same and like that. b) Avoiding Biasness: For any type of research proposal writing it would be better to restrict using “I” except in the introduction chapter, in other parts of the report it should be replaced by “the researcher”, “the author”, and such appropriate words. c) Table and Graphs Names: In case of table and graph naming, the rule of thump is to naming the table and graph by using the chapter name followed by table or graph number starting freshly from the beginning of each chapter. d) Checking: After writing the research proposal the research scholar need to check for the following:- i) Whether all text formatting guidelines are followed or not. ii) Quotations are complete and followed by in text citation or not. iii) In text citation are included in the references pages or not. Function of Management Function of Management: In 1937 L. Gulic and L. Urwick in “papers on the Science of administration” listed seven functions of management. They coined the acronym POSDCORB for the same. This stands for Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, COordinating, Reporting and Budgeting. a) Planning: Plan is regarded as a “projected course of action”. According to Koontz and O’Donnell, planning is deciding in advance what to do and how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it. It involves developing objectives, strategies, policies, procedures, programmes, etc. b) Organizing: Organizing means establishing of a formal structure of authority, which is well defined and co-ordinated towards the attainment of specific objectives. At this stage the objectives are set, methods are formulated, process of implementation are fixed, papers are ready, decision for doing the job is taken and all necessary steps are taken to perform the job.
  • 96. Page96 c) Staffing: Staffing refers to the human resources already existing in the organization and the new recruitment. The manager should assess the existing man-hour and capabilities of the existing persons employed. If required their duties may be reorganized for yielding better service. They should have in service training and continuing education to improve the capabilities and expertise. The right person should be in the right place with the right job. When required new person should be recruited having desired academic background and adequate training with proper aptitude and motivation. Further for getting the best result the working environment should be congenial. d) Directing: Directing is defined as the continuous task of taking decisions and incorporating them in specific and general order and serving these orders. That’s why directing involves overall administrative control. It is the administrative command over the affairs. In this sense directing is taking the leadership over all the maters as a whole for the present as well as for the future. Directing not only means just to issue the order but also to motivate the staff to get the best result. e) Coordinating: Coordinating in an organization is balancing and interrelating of the various parts of organization and keeping together all the staff for getting the best result with the minimum resources at hand. In any organization the division of work is distributed and at every stage a person is responsible to somebody for his performance and jobs to be done by him. The staffs are generally responsible to their immediate superior. There are various work units, sections and divisions for respective responsibilities but for proper coordination all these individual units must be interrelated and works should be done in a chain system, one after another. f) Reporting: Reporting is the way to keep the authorities and the concerned public informed about the performance, achievements and shortfall of the organizations. It is a means of keeping informed to whom executive is responsible as to what is going on, which thus include keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and inspection. Reporting is the preparation of factual data of the work done in a unit or section. These unit or section reports are amalgamated to prepare the full report of the working of the institution for a given period. The report is then transmitted to the top administrative body. The report contains the work done in various units, any progress made, constraints felt and the suggestion to overcome these, any backlog in the work and the reasons thereof, actual work done with statistical figure and the like. g) Budgeting: Budgeting is defined as “an estimated often itemized or expected income and expense or operating results for a given period in the future. Budgeting is the preparation of financial estimate for the next financial year, anticipate allotment for the present financial year and showing the actual expenditure incurred in the previous financial year. It involves receipts and expenditure as well as accounting, financial control and financial planning. In addition to the above mentioned functions the following two functions are considered essential for an efficient management. h) Control: The chief of any institution has to control effectively his subordinates. He has to inspect their work personally. He has to keep an eye upon the methods of performing specific jobs assigned to individual workers, the end products and overall cost of productions / services. He has to ensure best quality and maximum quantity of work from his worker.
  • 97. Page97 i) Motivation: The aim of an organization cannot be achieved unless its workers perform their jobs willingly and conscientiously. So to do the same the worker must be motivated by providing congenial service conditions and environments. An individual can be motivated by two kinds of needs – Basic needs and those that is socially determined and that both of these must be satisfied to allow emotional maturity. The motivation of personnel through promotion, recognition and incentives create proper environment for employees to put in their best effort. Generations of Computers Generations of Computers: Computer generation means step by step changes and each major change or progress after a period of time. Since inception there are totally five generation of computers. a) First Generation Computer (Up to 1950): ENIAC was the first valve based computer and taken as first computer of first generation of electronic digital computer. It was made by J. P. Eckert and John W. Mauchly in 1946. EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC are some other examples of computer of this generation. This generation computer possessed the following characteristics: i) Used thermionic valves or vacuum tube or electronic valve; ii) Used Mercury line for storage and paper tapes and punched cards were also used; iii) Computer programming was mainly done in machine language; iv) All the computers were of very big size and so required very large space; v) The computers were very costly; vi) Limited programming capabilities, memory; vii) Slow operating speed and restricted computing capacity; viii) High power consumption (each vacuum tubes consumed about half a watt power); ix) Vacuum tubes used filament as a source of electron; they have a limited life. x) Large amount of heat generated from the vacuum tubes and so they needed air-conditioning. b) Second Generation Computer: The invention of transistor (short names for transfer resistor) in 1948 led to the development of second generation of computer. Their main disadvantages were that the commercial productions of transistors were difficult and expensive; again, the manual assembly of individual components into a functioning unit was required. Examples of second generation of computer include UNIVAC-1108, IBM 700, 1401, CDC 1604, 3600. The second generation computers are characterized by the following: i) Transistors replaced the vacuum tubes completely; ii) Use of magnetic cores for memory storage. Magnetic drum, magnetic disc, punched card were also used for storage purpose;
  • 98. Page98 iii) Use of high level language like FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol, SNOBOL etc.; iv) Due to the use of transistors the sizes turned to be smaller; v) Less costly in comparison to the first generation of computer; vi) Memory capacities were about 100 Kilobyte; v) Reduction in computation time from millisecond to microsecond; vi) Transistors consume only a tenth of power as required by vacuum tubes; vii) Transistors have no filament to burn as against the first generation of computer so they were more reliable; ix) Less heat was generated due to the use of transistor but still needed air conditioning and frequent maintenance. c) Third Generation Computer: The third generation began in 1965 with germanium transistors being replaced by silicon transistors (=integrated circuit). Integrated circuit is a circuit consisting of transistors, resistors and capacitors grown on a single chip of silicon eliminating wired interconnections between components. Highly sophisticated technology was required for the manufacture of the chips, but still commercial production become easier and not so expensive. Remote processing and time sharing is also an added advantage of this generation of computer. Example: IBM 360 Series, ICL 1900 series, IBM 370/168, ICL 2900, Honeywell 6000 series. This generation computer has the following characteristics i) Use of integrated circuit; ii) Use of semiconductor memories in addition to, and later instead of, ferrite core memory. The two main types of semiconductor memory are Read-Only Memory (ROM) and read-and-write memories called Random Access Memory (RAM); iii) Extensive use of high level programming languages; iv) Smaller size and better performance, more flexibility with input/output; v) Less costly in comparison to the second generation of computer and become popular as mini computer and are quite portable; vi) Memories improved to 4 Megabytes; vii) Reduction in computational time from microseconds to nanoseconds; viii) Lower heat generation and quite less power requirement; ix) More reliable in comparison to the second generation of computer; x) Air conditioning required in many cases;
  • 99. Page99 d) Fourth Generation Computer: The fourth generation of computer may be identified by the advent of the microprocessor chip. The whole computer CPU except primary memory is placed on a single chip. This chip is known as microprocessor. Examples: Intel 4004, Apple series I and II, spectrum 7 etc. This generation computer has the following characteristics: i) Use of large scale and very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) packing about 50,000 transistors in a chip; ii) Magnetic core memories were replaced by semiconductor memories; iii) Sophisticated programs and languages for special application. In the area of language “C” language became popular. iv) Increasing use of microcomputer; v) Low cost; vi) Increased storage; vii) Considerably faster and smaller; viii) Heat generated is negligible and even air conditioner is not always required; ix) Network of computers and distributed computer systems were developed; x) Modular design, versatility and compatibility. e) Fifth Generation Computer: The fifth generation of computer is in the process of full development. This computer is expected to be a new and unique of its kind having the artificial intelligence i.e. the ability to reason logically and with the real knowledge of the world, behaving almost like a human being in the sense of talking, seeing, hearing and utilizing human language. History of a Computer History of a Computer: It is difficult to identify any one device as the earliest computer, partly because the term "computer" has been subject to varying interpretations over time. It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. 1. The Beginning: Examples of early mechanical calculating devices included the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about 150-100 BC). The end of the middle ages saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering. Wilhelm Schickard's 1623 device was the first of a number of mechanical calculators constructed by European engineers. However, none of those devices fit the modern definition of a computer because they could not be programmed.
  • 100. Page100 a) Abacus: The concepts of number and counting are believed to have been developed first by the herdsmen of ancient times, who sought to avoid animal losses. It can be traced back to 3000 BC. The herdsmen (or the Stone Age men) used small round stones (pebbles) for counting cattle. After counting with pebbles, the successor was a tool known as ABACUS, which is treated as the first mechanical computing device. The word “Abacus” is derived from the Greek word ‘abakos’ which means a board or calculating tables. Beads are strung on wires or strings held in a frame and they are slid along the wires counting, adding, etc. It was invented by the Chinese in 3000 BC, which was later improved by the Egyptians and the Greeks. b) Mechanical Theater: Hero of Alexandria (c. 10 – 70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. c) Joseph Marie Jacquard: In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom that used a series of punched paper cards as a template to allow his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting “Jacquard loom” was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early form of programmability. d) Napier’s Bones: John Napier was the inventor of logarithms. He used his data tables and with the help of a mechanical device could do the necessary computing. e) Pascal’s Machine Arithmetique: In 1642 Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician invented a mechanical adding machine, a prototype of the digital calculating machine. This device was able to add and subtract directly, whereas multiplication and division were performed through repeated addition and subtraction respectively. f) Leibnitz’s Stepped Reckoner: Gottfried Withelm Von Leibnitz, a German mathematician invented a more advanced calculating machine in 1671, which could not only add but also multiply, divide and extract square root. As the machine could make a series of repeated additions, it was called the Stepped Reckoner. The merit of Leibnitz’s contribution is that he showed the advantage of binary system over decimal system in the operation of mechanical computer. g) Punched Card: A French weaver’s son named Joseph Marie-Jacquard made the next significant contribution in 1804. After observing how his father could make different weaving patterns on the loom, he thought of storing these patterns for future use. So, he developed a plate with multiple holes to control the weaving patters, not knowing that only his idea of storing the weaving patterns would be used to store data and would be called the Punched Card. A Punched card is a thin rectangular card divided into 80 columns and 12 rows in which the various characters could be represented by punching holes in different rows and columns. On one card it is possible to punch 80 characters – one character per column, thus it is possible to store 80 characters of data. h) Babbage’s Difference and Analytical Engines: Charles Babbage, a professor of Mathematics, designed a computing machine in 1822 for the purpose of producing ballistic tables called the “Difference Engine”. Then he conceived the idea of a new computing machine in 1833 and designed
  • 101. Page101 the machine in 1835 called Analytical Engine, which is the forerunner of the modern computer. It could be called as the first digital computer having the memory and the calculating units as well as sequential control with provision for automatic printout. Thus, Charles Babbage is widely regarded as the father of the computer. Due to limited finances, and an inability to resist thinking with the design, Babbage never actually built his Analytical Engine. (The Analytical Engine should not be confused with Babbage's Difference Engine which was a non-programmable mechanical calculator). i) Lady Ada Lovelace: Lady Ada Lovelace, an amateur mathematician, and a friend of Babbage produced supporting material for the “Analytical Engine” in the form of programs, and explanatory documentation. As such, she is considered the first lady computer programmer. ADA is one of the programming languages named after her. j) Boole’s Symbolic Logic: George Boole, the famous logician, discussed symbolic logic in 1859 in his work ‘Treatise of differential equation’. The development of symbolic logic and the application of binary logic operation AND, OR, NOT are his main contribution to modern computer technology. k) Hollerith’s Punched Card Machinery: Dr. Herman Hollerith, an American statistician invented the punched card machinery in 1886. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the U.S. Census in 1890 by tabulating machines designed by Herman Hollerith and manufactured by the Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, which later became International Business Machine (IBM) Corporation. The punched card invented by Hollerith is still used as the basic input medium to computers. l) Aiken and MARK I: This computer is also known as automatic sequence controlled calculator, which was designed by Howard A. Aiken of Harvard University. It is also known as Harvard MARK I. It is the first fully electro-mechanical computer. m) Stibitz’s Machine, MARK II and SSEC: George R. Stibitz developed a large relay computer at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1946. Aiken built the MARK II, the large relay computer in 1947. Another machine was also constructed by the people of IBM Corporation. It was known as the Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC). n) The Atanasoff-Berry Computer: This electronic machine was also known as ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) as it was named after its founder Dr. John Atanasoff and his assistant Clifford Berry. The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1941) used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory. o) Colossus Computers: The secret British Colossus computers (1943) (Copeland, 2006), had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes. p) Z Machines: In 1941, Konrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines" (Z3) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998, the Z3 was proved to be the world's first operational computer.
  • 102. Page102 q) Bush and Memex: Memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records and communications, which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. Dr. Vannevar Bush visualized the library of the future with mechanized services from housekeeping to operation. 2. Early Electronic Computer: The early electronic computer can be categorized into the following- a) ENIAC: (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator): This computer was built by a team at the University of Pennsylvania, designed by a team of members from the USA headed by Professor J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. The U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic, is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming. Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the stored program architecture or Von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described by John Von Neumann in the paper "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC", published in 1945. A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain. The first to be demonstrated working was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM) or "Baby". b) BINAC (Binary Automated Computer): Mauchly and Eckert established their own company and design the BINAC in 1950, which was the first machine to use self checking devices. c) EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer): Dr. John Von Neumann and the ENIAC group designed this computer. The device could store both the instruction and the data in the binary form, instead of human readable words or decimal numbers. d) EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator): It was developed by the Britishers, headed by Professor Maurice V. Wilkes at the Cambridge University Mathematical Laboratory. It was much faster than EDVAC. EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program (Von Neumann) architecture. The EDSAC which completed a year after SSEM, was perhaps the first practical implementation of the stored program design. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper EDVAC was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. e) SEAC (Standard Eastern Automatic Computer): The US National Bureau of Standards constructed this computer following the design of EDVAC and was completed in 1950. It was the first stored- program American Computer. f) Manchester Mark I (1948): This machine was designed by a group of scientists headed by Professor M. N. A. Newman. g) UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer): Mauchly and Eckert designed and built UNIVAC I. It was the first computer to handle both numerical and alphabetical information.
  • 103. Page103 h) MARK III and IV: Aiken built MARK III with magnetic drum storage at Harvard in 1950 and MARK IV, an improved version of MARK III, in 1952. 3. Modern Electronic Computer: Modern electronic computers have a faster speed. A major breakthrough in the computer technology was made by introducing transistor in place of vacuum tubes during the early sixties. With the development of transistor it was possible to design printed circuit, integrated circuit and other miniaturization techniques in the structure of computer. The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (around 1940 - 1945), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space. Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. In 1946, ENIAC consumed an estimated 174 kW. By comparison, a typical personal computer may use around 400 W; over four hundred times less (Kempf, 1961). Early computers such as Colossus and ENIAC were able to process between 5 and 100 operations per second. A modern "commodity" microprocessor (as of 2007) can process billions of operations per second, and many of these operations are more complicated and useful than early computer operations. Human Resource Management Human Resource Management: Human resources are acknowledged as the most valuable and important assets in any organization and recognized as a valued resources with potential. These are no longer associated with problems and cost. Human resource management is sometimes also known as personal management. a) Definition: Personal management implies a process of getting the best out of the employees of an organization by means of judicious selection, tactful dealing and by seeking their replacement, if necessary. A formal definition of personnel management is that it is a function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of employees to achieve organizational and individual goals. According to O. Tead and H.C. Metcaffe personnel management is “the direction and co-operation of human relations of any organization with a view to getting the maximum necessary production with a minimum of effort and friction and with a proper regard for the genuine well being of workers.” b) Aims of Personnel Management: The aim of personnel management is to develop capabilities of individual persons towards understanding appreciation and solution of problem. Each staff member should get a feeling that his works form a vital part of the working of the organization. In simple, the aims of personnel management are: i) Optimum output;
  • 104. Page104 ii) Development of workers capabilities by enabling the workers to derive maximum satisfaction from their work; iii) Development of team spirit; iv) Continuous vigilance. c) Importance of Personnel Management: The rationale behind recognizing the role of human resources management is that: i) Human resources who are employed in the organization are human being with some aspiration and ambition in life. ii) Though humans are utilized as means to an end in the production process they are ultimate sharer of profit. iii) The personnel being a part of the community are also the consumers as well. iv) The manpower of any organization is responsible to perform the duties and all operational work and is the one who ran an organization. v) Human resources are the best resources of any organization in comparison to all other physical resources. It is they who convert material into suitable commodities. vi) If the energies of the personnel can be channelised in right direction, they can overcome the constrains and limitations of other physical resources. d) Function of Personnel Management: Personnel management is a staff function. It is advisory in nature. It recommends, cooperates and counsels. The main functions of personnel management may be grouped under the following broad heading- i) Manpower planning. ii) Job analysis iii) Job description iv) Staffing v) Recruitment, selection and test vi) Induction, orientation and placement vii) Training and development (continuous education) viii) Motivation of personnel ix) Leadership x) Wage and salary administration
  • 105. Page105 xi) Employer – Employee relationship (supervise, control) xii) Performance evaluation. Henry Mintzberg in his “the nature of managerial work” (1973) described the following roles to be played by the top man in management. i) Figurehead ii) Leader iii) Liaison iv) Monitor v) Disseminator vi) Spokesman vii) Entrepreneurs viii) Disturbance handler ix) Resource allocator x) Negotiator e) Problems in Personnel Management: The problems associated with personnel management are- i) Increasing government regulation regarding employment practices: The reservation for schedule caste and tribes, backward classes, government regulation on recruitment, resignation, dismissal, retirement, etc. creates problem in personnel management. ii) Pressure and bargaining with union: The pressure from union or bargaining with union for working condition and benefit creates another problem. iii) Insufficient budget: Decreasing or stable budget can disturb staffing pattern. It might lead to vacancies being allowed to remain vacant. Hypotheses: An investigator cannot enter in any field with a blank mind. Normally he or she begins the task of investigation with some ideas about the subject matter vaguely formulated. Having thus entered the field of investigation, he or she proceeds to find out whether these ideas what he or she has conceived are true or false. They may be totally correct or only partially so, or may be altogether false but as a guide to understanding the problem on hand, these ideas are very useful. These primary ideas which guide the investigator in his study may be termed as hypothesis. The concept of hypothesis has been defined by various scientists in their own ways. Hypo means “less than” and thesis means “a generally held view”. Etymologically speaking thus the word
  • 106. Page106 hypothesis connotes “a less than generally held view”. It is an assumption or supposition whose validity is to be tested. a) Definition: A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a research problem, expressed in the form of a clearly stated relation between the independent and the dependent variables. Hypotheses are tentative answers because they can be verified only after they have been tested empirically. According to Rumel and Belline “a hypothesis is a statement capable of being tested and thereby verified or rejected”. According to Goode and Hatt “hypothesis is a shrewd guess that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts, or conditions and to guide in further investigation”. They further add that “it is a proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity. It may prove to be correct or incorrect”. In the words of George Lundberg, “a hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the validity of which remains to be tested. In its most elementary stage the hypothesis may be any hunch, guess, imaginative idea, which becomes the basis for action or investigation”. Barr and Scates define hypothesis as “a hypothesis is a statement temporarily accepted as true… when the hypothesis is fully established, it may take the form of facts, principles or theories”. According to Webster, “a hypothesis is a proposition, condition or principle which is assumed, perhaps without belief in order to draw out its logical consequences and by this method to test its accord with facts which are known or may be determined”. Kerlinger states “a hypothesis is a conjectural statement of relation between two or more variables. Hypothesis are always in declarative sentence form and they relate whether generally or specifically variables to variables”. James E. Creighlon defines hypothesis as “a tentative supposition or provisional guess which seems to explain the situation under observation”. In the opinion of J. S. Mill “a hypothesis is only an unproved supposition, a weak form of proposition”. Hypothesis simply means a mere assumption or some supposition to be proved or disproved. It is a preposition or a set of proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. Quite often a research hypothesis is a predictive statement capable of being tested by scientific methods that relates an independent variable to some dependent variable. It is a statement in a research, which the study might prove or disprove. b) Types of Hypothesis: There are different approaches to classify the hypothesis. Some of them are listed below- i) Goode and Hatt Classification: According to Goode and Hatt, there are mainly two types of hypothesis
  • 107. Page107 * Crude Hypothesis: A crude hypothesis is at the low level of abstraction. It indicates the kind of data to be collected and it does not lead to higher theoretical research. * Refined Hypothesis: Refined hypothesis are of three types- simple level, complex ideal and very complex. Simple Level indicates merely the uniformity in social behavior. It does not involve much verification. Complex Ideal Hypothesis is at higher level of abstraction. This hypothesis examines the logically derived relations between the empirical uniformities. This type of hypothesis is useful in developing tools of analysis. It provides constructs for further hypothesizing. The Very Complex Hypothesis is concerned with the interrelations of multiple variables. ii) P. V. Young Classification: Young refers to mainly two types of hypothesis-Working Hypothesis and Explanatory Hypothesis. Working Hypothesis is a provisional central idea which becomes the basis for fruitful investigation. The Explanatory Hypothesis refers to the scope of going into the depth and width with various possibilities so far invisible. iii) Statistical Analysis: In the context of statistical analysis, a hypothesis may be any one of the following types- * Null Hypothesis: Null means Zero. The null hypothesis is a statistical proposition which states, essentially that, there is no relation between the variable (of the problem). When a hypothesis is stated negatively, then it is called as a null hypothesis. A null hypothesis is used to collect additional support for the known hypothesis. The null hypothesis says, “You are wrong, there is no relation, disprove me if you can”. The objective of the null hypothesis is to avoid personal bias of the investigator in the matter of data collection. * Alternative Hypothesis: That which is concluded rejecting the null hypothesis is known as alternative hypothesis. Alternative hypothesis is formulated embracing a whole range of values rather than a single point. For example: HA = the males visited cinema more than the female. H0= the males and females do not different in respect of the frequency of seeing cinema. So, alternative hypothesis is usually the one which one wishes to prove and the null hypothesis is the one which one wishes to disprove. iv) Others: Hypothesis may further be classified into Descriptive Hypothesis and Rational Hypothesis. Descriptive hypothesis are propositions that typically state the existence, size, form, or distribution of some variables. The Rational hypothesis on the other hand is a statement that describes the relationship between two variables. Eg. Families with higher income spend more for recreation. c) Difficulties in Formulating a Hypothesis: According to Goode and Hatt, the following difficulties arise in formulating the hypothesis-
  • 108. Page108 i) Lack of Previous Knowledge of the Field of Enquiry: In the absence of knowledge concerning a subject matter, one can make no well founded judgment of relevance hypothesis. ii) Lack of Clear Theoretical Background: Hypothesis do not have a clear cut and definitive theoretical background, partly it is a matter of lifting upon an idea on some problem. iii) Lack of Logical Background: Formulation of proper hypothesis to a great extent depends on one’s experience and logical insight. iv) Lack of Knowledge of Scientific Method: It is not always possible to have complete information of and acquaintance with the scientific methods for formulating hypothesis. This lack of scientific knowledge presents difficulty in formulation of hypothesis. d) Functions of Hypothesis: Cohen and Nagel’s are of the view that we cannot take a single step forward in any inquiry without a hypothesis. Without hypothesis mere collection of data is likely to lead the researcher anywhere without aim and produce no result. The main functions of hypothesis are- i) Prevent Blind Research: It spells out the difference between precision and haphazard research, between fruitful and fruitless research. It helps in selecting pertinent factors. It makes the enquiry more specific and to the point. ii) Foundation of Research: The hypotheses are the foundation of scientific research. If a proper hypothesis is formulated then one fourth of the research works comes to an end. iii) New Experiment and Observation: A hypothesis what we are looking for is a proposition which can be put to test to determine its validity. iv) Provide Direction to Research: Hypothesis shows the line, in which way the researcher has to proceed. Hypothesis is investigator’s eye – a sort of guiding light in the world of research darkness to identify which is relevant and which is irrelevant v) Link the Investigation with Theory: Hypothesis is necessary to link between investigation and theory, which lead to the discovery of additional knowledge. vi) Serve as a Framework for Drawing Meaningful Conclusion: Direct answer to the hypothesis being tested. vii) Lead to Discovery of Laws: Hypothesis leads one to the discovery of laws and theory. e) Conclusion: A hypothesis looks forward. It is a proposition which can be put to an empirical test to determine its validity. Every worthwhile theory permits the formulation of additional hypothesis. These, when tested, are either proved or disproved and thus in their own constitute further tests of the original theory.
  • 109. Page109 Indexing and Abstracting Service Indexing and Abstracting Service: An abstract or summary is a short statement of the most important points in a text. Abstract – especially refers to scientific papers where as summary – refers to more general news stories, administrative documents, reports, etc. The manual abstracting is typically done by a human being. In automatic abstracting, abstracting is typically done by computer system. Automatic Abstracting are very complicated, often fragile, slow in production and available in some restricted domain only. a) Automatic Indexing: Automatic indexing is the process of assigning and arranging index terms by machine without human intervention. As suggested by Eugene Garfield it is actually improper to use the word “automatic indexing” rather it should be called as “algorithmic indexing”. In automatic indexing (or algorithmic indexing), the computer programme identifies the words in a text and their location, and then the collected words are alphabetized. In doing so definite and indefinite articles, prepositions and other words on a so-called stop list are not included in the program's output. Even some word processors provide this capability. The advantages of automatic indexing include speed of generation and negligible cost associated with its generation. No computer programme however intelligible makes full judgment; don’t have the expertise, intelligence or audience awareness that is needed to create usable indexes. The main drawback of automatic indexing is that indexes produced in this way are generally list of words in a document than truly usable indexes. This is as because to generate index, abstraction is more important than alphabetization. Abstractions result from intellectual processes based on judgments about what to include and what to exclude and any computer devoid of it. Sometimes in index even the terminology that does not makes its appearance on the document contents are make available in the index and they are directed to the synonymous word within document. Eg. In biological indexing separate entries may be needed for scientific names even it was not mentioned in the document. Again, there are many occasions when a document lists some terminology without details information about them. A manual indexer will avoid such terminology from being included in the index, but computer will not be able to make a difference. Indexing is necessary for retrieval purposes than other more conventional terms and concepts. The indexes of web documents created by some robotic devices of search engine are quite effective in meeting this end. Again, while facilitating the production of the Science Citation Index, the ASCA (Automatic Subject Citation Alert) system has been operating successfully for over years. All these services have many consumers and are sufficient to prove the usefulness of automatic (algorithmic?) indexing. Nowadays automatic indexing is even used in large scale by search engine as well as other peoples for various reasons and they are quite effective within their scope though they need to go further to replace the indexers.
  • 110. Page110 Indexing Periodical / Journal 1. Indexing Periodical / Journal: The word “index” is derived from the root “indicare” which means to indicate. Index is therefore basically concerned with indication of an object or idea to one who does not know where that object or idea is located. Index can be defined as a systematic guide to (i) item contained in or (ii) concepts derived from a collection. These item or derived concepts are represented by entries arranged in a known or stated searchable order. An indexing periodical is a regularly issued compilation of titles of articles that appear in current primary source journals. Generally titles of new books, pamphlets etc are also included. Types: Broadly speaking indexing periodicals are of three types. Example: General index, subject index and index to individual periodicals. a) General Index: It covers many periodicals in a wide field of knowledge. Example: Readers guide to periodical literature, 1900 -, New York, Wilson; British humanities index, 1962-, London, LA, 1963-. b) Subject Index: This covers several periodicals in a narrow field or subject very often these also include new books, pamphlets, conference proceedings, reports, etc. Example: Library literature: an index to library and information science, 1921-, New York, Wilson, 1934-. c) Index to Individual Periodicals: It restricted to a single periodical and usually issued on an annual basis. Example: Guide to Indian Periodical Literature: Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol1-, 1964-, Gurgaon, Indian Documentation Service, Quaterly. Information as a Resource / Commodity Information as a Resource / Commodity: The concept of information as commodity is wider than that of information as resource, as it incorporates the exchanges of information among the people and related activities as well as its use. The notion of information as a commodity is tied closely to the concept of value chains. With commoditized information gaining in value as it progresses through the various steps of creating, processing, storage, distribution, and use. a) Information is a Resource / Commodity: Information possesses many characteristics that are the same as those of some other commodities. When we consider such characteristics, information can be termed as a resource and a commodity in a broad sense and people at large have accepted this view. i) Information is a Natural Resource: Many resources were earlier taken for granted as common for all. For example, clean air and water. Information has also been similarly understood. Whoever is interested can get enough information for his daily needs through institutions established for that purpose. But specialized information is made accessible to those who have special needs and can legitimize its claim by status or by money. Just like the maintenance of clean air and water, the proper information demands some cost.
  • 111. Page111 ii) Information is a Vital Resource: Information is looked upon as a resource like manpower, material and money. Information is a resource created by ingenuity of man to be used by man for the benefit of man; it can be used for the opposite also. According to K. J. McGarry, information becomes a resource by analogy with the classic resources of labour, capital and material. Management of these classic resources (man, material and money) now mutates to the “management of information”. It is easy to see how information can be depicted as a resource as essential to productive success as are raw materials and skilled staff. But information needs to be controlled, manipulated and managed. According to W. L. Saunders, information is that type of resource which is not scarce. It has also economic value as when company uses the information effectively, the level of trade and revenue are maximized. Information and knowledge become the principal generators of wealth in the form of educational institutions of research and development establishment and science laboratories. No national development programme can succeed fully without proper information support. As such, it is regarded as a national resource like energy, coal, water, etc. vital for national development. It is an important input for nation building. The impact of fast, reliable and inexpensive information would be as great as that of electricity in national and international economy. IBM, the giant computer company, says that information is like an inexhaustible and renewable source of energy. iii) Information is a Major Criterion: Information is vital for national development. The backwardness or forwardness of any county nowadays is mainly due to the use of adequate information, especially in the field of science and technology. Presently the world is divided on economic consideration into economically developed and economically developing countries. According to Herbert I. Schiller, in future the division will be based on possession of information into information rich or data rich nations and information poor or data poor nations. iv) Information as a Thing: Buckland points out that in order to communicate knowledge it must be expressed or represented in some physical way as a signal, text or communication. Any such expression would, therefore, constitute information as a thing. The notion of information as resource attracts information economics and spreads to such diverse disciplines like management, transport and communication, consolidation and repackaging, pricing, marketing, distribution, exchange, etc. v) Satisfies the Economic Principle: Information satisfies the economic principles of generation or gathering, processing, storage, dissemination, etc. * Demand / Market: Information has a wider market. All people need information for some purpose or the other. There is a heavy demand for information from all around the world, so to get profit out of it, its production rate must increase. * Information Generation: Information is generated mainly through research activities and research activities are highly price consuming business, which is just like other product whose production or manufacture involves a high cost. * Protection: Information as a resource has been well established which is evident from the profusion of national and international laws and policies relating to storage, transmission and
  • 112. Page112 information related services including trans-border data flow. Just as in the case of various commodities or products, information is also protected by copyright and patent. However, the property right of information is weaker than the property rights of other goods we possess. * Consumption: Information does not always flow across market. Within some private sectors information produced is entirely consumed within the organization itself, which is in the same line of other goods. * Different Forms of Products: For the different categories of users, different forms of information are released into the market. In this regard it is just like any other services provided in the market place. Information is provided through books, magazines, business, news, investment, advice, legal advice, medical advice, consulting services, formal education through school, colleges and universities, etc. So, we do have markets for information and people buy it depending on its perceived value. In this respect information is like other goods and services. * Transportation / Communication: High cost is involved when we use the information technology for communication and transportation of information just like any other product. * Storage: If information is stored for a long period just like other consumable products it loses its value because particularly in case of science and technology, historical information is generally less valuable. b) Information is not a Resource / Commodity: Judith Jordet complains about the notion that information is a commodity. According to him, this notion will not only interfere with real knowledge creation, it will unravel what knowledge we have! When information is seen as a commodity, the users are seen as customers consuming a commodity identified as information. Users define usefulness. If it is not used, it is not useful. But in reality, how many users use all the information that are the product of large research investment, is itself a question. Again, against the view of information as a resource / commodity, the following arguments can be offered- i) Shareable and not Exchangeable (Public Good): Most of the goods and services have the property that more for you means less for me; but in case of information, more for you does not mean less for me. Passing of information is not losing it. ii) Assigning Value: It is very difficult to assign values to ideas because different people need information in different depth. iii) Tax: Tax is not levied on information generation or its consumption; so it is not a commodity. iv) Publicity: Before buying any other product or goods people know ahead of time what they are going to buy, but in case of information one will not be able to know the whole thing before buying it. If one knows the whole thing, then they may not feel the need to buy it. v) Expandable and Compressible: Information increases with use, it can be expanded and compressed i.e it can be summarized, integrated, etc.
  • 113. Page113 vi) Non Materiality Problem: The non-materiality of information creates several problems in respect of measurement, appropriateness, ownership, impact, costing, etc. Information does not possess each and every property of other general resources or commodities but at the same time we also should not expect it to be. The people at large are favouring the view that information is a resource and a commodity. Information Exchange Groups 1) Information Exchange Groups: In the 1960s an interesting experiment was supported by the National Institutes of Health of the United States for facilitate rapid communication of research information among scientist by creating a formal organization for the exchange of preprints. The experiment, hailed as one of the most revolutionary innovations in the history of science communication, consisted of setting up a series of Information Exchange Group (IEG) for different field of inquiry. Membership in the group was free and opens to any scientists actively engaged in research and each group had a chairman whose task was to ensure smooth functioning of the group. Any member could submit a written communication for distribution to the other members of the group. The IEG head office in Bethesda, Maryland, then made copes of the communication called IEG Memoranda, and mailed them to the group member without charge. There was no restriction on the material submitted for distribution, copies of papers submitted for publication in primary journals, preliminary reports of unfinished research, comments on other communication, reviews, abstracts, notes on events and even enquiries were accepted and distributed as IEG Memoranda without any editorial scrutiny. In all seven IEG were established and were in operation between 1961 – 67. During the initial years of the project, the IEG were successful and become quite popular with the participating scientist, mainly because of the speed with which papers could be transmitted to their peers through the IEGs. In fact the IEGs became so popular that both the membership and the number of communication submitted for distribution grew to unmanageable proportions resulting creation of the following problems. i) The cost becomes so increases that it becomes impossible of raising their sum of money every year from any source on a continuing basis. ii) Overwhelming inundation of memoranda many of which were of questionable quality and doubtful utility. iii) Unaccepted delay in the duplication and transmission of the memoranda. iv) A suspected lowering of the standard of scholarship (presumably due to the absence of any editorial scrutiny). v) Strong wave of opposition from a group of editors of primary journals. Thus despite its initial success the IEGs was called off by the National Institute of Health in 1967 and resulted abandonment of the whole project.
  • 114. Page114 The main conclusion of the whole project or the experiment were that IEG concept was workable and the IEGs could be a valuable adjunct to complement the primary journal provided that compact groups could be built around well defined problems or phenomena under active investigation by a small group of scientist. Information Explosion Information Explosion: There has been a continuous revolution in the generation, transfer and communication of information since the invention of printing. Though information generation is a continuous process yet the two World Wars had a very great impact on the very fast development of various fields of knowledge. Since the 2nd World War information, in fact, has been growing at an exponential rate and it is often referred to as “information explosion”. According to American Educational Association, it had to wait till 1750 since the beginning of the Christian era for human knowledge to double. The second doubling was completed 150 years later in 1900. The third doubling of all man’s knowledge took place in the decade of 1950s, but today it is even growing at a faster speed. Let us now discuss information explosion in terms of its definition, factors for information explosion, its impact and how it can be controlled. The following sections deal with these aspects- a) Definition: The term “information explosion” attempts to describe the exponential increase and diversification of published data and information. “Exponential” is a technical term meaning produced or expressed by multiplying a set of quantities by themselves. The exponent is the sign written above to the right of the number or letter in mathematics to show how many times that quantity is to be multiplied. For example, in 53, the number 3 is the exponent. In ym the letter “m” is the exponent. The explosion image conveys the idea of sudden bursting out. b) Factors that Lead to Information Explosion: There are many factors which directly contribute to information explosion. Some of them are - i) Increased Literacy: Creative contributions are born when a man or woman comes in contact with the light of education. Increased literacy is a prime factor for information explosion because individuals produce new information as he becomes more and more acquainted with knowledge. ii) Increased Number of Scholars: The art of creativity is confined relatively to a very small proportion of the world’s population, who could devise new methods, recognize the existing ideas and offer improved solutions to familiar problems. They set new standards in science and technology, literature, fine arts, business, industry and social leadership. When the society becomes devoid of nature’s gift of talents then it would begin to stagnate and will ultimately perish. In 1800, there were 1,000 scientists and engineers in the world which increased to 10,000 in 1850 and in 1900, to 100,000. In 1950s, the numbers swelled to one million. It is this ever increasing number of scientists that accounts for the rapid proliferation of published materials. iii) Increased Research and Development: The increase in research activities is also one of the factors of the exponential growth of information. Nowadays the scale and level of research funding have
  • 115. Page115 changed significantly as the research has become mission-oriented, multidisciplinary and assumed a matrix managed character. iv) Increased Literature: Literature of a subject is its foundation. It represents a record of achievements of the human race. Literature is diverse, complex and multilingual in nature. It is becoming more and more interdisciplinary. It is growing at a fast pace. In science, it is almost doubling itself in every 5.5 years. In social sciences it is doubling at the rate of every eight to twelve years and in the documentary media book production more than double in a decade. According to Rider, American libraries which try to collect everything appearing on a given subject double their size in every 16 years. v) Origin of Different Types of Information Sources: Earlier information sources are only published media and handwritten manuscripts but today the sources of information are diversified from databases, microforms, online journals, CDROM, DVD, optical disk to hypermedia and hypertext. vi) Growth of Technology: Technology has multiplied by 10 times every 50 years for over 2800 years but now a days its growth is very fast. Advancement in the field of communication and technology network has brought down the distances between the person, states, countries and continents throughout the world, Computer and telecommunication are converging very rapidly and its highest impact is felt fall in the information sector. Actually the need for creative achievement has never been more recognized and designed than it is today. vii) Development of Society: Information has been stored in people’s mind and it has been updated and modified through social contact and communication. As society has developed and become more complex large quantities of information have been generated, published and disseminated causing an information explosion. viii) Development of Competition: We will continue to be confronted with competitive forces leading to creation as long as one person strives to advance, as long as one business attempts to increase its share of the total industrial output or to improve its profitability as long as one nation attempts to improve its position in the world. The competitive forces are leading to the demand for more information. As a result, more and more information is produced. c) Impact of Information Explosion: The impact of Information Explosion can be summarized as follows- Due to the explosion of information i) It has become difficult to keep pace with the proliferation of published materials. ii) It creates a great problem in management of information. iii) It is becoming difficult to locate & pull out specific information. iv) It is tremendously contributing towards duplication of information generation. In UK, the estimated cost of unintended duplication in scientific research in the 1960s was Rs. 21.6 million. v) It creates a great problem in bibliographic control.
  • 116. Page116 d) Controlling Information Explosion: The terrific rate of expanding of knowledge and information can not be slowed down. So, the control of information explosion does not mean the controlling of growth and development of information; rather, it means the development and maintenance of a system of adequate recording, and storing of all forms of information published and unpublished, printed and non printed that add to the sum of human knowledge. So, actually, the control of information explosion means the mastery over information generation. The need to be aware of different information sources arises from the fact that even a voracious reader is unable to read all the literature on his/her chosen subject. The interdisciplinary nature of subject and the wide variety of their characteristics have added to the confusion. But, for any scholar, it is very essential to keep pace with the all information that is coming day by day in his/her field of specialization. The design and development of different information system can be a probable measure of keeping an eye on the information explosion. It should be equipped with the necessary databases, indexing and abstracting services. The librarians also have to devise some sort of information service, which may result in bringing out a product which analyses, consolidates, evaluates & disseminates all the latest information. New ideas are generated in each and every branch of human activity from time to time. Apart from new ideas, we give new interpretation to known ideas; we also borrow ideas from other disciplines and try to apply them in a new context. As a result, more and more information is produced in a variety of forms leading to information explosion. Information Need Information Need: The information needs; demands and wants have been used interchangeably, although they may not be identical. Information need involves a cognitive process which may operate on different levels of consciousness and, hence, may not be clear even to the inquirer himself / herself. People in different situations require information on a subject in different forms and with different emphasis and different depth of explanation. Even the same person seeks information in different ways and forms on various occasions depending on his/her knowledge of the subject and the reasons for wanting the information. So the information need is very difficult to define and categorize. a) Definition: Information need is seen as a subjective, relative concept existing only in the mind of the experiencing individual. The Librarian’s Thesaurus defined information need as “that need which library science and material are intended to satisfy”. Maurice B. Line has defined information need as “what an individual ought to have for his works, his research, his education, his recreation, etc”. According to Brenda Dervin, “an information need is an impediment preventing an individual from moving forward in cognitive time and space. The person is faced with a gap that must be
  • 117. Page117 brought by “asking question, creating ideas and for obtaining resources. Such gaps do not occur in the abstract but arise out of a particular critical event and situation”. Faibisoff and Ely (1976) viewed information need as either shaped by activity such as problem solving or decision making or manifest through a passive reception of information which is stored as knowledge. Krikelas (1983) has defined it as the “recognition of the existence of uncertainty”. While, N. Ford in 1983 defined it as “recognition of the existence of uncertainty and described it as something which prevents an individual from making progress in a difficult situation”. b) Types: Information is a power and so it is needed in virtually every field of human thought and action and by everyone for some purpose or the other. According to Carol C. Kuhlthou (1991) in the process of information searching, initially a person first becomes aware of knowledge or understanding, feeling of uncertainty and apprehension. This is the stage showing the need for information. Information need generally varies from individual to individual, according to their working condition, the discipline in which they are working, the time, etc. Tague has presented the following types of information needs- i) Social or Pragmative Information Need: Required to cope with day to day life; ii) Recreational information need; iii) Professional information need; iv) Educational information need. Krikelas on the basis of information seeking behavior, categorized information need as i) Immediate Need; ii) Deferred Need. David Bawden (1986) identifies four kinds of information in particular for aiding the creative process. They are- i) Interdisciplinary information; ii) Peripheral information; iii) Exceptions and inconsistencies. Melvin J. Voigt’s (1961) study revealed that the same person could interact with the information system in different ways at different times depending upon his purpose in relation to his works, stage of his works, general interest, amount of information already available to him and so on. According to him, a scientist’s use of information arises from three different needs. These are - i) Current Approach: The need to know what other scientists have recently done or are doing. It keeps up to date with the current progress of a scientist’s field.
  • 118. Page118 ii) Everyday Approach: The needs that come to the scientist in course of his work for some specific piece of information. This need is directly connected with the research work or the problem at hand. iii) Exhaustive Approach: The need to find and check through all the relevant information existing on a given subject. Later a fourth type of information need was added to the Voigt’s types of information need by other workers in the same field. iv) Catching up or Brushing up Approach: A worker may at times need to have a brief but a complete picture of the recent development of a related subject in which he was not very much interested or which did not come within the area of his main interest. In such cases he needs a catching up approach. The need of the scientist at different levels makes him adopt different approaches to gather the requited information. Information needs also can be categorised as follows: i) Information for its Own Sake: Information for its own sake are to live in this world in order to know the world and our surrounding environment. Therefore, no action is necessarily taken on this type of information. ii) Professional Need: Information is needed to meet the professional need, to cope up and compete with other professionals in the subject. Professionals such as doctors, lawyers, librarians and others need information to pursue their vocations. They cannot afford to ignore new development in their respective fields. Their ignorance about the latest development in the field would affect their performance. Engineers, technologists, business executives need information for solving the problems related to their respective profession. Information Society Information Society: The society has created various institutions. These social institutions make a person part of the society. Each institution serves one or few needs of the society. A library is a social institution and it has been created to fulfill all the needs of the society. In the library, the people are exposed to books or a variety of documents that give knowledge, bring to surface one’s latent aesthetic talents, stimulate one’s intellect, inculcate values and learning skills, provide one with recreation and so on. Therefore, of all the institutions formed by society it is the library and its modern cognates that are the most potent in meeting the multifarious needs of different users of modern society. A public library provides free service irrespective of status, age, religion, colour or creed, and sex. It may extend service to the neo literates and even to the physically handicapped people. A society is composed of people working together to achieve common ends and to satisfy common needs. It is a body of individuals that is outlined by the bounds of functional interdependence, consisting of different characteristics or conditions such as national or cultural identity, social
  • 119. Page119 solidarity, etc. It is characterized by patterns of relationships between individuals that share a distinctive culture and institutions. A society is an economic, social or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied multitude of individuals who may or may not be from different ethnic groups. Modern society is heading towards an information society in which the central instrument of change, the force and direction of change are knowledge and information. All information societies, ancient, medieval or modern, have functioned and prospered on the basis of proper utilization of information and knowledge in their various stages of development. The term information society is said to have been coined in Japan for the first time. The two Japanese cognates “Joho Shakai” when normally translated into English means “Information Society”. The American Society for Information Science (ASIS) in 1970 organized its annual meeting around the theme “The information conscious society”, where the concept of information society was explicitly used. 1. Definition: William J. Martin defined information society as “a society in which the quality of life as well as prospects for social change and economic development depends increasingly on information and its exploitation”. In such a society, living standards, patterns of work and leisure, the education system and the market place are all influenced markedly by advances in information and knowledge. This is evidenced by an increasing array of information intensive products and services that communicate through a wide range of media, many of them being electronic in nature. According to Blaise Cronin, “an information society is one in which labour has been intellectualized, one in which the expression to earn one’s daily bread by the sweat of one’s brow sounds decidedly anachronistic”. Employment in the information sector of the economy is growing fast. Soon, terms such as information worker, knowledge engineer, ideas processor will be as common as weaver, miller, electrician, carpenter, etc. G. P. Sweeney defined information society as one “in which the creation of economic wealth is based on information and in which key economic activities are enquiring, communicating and deciding” for good or ill. Martin is of the view that “the concept of an information society has now gained a fair degree of acceptance”. As a concept it is certainly viable. 2. Criteria of an Information Society: William J. Martin has noted the following criteria for the development of information society. a) Technological Criteria: Today’s age is the computer age in which computers and telecommunication are behind every other change in the society. Communication technologies such as teleeducation, teleconferencing, teleshopping, telecommuting, e-government, e-commerce have converted the world into a global village and its impact can be felt at every level of our society. b) Economic Criteria: This is the age of knowledge in which knowledge capital would predominate over material capital. The internet is fundamentally changing the way the companies operate. The internet is turning the business upside down and inside out. The e-commerce goes far beyond the buying and selling over the internet. The information workers are replacing productive worker as the biggest sector in the economy. Information is turning out as the key economic factor as resource,
  • 120. Page120 service, commodity, a source of added value and employment. In the information society most of the information will be cheaper, would occupy less space and can be communicated with greater speed. c) Social Criteria: In information society, information is the enhancer of the quality of life. The information society will be conscious towards the value of information and its use and will become increasingly centred on information handling, processing, storage and dissemination using micro electronic based technologies. Globally the society has got divided into two parts, i.e information rich society and information poor society. d) Political Criteria: In information society there would be more interaction between the government and the governed through citizens’ participation by way of electronic polling, their access to public information under the concept of freedom and equality of access to information. There will be better interaction with fellow citizens through wired networks, telephone, teleconferencing, etc. The information superhighway will change the whole world. e) Cultural Criteria: The information society recognizes the cultural value of information through the promotion of information values in the interest of national or individual development. In an information society, it is said, a majority of the people will spend their time doing tasks which relate to information, expressing, gathering, storing, retrieving and disseminating it. People in an information society will manipulate information for the purposes of travel, entertainment, instruction, control and so on. Information System Information System: “An information system or information grid is a network of information centre at different levels working in perfect harmony and close co-operation with each other with the objectives of storing and dissemination of information usually of a specific type or a specific community”. In simple form an information system is a group of components that interact to produce information for a specific group of users. The Information providers on the other hand are organization that collect the information, select appropriate document and convert the materials into machine readable form. They are the creator and access providers to the databases. The Information vendors are persons / organization who are the retailer of online searching services, bibliographic databases, etc. They own the computer and software for information retrieval. They develop a set of instruction or command for searching the databases and then obtain a number of machine readable databases through licensing agreement with various databases producers and load these databases on their computer system and provide access to information to the end users, i. e libraries, information centres, etc. Information vendors are on business. Eg. DIALOG. Types of Information System: Information network are comprised of group of individuals or organizations that exchange information in various form in a regular and organized basis. Before establishing information network a formal agreement between members of the network and a common procedure than need to be followed are established. The information network can be a
  • 121. Page121 decentralized structure where all the members can communicate with each other directly, or it can be a centralized one where the members communicate through centers. The structure can also be a mixed one combing the above two where certain communication will take place directly while some other may take place through the center. Based on the geographical areas covered, an information system may be an International; regional, national or local one while based on the subject consideration, an information system may be of general or sectoral. It can be noted that the sectoral information sytem are generally the international or regional one, while the general information system are of national and local one. a) International Information System: The International information system is also known as global information system. The Global Information System is the information system that collects, process and provide access to the information globally. An International Information System is a network of information centre that covers the whole world or parts of the whole world i.e when a group of regional and national information system work in perfect harmony and close co-operation with the object of providing new services for identified gaps, so coordinated as to reinforced and enhance the activities of the individual units and thus enable specific categories of user to receive the information relevant to their needs and abilities then it is called as International Information System. In respect of its geographical coverage, International Information System is at the top of any information system. Eg. ENVIS. b) Regional Information System: A Regional Information System is a network of information centre within a region or area. The area cover includes two or more nation, whose components of information system work in perfect harmony and close co-operation with the object of providing new services for identified gaps, so coordinated as to reinforced and enhance the activities of the individual units and thus enable specific categories of user to receive the information relevant to their needs and abilities.. In respect of its geographical coverage it is in between International Information System and National Information System. Eg. SAARC. According to International Society for Telemedicine and eHealth (www.isft.net/cms/index.php) a regional information system is an “information system providing access to information stored in cf. operational systems of a region”. When Regional Information System work as part of International Information System its objectives is to be i) Maintain Union Catalogue of monograph, serials and non-book materials held in the libraries and information centres of the region. ii) Maintain the copies of union catalogue of other region so that union catalogue enquiries relating to the entire countries holding can be handled at the regional level itself, thereby reducing the traffic of international information centre, etc. c) National Information System: A National Information System is basically a network of existing information resources within a nation together with new services for identified gaps, so coordinated
  • 122. Page122 as to reinforced and enhance the activities of the individual units and thus enable specific categories of user to receive the information relevant to their needs and abilities. The national information system exists at national level but accessibility is international eg. INSDOC. d) Sectoral Information System: Sectoral Information System is based on subject specialization. It maintains a rich collection of materials in the specialized areas only to which it is intended but with international scope. Eg. Agricultural Information System (AGRIS). Information Technology (IT) Information Technology (IT): Information Technology (IT) is a generic term that covers the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information. IT is the boon for mankind. It gives accessibility to information at fingertips. IT has reduced the space and time between the people, country and continent and ultimately has led to the emerging concept “global society” and “global village”. 1. Components of Information Technology: Information technology consists of the following components- a) Computer: A computer is a device that solves problems by applying prescribed operation on data entered into it. It is a set of interacting elements, responding to input so as to produce desire output. b) Telecommunication: The communication channel is the medium which carries the message / information / etc. send by the sender and takes it to receiver ends. In computer network the communication channel is the connecting cables. c) Modem: Modem is short name for MOdulator – DEModulator. It can be defined as “a device attached to computer that can convert digital signals to analog signals and vice versa.” The data signal generated by computer (digital signal) is different from the signal from that can be carried by telephone lines (analog signal). A digital signal is a discrete signal and an analog signal is a continuous signal. So, a modem is required to convert the digital signal to analog signal at the senders side so that telephone cables can carry them. At the receivers end it again needs to convert back to the analog signal to digital signal to pass it to the computer. The modulation can convert the digital signal to analog signal and demodulator does the opposite. Modems are of two types- internal and external. Internal modems are installed inside the computer system. d) Database: A database is a self describing collection of integrated records. It is self describing because it contains as part of itself, a directory or dictionary of its contents. 2. New Technologies in Information Technology: The new technologies that are emerging as part of Information Technology includes E-Commerce, Hyper Media, Data warehouses and Data Marts, Data Mining, Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Geographical Information System (GIS), Video Conferencing / Net Meeting, etc. The Net Meeting helps one to talk face to face with distance people over the web. 3. Impact of IT on LIS: IT gives us the concept of remote access that brings the concepts of Global Village. IT connects different parts of the world with high speed; bring more capacity, and easy
  • 123. Page123 retrieval mechanism. If any information is fed into the computer system today then it is also available to the outsider today itself. There is no time lag in between. Uses of IT avoids duplication, so the information is becoming less costly. The impact of new technologies is seen in almost every human activity. The computers are also transforming the libraries into a paperless atmosphere. Again, it is the use of IT that gives librarians a wide scope, wide audience, and raise the status. a) Collection: Information is collected as mashup, tag, bookmark, hyper text. b) Transportation: Information is transmitted through optical fiber cables. c) Storage: The computer storage reduces the bulk of the printed materials in the library. The optical disk, hard disc are very commonly used in all types of libraries. d) Processing: Different types of computer software and other equipments are used for information processing. e) Retrieval: The use of computer for information retrieval gives precise result in fraction of a second. The overall impact of IT on library and information science is broadly subdivided into three major divisions, such as a) Impact on Technical Services: Automation, in the form of bibliographic utilities and MARC format has revolutionized the practice of cataloguing. Today’s librarians rely on MARC format to provide proper cataloguing services to their users. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) can substantially reduce the cost of maintaining a catalogue. If the OPAC is integrated with technical service files in a full function automated system, work throughout the department can be streamlined and reorganized. The impact on staff responsibility and assignment can be significant. The co-operative collection development and management have become increasingly important in libraries due to tight budgets, rising prices and the information explosion. Bibliographic utilities facilitate these efforts through shared holdings, information and automated inter-library loan sub-systems to speed resource sharing. b) Impact on Public Services: OPACs which provide speedy online access to the entire library's holding by means of computer terminals are affecting library operations. c) Impact on Library Organization Structure: The right type of planning is vital for the efficient working of a library. Planning of a library organizational structure requires a thorough understanding of need of the users, objectives and functions of a library or information center. The emergence of information technology provided greater impetus for information transfer at both inter and intra-organizational level. Organization of all types become involved with IT and have implemented, IT based system.
  • 124. Page124 4. Let Us Sum Up: Libraries and information centers has very important role in advancement of education, scientific research and socio-economic development of any society. These are the service centers, where very personalized service is extended to the users. As a result of recent expansion in communication infrastructure, expanding computer culture, advance in printing technology etc. has created more awareness about information use. It has resulted in increasing library services. The future libraries may not be recognized by their size; these will be perhaps recognized by variety of services and approaches, where information search areas will be outlined. Information Transfer Cycle Information Transfer Cycle: Cycle means a series of events that are regularly repeated in the same order. Transfer of information from its generation to its end user becomes possible through many processes. These processes are also regularly repeated in the same order. These processes complete a cycle, which is called Information Transfer Cycle (ITC). The ITC comprises generation, collection, storage, communication and retrieval. a) Information Creation / Generation: Information is created with the happening of incidents and activities of humans. If an activity or an incident does not happen, no information is created. Information is mostly created by research and development programmes, government activities, survey and census of population, business and industrial organizations etc. and presented in format by author, scientist, researcher, editor, writer, poets, novelists, dramatists, etc. Over the web, information is produced by the general people irrespective of their background and is not restricted only to academics such as scholars, scientists, etc. b) Information Production and Dissemination: It is the mass production of knowledge through publishing companies or others that will help the mass distribution of knowledge in some physical or electronic form. Previously the information had been disseminated in the form of book. Many conventional and non conventional, printed and non printed sources of information are nowadays available which are different in shape, size, type and format. Over the web, the production is accelerated by posting the information electronically over some kind of websites. It speeds up the transfer of information globally at a rapid rate instead of taking months or years to get published on paper. c) Information Storage, Organization, Retrieval and Communication: The storage is the process by which the information described and presented in the documents are stored. Information is collected and stored by libraries, documentation centers, information analysis centers, data banks, data centres, etc. Computer has been accepted as a boon for storing of information. It can store a huge amount of information in the form of database. Besides, the computer, disks and CDROMs are the newly developed and very significant tools of storing information. i) Organization is how that representation of knowledge is found among others of its kind. In the library environment, the classification and catalogue, shelf list, various kinds of guides, etc facilitate the retrieval function. All these tools are equipped with controlled vocabularly. In the computer environment, organization is facilitated by databases, search engines, etc. Knowledge is individual
  • 125. Page125 and the users determine its usefulness; so keyword and natural language searching in computer environment is more attractive. ii) Retrieval is a process of getting information from the collection of a library, for providing answer to the queries of the users, etc. iii) Communication is the process of transmission of information from one place to another, from the creator of information to its users. It is necessary for the best use of the same. It is the process of social exchange. In the library environment, communication of information can be made through telephone, CAS services, SDI services, teleconferencing, e-mail, etc. Sometimes the publisher also brings different kinds of information sources to the notice of the user community. d) Information Diffusion and Utilization: Diffusion is viewed as a more targeted flow of information to a particular segment of society. The diffusion of information should find its way to people who actually need it instead of targeting the people who will use it for their own benefit. Utilization is the adoption and implementation of the knowledge by the user. Information is needed by each and every person of modern society for some purpose or the other. When information is consumed by one person it gives new dimension to his knowledge. This knowledge when he applied to some other purposes it gives birth to new information. Thus the information cycle is continuum in nature. e) Information Preservation and Destruction: The different kinds of libraries, archives are trying to preserve information in different format. Over web, the Internet archive and the cached page of search engines are serving some purpose in this regard. The information that is less frequently accessed or has met its assigned retention periods may be considered for relocation to an archive. Then from the archive, it needs to be weeded at some time or other by means of appropriate procedure for the content. The meaning of information cycle relates to that unit of knowledge from where the information is generated and then transmitted to the users with the state of various processes. The whole process of information from its creation to its use is called the information cycle. Institutional Repository Software Packages Institutional Repository Software Packages: An Institutional Repository (IR) is an online locus for collecting and preserving in digital form the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. For a university, this would include materials such as research journal articles (before (preprints) and after (postprints) undergoing peer review, and digital versions of theses and dissertations, but it might also include other digital assets generated by normal academic life, such as administrative documents, course notes, or learning objects. The main objectives for having an institutional repository is to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving it and to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including the unpublished or otherwise easily lost (grey) literature (e.g., theses or technical reports).
  • 126. Page126 IRs are partly linked to the notion of a digital library i.e., collecting, housing, classifying, cataloguing, curating, preserving, and providing access to digital content, analogous with the library's conventional function of collecting, housing, classifying, curating, preserving and providing access to analog content. There are different softwares for building institutional repositories. Some well known software packages are described bellow a) Dspace: Dspace was developed by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) libraries & Hewlett-Packard labs. It runs on Unix or Linux machine and Apache web server, Tomcat servlet engine and the postgre SQL relational database system are required. The software is released under BSD license. Website: http://www.dspace.org/ b) EPrints: Eprints was developed by University of Southampton and released under GNU General Public License. It runs on Unix machine and Apache, MySQL database, Perl language is necessary for its installation and operation. Website: http://www.eprints.org/software/ c) Green Stone Digital Library software (GSDL): The Greenstone Digital Library Software is a suit of Open Source, multilingual software package for building and distributing Digital Libraries. It provides a new way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internet or on CD-ROM. The software has been developed by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Greenstone is supported by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Human Info NGO, based in Antwerp, Belgium for spreading the benefits of this software to developing countries. It is released under GNU General Public License and runs on Windows, Linux / Unix machine that have Apache web server, MySQL database and Perl language. Website: http://www.greenstone.org Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN): The ISDN is an integrated digital network in which the same digital switches and digital paths are used to establish different services. Eg. Telephony, data, etc. It already upgrades today’s telephone network to a digital system. a) Definition: ISDN “is a network, in general evolving from telephony IDN (Integrated Digital Network) that provides end to end digital connectivity to support a wide range of services, including voice and non-voice services to which users have access by a limited set of standard multipurpose user-network interfaces. The key points of this definition are: a) It is an infrastructure to support a wide variety of services and is not a network designed for any specific services. b) It provides end to end digital connectivity to support a wide range of services and the digitization process begins right at the user premises. c) It should be possible to support every conceivable service on ISDN for any such service is either a voice or non voice service.
  • 127. Page127 d) A small set of carefully chosen interfaces should enable the support of all possible services. The use of ISDN should not be burden with too many specialized interfaces but at the same time an expensive universal interface. b) Factors for Development of ISDN: ISDN truly represents the next generation of the worlds telephone service for all forms of telecommunication, including voice. i) Sociological or Societal Need: The society is looking for a telecommunication infrastructure that can carry voice, data, image, graphic, videos, etc. supported by sophisticated signaling system. ii) Economic Necessities: Network providers have to put up separate and independent network to support different services, which demand separate maintenance staff, building for housing switching system, etc. All these leads to higher capital cost. The introduction of ISDN is the only solution to this. iii) Technological Development: Technology is developed up to the level that now a days a single network can support integrated digital services. c) Services of ISDN: ISDN can operate at speed up to 128 kbps which is five or more times faster than that of todays analog modem. Basic rate ISDN divides the telephone line into 3 digital channels, 2 “B” channel (Bearer) and one “D” channel (Delta). Each of which can be used simultaneously. The B channels are used to transmit data at the rate of 64k or 56k. The D channel does the administrative work such as setting up and tearing down the call and communication with the telephone network. ISDN will support the following list of services: i) Email ii) Database Access iii) Image and graphic exchange. iv) Document storage and transfer; v) Electronic fund transfer; vi) Audio and video conferencing. vii) Videotax viii) Teletax ix) Digital facsimile x) Automatic alarm service (Smoke fire, etc).
  • 128. Page128 Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): Like other forms of property, intellectual property is also an asset which can be bought, sold, exchanged or gratuitously given away. Owners of intellectual property also have the right to prevent the unauthorized use or sale of their property. According to The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) <http://www.wipo.int/>, “Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce”. Intellectual property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of broadcasters in their radio and television programmes. According to The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) <http://www.wipo.int/> “Copyright and related rights protect the rights of authors, performers, producers and broadcasters, and contribute to the cultural and economic development of nations. This protection fulfils a decisive role in articulating the contributions and rights of different stakeholders and the relation between them and the public. The purpose of copyright and the related rights is twofold: to encourage a dynamic creative culture, while returning value to creators so that they can lead a dignified economic existence, and to provide widespread, affordable access to content for the public.” Copyright is basically the individual right of an author to dispose of his / her work in return for remuneration. According to Christopher Scarles, “subject to certain exception, it is ownership of and right of control over all possible ways of reproducing a work”. 1. International Context a) Berne Convention: The international convention for protection of literary and artistic works was first signed at Berne on 9th September, 1886, which later on came to be known as “Berne Convention”. It guaranteed protection for the life of the author plus fifty years after his death. The convention was revised and amended more than seven times. Berne remained essentially European. It could not attract the U. S. A. So, most civilized states except the U. S. became signatories to it. b) Universal Copyright Convention (UCC): In the early 1950s UNESCO set about devising a union that would combine Berne and Montivideo convention and the outcome was the establishment of Universal Copyright conventions in 1952. U. S. joined it in 1955. Paris Revision of 1971: In 1971 both Berne and UCC was revised. This is what goes by the name of Paris revision of 1971. This has made some realistic concession to the developing countries with regard to reproduction and translation of material having great educational value.
  • 129. Page129 c) World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It is dedicated to developing a balanced and accessible international intellectual property (IP) system, which rewards creativity, stimulates innovation and contributes to economic development while safeguarding the public interest. WIPO was established by the WIPO Convention in 1967 with a mandate from its Member States (Till 2009 there were 184 Member States, i.e. over 90 percent of the countries of the world) to promote the protection of IP throughout the world through cooperation among states and in collaboration with other international organizations. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. 2. Indian Context: The earliest statutory law in India concerning copyright was the Indian copyright of 1847 which was passed by the Governor General of India. In 1911 the law of copyright was codified in England and was made applicable to all Majesty’s dominions including India. The Governor General of India enacted the Indian Copyright act of 1914 to make some modification to the provision of the 1911 Act. The copyright of 1914, granted copyright to an author for the whole of his life and fifty years after his death. The provision of the copyright act of 1914 were again modified after independence and the copyright act which is in force even today was passed in the Indian Parliament in 1957 and known as Copyright Act, 1957. The copyright act of India of 1957 had been amended in August 1983 with the specific purpose of incorporating the provisions of the Paris text of 1971 of the Berne convention concerning the grant of compulsory licenses for translations and reproduction of foreign work for educational purposes. The copyright was further amended in 1984 in order to overcome the problem of wide spread piracy in India. The act was further modified in 1992 and 1994 (No. 38 of 1994). The Copyright (Amendment) Act, 1999 officially published in: The Gazette of India, 30/12/1999, No. 49. In accordance with the copyright act of 1957, a copyright office and a copyright board were set up in New Delhi under the auspices of the Government of India of which the copyright board serves as a civil court with the power of adjudicating disputes arising out of claims and counter claims. The copyright board serves as a civil court and its judgment can be challenged only in the high court of the area and in no other lower court. The legislation covering intellectual property right in India are i) Communication: Communication Bill, 2000; ii) Copyright: The Copyright Act of 1957 (last amended in 1994); iii) Designs: The Design Act 1911; iv) Information Technology: Information Technology Act 2000; v) Patent: The Patent Act 1970 (changes bought in 1994); vi) Trade Mark: The Trade Merchandise Mark Act 1958, etc. India signed the Berne convention in 1886 when it was part of the British Empire. India also signed the Universal Copyright convention in 1952 of its own choice as a free country.
  • 130. Page130 3. Intellectual Freedom: According to American Library Association, every individual has the right to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored. Intellectual freedom encompasses the freedom to hold, receive, and disseminate ideas. According to Canadian Library Association, the fundamental right is to have access to all expressions of knowledge, creativity and intellectual activity, and to express their thoughts publicly. International Article Number [European Article Number] (EAN) GTIN-13 number encoded in EAN-13 barcode. First digit is always placed outside the symbol; additionally a right quiet zone indicator (>) is used to indicate Quiet Zones that are necessary for barcode scanners to work properly. An EAN-13 barcode (originally European Article Number, but now renamed International Article Number even though the abbreviation EAN has been retained) is a 13 digit (12 data and 1 check) barcoding standard which is a superset of the original 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) system developed in the United States. The EAN-13 barcode is defined by the standards organization GS1. The EAN-13 barcodes are used worldwide for marking products often sold at retail point of sale. The numbers encoded in EAN-13 bar codes are product identification numbers, which are also called Japanese Article Number (JAN) in Japan. All the numbers encoded in UPC and EAN barcodes are known as Global Trade Item Numbers (GTIN), and they can be encoded in other GS1 barcodes. The less commonly used EAN-8 barcodes are used also for marking retail goods; however, they are usually reserved for smaller items, for example confectionery. 2-digit (EAN 2) and 5-digit (EAN 5) supplemental barcodes may be added for a total of 14 or 17 data digits. These are generally used for periodicals (to indicate the serial number), or books and weighed products like food (to indicate the selling price), respectively. International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD): In 1961, at the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles held in Paris, stress was laid on the need of standardization in bibliographic description. To solve the problem, International Meeting on Cataloguing Expert (ICME) was sponsored by IFLA and held in Copenhagen in 1969. The meeting formed a committee to study the problem of standardization in bibliographic description. The committee submitted its report at a meeting held in Liverpool in 1971 which is known as International Standard Bibliographic Description (Monograph) {ISBD (M)}. In course of its application many ambiguities and lack of details in some areas were discovered. To resolve the problem, IFLA conference was held in Grenoble in 1973. After the conference two documents- ISBD (M) and ISBD (S) were published. In 1975, the General International Standard Bibliographic Description [ISBD (G)] was developed. It serves as a single framework for the description of all types of publications in all types of media. The
  • 131. Page131 ISBD (G) was later on incorporated into AACR II as a general framework for bibliographic description. The ISBD (G) acted just as some guiding principles. It was not intended for use as a working tool for the cataloguer. So, IFLA brought out the following ISBDs on the basis of ISBD (G) as working tool. Their names are: ISBD (M): Monograph ISBD (S): Serial ISBD (CM): Cartographic Material ISBD (AV): Audio Visual ISBD (CF): Computer Files, etc. As ISBD has so many numbers they are called ISBDs. A) Elements of ISBD (M) i) Title and Statement of Responsibility i) Title proper ii) Parallel title or alternative title iii) Statement of authorship b) Edition i) Edition statement ii) Statement of authorship related to edition c) Imprint i) Place of publication ii) Name of publisher iii) Date of publication iv) Place of printing v) Name of printer d) Collation i) Number of volumes and / or pages ii) Illustration matter
  • 132. Page132 iii) Size and accompanying material e) Series f) Notes g) International Standard Book Number, binding, price i) ISBD ii) Binding iii) Price B) Punctuation: ISBD also suggested proper punctuation mark for each and every item for making machine readable format. [] : If information is not available in the proper place; () : To denote omission; / : Before the statement of author; : : It proceeds the name of publisher / sub title; = : Parallel title; - : Place of publication; , : Year of publication, etc. C) Capitalization and Abbreviation: The first letter of the first word in each area is given in capital. s.l. (Sine Loco), used when place of publication is not known; s.n.: (Sine Nomina), used when name of publisher is unknown; ill.: Illustration; cm.: Centimetre; D) Information Sources for ISBD: Generally the maximum required information for ISBD is available in the title page of the document itself. Internet Internet: Information technology consists of different components like electronics, computer hardware, software, and telecommunications. Integration and application of the above technologies in information handling for efficient and effective information management is termed as information technology. By using IT we can obtain, process, store, transmit and output information in the form of voice, picture or text. A part of information technology is the Internet. If one has heard anything
  • 133. Page133 about computers, then he/she would have certainly heard about the Internet as well, as it is so popular that there is hardly any one who has not come across the term. Internet, a computer network, rather a network of networks, makes any information available at the touch of a button. The importance of internet lies on the fact that it is like a printing press of the technology era. It is like a huge central warehouse of data that can be accessed by people from all over the world. The internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. The internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the national (or global or galactic) information infrastructure comprising more than thousands of regional, national and international networks which connect people from all over the world. Internet has brought about drastic changes in social contact and tries to by pass physical face to face contact. Today, it is used daily by millions of people, who access it for a variety of purpose. There has been practically no technology being adopted at a rate similar to the internet. 1. Definition: On October 24, 1995 the FNC unanimously passed a resolution defining the term Internet. This definition was developed in consultation with the members of the internet and intellectual property right communities. “The Federal Networking Council” (FNC) agrees that the definition of the term “Internet” is reflect in the following expression: “Internet refers to the global information system that a) is logically linked together by a global unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extension (follow-ons; b) is able to support communication using the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Suits or its subsequent extension / follow-ons and / or other IP compatible protocol and c) provides uses or makes accessible either publicly or privately high level services layered on the communication and related infrastructure, described here in http://www.fnc.got/internet-res.html.” In simple term, the internet is an enormous network of millions of computer allowing constant communication throughout the world. It is a loose connection of related networks or a network of networks. It is made up of Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and huge Wide Area Network (WAN) of the whole world. It is a global information highway and a universal database of knowledge which itself collectively represents human society on a virtual life. 2. History: The first recorded description of the social interaction that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J. C. R. Licklider of MIT, USA in August 1962 discussing his “Galactic network” concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of computers through which everyone could quickly access data and program from any site. The internet began to evolve when packet switching network came into operation in the 1960s. In Europe, when transmitted data is broken up into small packets and sent to its destination then the reassembled packet can also be compressed for speed and encrypted (converted into code) for security.
  • 134. Page134 a) ARPANET: In 1968, a similar system as that of packet switching was developed in the USA. In 1969, Pentagon Commissioned Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) for research into networking. In the following year Vinton Cerf and others published their first proposal for protocol that would allow computer to “talk” to each other. Thus, ARPANET began operating using the Network Control Protocol (NCP). The first host to host protocol, which went into operation at the US Defence Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) in 1969-1982. In 1974, Vinton Cerf joined Bob Kahn to present their “protocol for packet network interconnection” specifying the detailed design of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), the basis of the modern internet. In 1978, TCP was split into TCP (now short for Transmission Control Protocol) an Internet Protocol (IP). When NCP was replaced by the new widespread Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), a number of interconnected US military computers formed the first sizable internet for defence use (communication in the event of nuclear attack). b) National Science Foundation: Internet really took off in the year 1980s when the National Science Foundation (NSF) used ARPANET to link its five regional super computer centres at major universities so that many users could share their work. Later on NSF created National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), a series of networks for research and education communication. It was provided free to any US research and educational institution. c) USENET: Usenet is actually a companion network to electronic mail started at Duke University and the University of North Carolina, USA and it also offers an unusual service called “Network News”. Email was developed through ARPANET as did the Bulletin Board System (Usenet). Usenet, which began in 1979 contributes enormously to the internet’s rapid expansion. Its spirit of information sharing and discussion was the hallmark of its system and was reflected in the Internet as a whole. d) World Wide Web: By the end of 1980s the European Particle Research Laboratory (CERN) in Geneva was one of the premier internet sites in Europe. CERN desperately needed a better way of locating all the files, documents and other resources that now threatened to overwhelm it. Tim Berners Lee, a young British scientist working as a consultant for CERN, had found out an answer for the above problem. In 1991 his World Wide Web system assigned a common system of written addresses and hypertext link to all information. In 1991, the first www files were made available on the internet for downloading using File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In October, 1993 there were around 200 known HTTP servers. In 1993, the National Centre for Supercomputer Application (NCSA) developed web browser (namely Mosaic) which took the internet by storm. 3. Components of Internet: The Internet consists of the WWW and all the hardware, software, protocols on which WWW runs. One of the main characteristics of Internet is that it is a decentralized system i.e there is no single person or organization that owns or control Internet, all who use Internet or supply material to it, have a role to play. However, there are organizations such as InterNIC, the National Science Foundation, the Internet Engineering Task Force, ICANN and the Internet Architecture Board which oversee and standardize what happens on Internet.
  • 135. Page135 a) World Wide Web: The WWW is also called web. The WWW is a set of programs, standards, and protocols (set of rules) governing the way in which multimedia files (files containing a combination of text, graphics, photographs, audio, video) are created and displayed on the Internet. The difference between the Internet and the WWW is similar to the distinction between a computer and a multimedia program that runs on the computer. The Internet is a decentralized global network of computers that transfer information and the wiring that makes all these possible, whereas the web is a collection of documents or websites, that users can access using the Internet and a web browser. b) Hardware: It means the computer (supercomputer, web server, and personal computer), modem (external or internal) and cables or telecommunication lines. The cables with jacks and rackets connect the modem with the computer and telephone. The users possess the terminal or the computer, modem, etc. The ISP procures the server that serves up web pages upon request. i) Modem: Modem is a device that allows computers to communicate over telephone lines, it converts a digital signal to an analog signal and vice versa. c) Software: It includes the operating system and web browser. i) Operating System: In case of Operating System, Windows, Linux or others will do. The higher versions of the OS are preferable because it has an inbuilt component to support internet connections. ii) Web Browser: A web browser is the software program that is used to access the WWW or to visit web pages and display it in the computer screen, e.g. Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Netscape Navigator, etc. iii) Telecommunication Lines: The telephone companies own the equipment and cables that carry signals to the service providers. d) Internet Protocol Suite: The Internet Protocol Suite [also known as Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)] is the set of communication protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It governs the way data travels from one machine to another across a network. It is named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which are the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. The Internet Protocol Suite, like many protocol suites, may be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. The Internet Protocol Suite consists of four layers. From the lowest to the highest, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer. In the application layer, the following are the common types of protocols i) HTTP: Web pages are transferred between computers using Hyper Text Transfer Protocol.
  • 136. Page136 ii) FTP: Excluding web pages other types of files are transferred between computers by using FTP. It is a mechanism that allows placing and retrieving of files over the Internet. It allows anyone to download software, upgrading of downloaded softwares, information and so on. It provides authorization of persons allowed to copy the files. iii) Telnet Protocol: It is a simple programme created by National Centre for Supercomputer Application (NCSA) that uses TCP/IP to provide connection into another computer. Telnet allows a users’ work station or terminal to behave as though it is directly connected to the machines where the user is logged in. It means that Telnet helps to operate remote computers from one’s own desktop. The condition is that the user must have log-in account and passwords to access the remote computer. iv) Gopher Protocol: The University of Minnesota Microcomputer work-station centre created gopher to find information on the internet in a user friendly way. It is a menu-driven programme that allows one to click with information server or “Gopher Holes” on the Internet to retrieve the information including text, sound and images. The gopher system is impressive owing to its simplicity volume and variety of information available. To retrieve information an indexing tool called Veronica is used that searches all gopher server using a set of keywords. e) Internet Service Provider (ISP): An Internet service provider is an organization that provides some crucial portion of the Internet infrastructure to help connecting to the Internet. Sometimes the Internet Service Provider also responsible for telecommunication link i.e telephone connection to users’ site, or in today’s context Data Card providers and an internet account (username and password). The ISP provides the Internet connection to the user. f) The Website: The Hyper Text Mark Up Language (HTML) is the commonly used language for creating the web documents or webpage. However it is not the single one. A website is a set of related (linked through hypertext link) web pages, published by an organization or individual. Normally it contains a home page along with other additional pages. The home page is the starting point or doorway to a website providing an overview of what could be found at the website. Home page is also known as the index page or index. In Internet environment, the download refers to copying or saving the data, information from the internet to the local computer. Uploading is just the opposite of downloading. It is the sending of the data or information from the local computer to the Internet. The Online means staying connected to the Internet. The offline is just the opposite. Offline means that the user is no longer connected to a remote computer or the internet In Netscape Navigator, Bookmarks is a list of favourite web pages and Internet resources. One can add items to this menu at any time. Bookmarks are equivalent to favourite in Microsoft Internet Explorer. 4. Internet Protocol Address: An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical label that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes. An IP address serves two principal functions in networking: host or network interface identification and location addressing. The role of the IP address has also been
  • 137. Page137 characterized as a name that indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it is. A route indicates how to get there. The network portion of the IP address is allocated to the Internet Service Providers (ISP) by the InterNic under authority of the Internet Assigned Number Authority (IANA). ISPs then assign the host portion of the IP address to the machines on the network that they operate. a) Uniform Resource Locator (URL): The location of a web page on the internet can be identified by a unique address which is called URL. Every single page of the hundreds of millions of pages stored on the web has a URL. The URL or the address tells the browser which document to fetch and exactly where to find it on a particular host computer some where on the internet. b) Domain Naming System (DNS): The Internet uses an addressing scheme that employs the Domain Naming System (DNS). Domain names provided a system, an easy to remember internet address which can be translated by the Domain Names System (DNS) into the numeric address (Internet Protocol Number). The internet protocol number is the numeric location of a particular computer so that it is an identifiable machine to all the other computers connected to the internet. The IP address is a 32 bit number divided into four octets and these octets are written in dotted decimal format eg. 11.245.196.212. Each octets numbers lie in between o and 255. c) Internet Address: The Internet address is needed so that massage can be correctly routed to and from the machine over the network. Each part of the address goes from general to specific and consists of letters, numbers, and punctuation. The basic structure of URL is hierarchical. i.e Protocol:// Server name. Domain name. Top level domain name. port / Directory / File name. Eg: http://www.liswiki.com/wiki/index Protocol: The protocol is generally Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP). ://: It is a kind of separator that tells the browser that the next words will be actual URL. Server: WWW. It indicates the site as part of the World Wide Web. The web is a subnet of Internet that uses multimedia objects. Domain Name: Liswiki is the domain name. This is a unique name which has to be registered with InterNIC, an organization which has official authority over all domain names. Top Level Domain Name: It indicates the purpose of the institute / organization associated with the website. Some of the top level domains are- Organizational Domain .com: Commercial entities; .edu: Educational institutions; .gov: US government institutions;
  • 138. Page138 .int: International institutions; .mil: US Military institutions; .net: Network resource providers; .org: Non profit organization. Geographic Domain: Outside the United States a code is included to which country a URL belongs. Though United States also have a domain code (US) yet in reality it is used in rare instances on the Internet. It is assumed that if there is no geographic code then the domain is located within the United States. For example: .au: Australia; .ca: Canada; .in: India; .va: Vatican, etc. Directory: The next is the directory on the host computer that contains the specific website. 5. Types of Internet Connections: The type of internet connection requirement depends on its uses. If the user wants an Internet mainly for sending e-mail, occasional chats, infrequent browsing then he should go for a dial-up connection. If the user is using the internet frequently for research, downloading or uploading a fair amount of data, play multi-player video games or live audio or video streaming, then he should look into other high speed accesses such as a cable modem or ISDN. The Internet connection generally can be categorized into the following- i) Dial-up (analog up to 56k): In a Dial-up, the telephone lines are used to connect to the Internet. Here to get connected, the user needs to specify a username, a password, and a telephone number. ii) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): DSL operates over normal telephone lines and it can be used simultaneously with the telephone. It can increase the connection speed by ten times from a standard dial-up modem. iii) Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): ISDN involves the digitization of the telephone network so that voice, graphics, text, and other data can be provided to users from a single terminal over existing telephone wiring. It is four times faster than a Dial-up network. iv) Cable Internet: A cable modem connects the user to the Internet through a cable television line. A cable modem will typically have two connections, one to the television outlet and the other to the computer. It is 10-100 times faster compared to the dial-up modem and added interactivity to the television.
  • 139. Page139 v) Leased Line: Leased line facility is provided via fiber optic or copper lines to provide data, voice and video links between two parties. It provides for a consistent amount of bandwidth. For example, T-1 Lines, T-3 Lines, etc. It is especially useful for businesses connecting to the Internet and for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) connecting to the Internet backbone. vi) Internet over Satellite (IoS): Here the data are transmitted via satellite to a dish antenna at the users’ house. It allows a user to access the Internet via a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point above the earth's surface in a fixed position. Because of the enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the satellite and back again. IoS is slightly slower than high-speed terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables. vii) Wireless Internet Connections: Wireless Internet or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection, one can use radio frequency bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere- as long as one is geographically within a network coverage area. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas. Broadband is often called "high-speed" access to the Internet, because it usually has a high rate of data transmission. In general, any connection to the customer of 256 kbit/s (0.256 Mbit/s) or greater is more concisely considered broadband Internet access. The standard broadband technologies in most areas are DSL and cable modems. Newer technologies in use include pushing optical fiber connections closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Modems which use mobile phone lines [General packet radio service (GPRS), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Wired Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax), etc.], are known as cellular modems. Cellular modems can be embedded inside a laptop or an appliance, or they can be external to it to access the Internet. External cellular modems are datacards and cellular routers. The datacard is a PC card or ExpressCard which slides into a Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)/PC card/ExpressCard slot on a computer. 6. Factors Affecting Speed of Internet Connectivity: The speed of internet connectivity is influenced by the following factors- a) Speed of the Modem: The speed of the modem greatly influences the speed of internet connectivity So, for getting higher speed one must procure a modem with a maximum speed of 56kbps or higher, if possible. b) Quality of Phone Line: Noise on the phone line, running into the home, can disrupt internet connection with a modem. So, higher quality phone line should be used. If possible, ISDN should be implemented to solve the problem. c) Internet Traffic: While hitting a popular site, one may be competing with the hundreds or thousands of others for the attention of that site server resulting in slow speed of access. The web traffic generally tends to expand throughout the day and peaks around the evening. So, for getting high speed one should try to change the time of the day he/ she is going for online.
  • 140. Page140 d) Personal Computer: There are some other factors which are associated with personal computer. They are- i) Processor: For getting higher speed one should procure processors which have 650 MHZ or higher speed. ii) RAM: Working with other software application at the time of browsing decreases the RAM capacity resulting in slow speed of access to the Internet. So, it is better to get higher RAM or avoid working with other software application while surfing. iii) Hard Disc: A highly fragmented hard disc can slow down web surfing considerably. So, it is good to practice to keep the hard drive defragmented and optimized. iv) Browser’s Cache: Web browser’s cache is a storage area on the computer’s hard disc. As one surfs the browser stores the web pages that are already visited in the cache up to the disc space limit that one has set. When anyone tries to retrieve the same page after its first visit the browser displays the cached WebPages from the hard disc which is very fast and not from the Internet. So, if cache memory is small it slows down the access to the Internet. The solution is to increase the browser cache limit. v) Image Loading: Today many files are very big and rich of data, picture, image, etc. and so it takes longer time to download the images resulting in slow speed to Internet access. One can solve the problem by turning off image loading and java in the browser without affecting the content of a webpage. This can be done by selecting advanced Tab of Internet options in the Tool menu. vi) Working with Two or More Browser Windows at a Time: To increase further surfing speed one can surf with two or more browser tabs or windows at a time. This will enable one to read the content of one page while allowing another page to load in the second windows. This may help to cut down the time lag and frustration. 7. Internet Applications: Internet is the network of networks. It provides a base structure for different applications / services. Such applications may include Email, chat, discussion group, discussion forum, social network and so on. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the web. There are many activities that can be preformed online. Some of the commonly used applications are only listed here in the following paragraphs; i) World Wide Web: It is a subset of Internet and it presents text, images, animation, video, sound, and other multimedia in a single interface. The operation of the web relies primarily on hypertext, as it is a means of information retrieval. Hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents and resources throughout the Internet. ii) Email: Electronic mail or e-mail is a fast, easy, and inexpensive way to communicate with other internet users around the world. Email can be defined as the process of exchanging messages electronically, through a communication network, using the computer. Using email, one can exchange messages with someone else on the internet. It reaches its addresses within seconds and the people at large using it. Email overcomes most of the problems and delays of getting a physical document
  • 141. Page141 from one person. It is one of the basic and earliest services of the Internet and the most used application on the Internet too. iii) File Transfer Protocol (FTP): It is a system of rules and a software program that enables a user to log on to another computer and transfer information between it and his/her computer. FTP can be done using the command prompt, browsers, and various GUI based FTP softwares such as CuteFTP and WS_FTP. iv) Telnet: It allows a user to log on to a remote computer in such a way that a person may interact with another machine as if it is being used locally. The user’s monitor displays what is taking place on the remote computer during the telnet session. v) Chat: Chat puts people online in a live conversation with other internet users around the globe. Chat programs allow the users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. It is sometimes included as a feature of a website. vi) Internet Telephony: Internet telephony is the use of Internet to exchange spoken or other telephonic information. The required hardware for Internet telephony generally consists of end devices (either traditional telephone or audio-equipped personal computers) and gatekeepers that provide call admission control, bandwidth management, addresses translation, authentication, and user location. There are many Internet telephony applications available, for example CoolTalk, NetMetting, etc. vii) Video Conferencing: It enables direct face-to-face communication across networks using audio, video, and the data. In video conferencing, web cameras, microphone, and other communication tools are necessary. ix) E-Commerce: E-commerce refers to buying and selling goods and services online. x) Mobile Commerce: M-commerce or mobile commerce refers to transactions through a mobile phone network and data connection that results in the transfer of value (monetary or otherwise) in exchange for goods and services. xi) Mailing List (Listserver): It is a method of sending and receiving discussions via e-mail, organized around some topics within a large community. A search page is a web page where a search of the web can be conducted. If some one is good at framing the search queries, it will help them in finding exactly what they are looking for, anywhere on the web. The web directories provide direction to the web sites by listing relevant web pages in some easy to browse categories. Many web directories also provide search facilities to the user for easy location of the pages. Web directories are especially useful when someone is new to some topic. Groups and discussion forums are great ways to keep up with a subject. It broadens one’s mind by displaying different points of view or perception on a single idea or concept. The social network is the virtual social life of the people over the web. Advantages and Disadvantage of Internet: The internet has the following advantages-
  • 142. Page142 i) Central Repository of Information: The Internet is like a huge central warehouse of data that can be accessed by people from all over the world. ii) Direct Communication: Through email, chat, internet telephony, video conferencing, etc. one can directly communicate with others. iii) Round the Clock Availability: Information on the internet is available to the user 24 hours a day and 365 days of the year. iv) Cheapest Medium: Internet is perhaps the cheapest medium for online help, trouble shooting assistance, for getting specific information, etc. v) Distance Learning: It provides the facility of learning remotely without physically coming in contact with the teacher, the school or university. vi) No Barrier: In the internet environment any one can be author / writer / publisher and users of the information. There is no barrier in this regard. The disadvantages of Internet can be as follows- i) Copyright: Digitization violates the copyright laws as the thought content of one author can be freely transferred to another without his acknowledgement. ii) Incompatible Hardware and Software: The hardware and software are modified every day. So a document that is available in one format may not be accessible in the days to come. So, one has to upgrade the hardware and software configuration as and when needed. iii) Artificial Environment: The environment created by Internet is an artificial one. iv)Volatile Information: The electronic environment though very exciting and stimulating is also quite volatile. Let Us Sum Up: Internet is the largest of all other networks connecting a large number of smaller interconnected networks, so it is a computer based worldwide network connecting other smaller networks. It is a global network linking millions of computers and people cutting across all barriers and boundaries of countries, race, class or sex. Internet can also be described as a collection of government, academic, commercial and individual sites. The launching of ARPA in 1957 by Sputnik, and European Particle Research Laboratory (CERN) are at the backend in the development of the Internet. The Internet mainly consists of the WWW and all the hardware, software, and protocols. To get connected to the internet, the user will need a computer, a modem (internal / external), and an Internet account with the ISP. The usefulness of Internet lies in its characteristics of the Worlds Greatest Library where everybody will find it as a vast pool of information; it is the Wide Area Network, and much more. Besides, it also provides the latest information on any topic available round the clock and from a wide distance.
  • 143. Page143 Internet Browsing and Searching Internet Browsing and Searching: Searching or browsing in Internet environment is nothing but retrieving of relevant results from the Internet. a) Browsing: In Internet environment, browsing refers to opening a website through the web browser that contains hyperlink and with the help of these hyperlinks, jumping to a new web document in the same or a new window. It is also known as navigating or surfing the web. i) Working with Address box of the Browser: In the online mode one can use web browser for arriving at a particular address. In the “Address” box of the browser, typing the web site’s address (URL) and pressing the “Enter” button of the keyboard or by pressing “Go” button, the browser will open a particular website. When the web site opens, its home page is displayed. The keying appropriate URL in the address box of the browser is obligatory. The website or home page will contain links to other website or hyperlinks. By clicking on the highlighted words or links one can access other files of the same website or entirely a different website. ii) Working with Mouse: While we are on a webpage, we can use the vertical or horizontal scroll bars to move around or through a document. iii) Working with Keyboard Keys: We can use “Up” (↑) and “Down” (↓) arrow keys to move up or down one line. Pressing the “Page Up” (PgUp) key moves up one window length, and pressing “Page Down” (PgDn) moves down one window length. Pressing “Ctrl+Home” takes us to the beginning of the document and pressing “Ctrl+End” take us to the end of the document. iv) Working with Hyperlink in the Document: A webpage contains many hyperlinks in the form of text as well as images. When you move your mouse cursor over the hyperlink it will take the form of a hand with a pointing index finger (). You can open the hyperlink by just clicking on it. You can also open a hyperlink by right clicking it and selecting the “Open” option from the shortcut menu, or by selecting the “Open in a New Window” option to open the link in a new window. v) Working with Back, Forward button of the Browser: If you browse through several pages in a window, you can move backward and forward by clicking the “Back” (←) and “Forward” (→) button in the standard toolbar. These two options will only back or forward one page at a time. But, you can also select from the list of pages by placing the mouse pointer over the “Back” button and then by clicking on the down arrow (↓) besides the button, and then clicking on any site from the list of previously visited sites. Clicking on the “Stop” button stops whatever the browser is doing, and will wait for your next instruction. It is particularly useful for undoing mistakes. b) Searching the Internet: Internet is a huge collection of information so it needs the search query to be specific; otherwise, it will retrieve some irrelevant results. Searching means finding or locating information through some search engines, directories, databases, etc. Generally all searching tools provide you an option in the form of search box to conduct a search. The search over Internet is
  • 144. Page144 interactive, provides post co-ordinate search facilities and produces more results at a higher speed at a reduced cost. Some of the well known search engines are Google (http://www.google.com), Bing (http://www.bing.com), and Ask/Aj/Ask Jeeves (http://www.ask.com). Most search tools have a similar structure. All will include in some form i) form for you to enter your keywords, ii) a button which will begin your search, iii) links to help pages and advanced search tools, normally located near the search form, iv) special features and options, and v) subject categories (most). i) Keyword Search: This is most generally used over the web. In this technique, the document available in the WWW is generally searched by using keywords in the search box of a search engine; use of preposition, articles and such other words are avoided in this type of search. E.g. searching for Mahatma Gandhi, India in Google (http://www.google.co.in). Results from this method are often mixed and you may have to go through many results to find the site most useful to you. For keyword based search, the search strategy may include identifying keywords by breaking down the topic into key concepts. ii) Phrase Search: When a user is quite aware of all the words that occur in the same sequence in the relevant digital document, then he/she can use phrase (or proximity) search techniques. In such cases the search terms were down the search results considerably. Surrounding a group of words with double quotes tells the search engine to only retrieve documents in which those words appear side-by-side; e.g. “God of Small Things”, “Five Laws of Library Science”, (Five Laws of Library Science), etc. iii) Wild Card / Truncation Search: When a user is aware only of some of the letters that are contained in the keywords then he / she can use wild card search technique to retrieve all the documents containing the words which again contain the particular letters stated by the user. In wild card search techniques the known letters are followed by an asterisk “*” or sometimes by a “?” mark. The asterisk or question mark may be given in the left, right or in both sides of the known letters as the case or need may be; e.g. Cata*, to retrieve document containing the word “cataloguing”, “cataloguer”, “catalogues”, etc. i.e the search engine will find all the words that contain keying letters as prefix letter of a particular word. Wildcard features allow variations in spelling or word forms. iii) Boolean Search: Most of the search engines use “and” “or” and “not” as boolean search query, some uses “*”, “+” and “-” for the same purpose. Eg: Five laws of library science * S. R. Ranganathan, to retrieve all documents containing the words “Five laws of library science” and “S. R. Ranganathan”. In most cases the Boolean operators “and” “or” and “not” are used to connect the key concepts. iv) Natural Language Search: Some search engine uses natural language search queries i.e the user is free to use natural language query to retrieve the relevant result. The system will automatically ignore the unnecessary words. This is true in http://www.altavista; http://www.askjeevas.com, etc. Eg.: Who is the Prime Minister of India, to retrieve the name of the Prime Minister of India or to retrieve thousands of pages not containing the word “Who”.
  • 145. Page145 v) Complex Search: In this type, combinations of the above search techniques are used to retrieve more relevant results. For example, one can combine phrase searching with implied Boolean operator. E.g.: “Classified catalogue code” * “S. R. Ranganathan”. vi) Field Search: A web page is composed of a number of fields, such as title, domain, host, URL, and link. So, field searching is one of the most effective techniques for narrowing results and getting the most relevant websites listed at the top of the result page. vii) Meta Search: The content of search engines, indexes and databases generally vary. So, if the same search query is typed into several search engines then it is likely to produce different results. So, a user may often want to know to see the results from various search engines. In such cases he/she can use the Meta search engine to get single input or query and to retrieve results from different search engines. Some example of Meta search engines are http://www.search.com, http://www.albany.net/allinone, etc. viii) Database Searching: Searching the directory or database is entirely a new experience. One can search the directory or databases by the specific entry point, which the particular directory or database is using to search its records. In case of a database of books the access point can be the title of the article/document/author/editor/accession no, etc. In the database searching, one can also save his/her result in accordance to his/her requirement. Some common examples of databases are http://www.sciencedirect.com, http://www.jstor.org, etc. Invisible College 1) Introduction: In the middle of the 17th century small groups of scholars and philosophers began to meet in various places (including taverns) in London to discuss the experimental method of scientific inquiry propounded by Francis Bacon. This groups which later become known as “invisible colleges” could not meet openly and regularly due to civil strife in England. The term invisible college is coined by Robert Boyle. After the civil war ended, these natural philosophers decided to established a formal constitution which results in the foundation of one of the greatest scientific societies – The Royal Society on July 15, 1662 and the meeting of individual colleges in England eventually culminated in the establishment of the Royal Society. 2) Characteristic: The characteristic of invisible colleges are - a) Membership in these invisible colleges is not formalized but is dependent on the acceptance of one’s research effort by peers. b) The scientists see himself as belonging to amorphous groups of fellows scientist who share his research interest and attitude regardless of their organizational or geographical locations. c) The personal communication among eminent workers in a given field keeps the others informed of the developments in their field. d) This group falsely assumes that researches not included in their peer group or work done not in exactly their field will not be of interest.
  • 146. Page146 e) This group also assumes that the researcher should be able to duplicate any steps along the way to his own research goal. f) It also assumes that one knows what problem remains to be solved in one’s specialty. Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM): There is no universal definition for knowledge management. At its broadest, KM is the “process through which organizations generate value from intellectual and knowledge based assets”. Information management tries to make the right information available to the right person at the right time though a variety of database driven information applications. Information management tools try to capture the human experience of knowledge through collecting, classifying, disseminating, searching, indexing, and archival power of technology. Information management may well be considered the first wave of KM (and is still often considered synonymous with KM). a) Knowledge Assets: Knowledge assets are often described as the intellectual capital of an organization. There are two types of knowledge assets – i) Explicit or formal assets like copyrights, patents, templates, publications, reports, archives, etc. b) Tacit or informal assets that are rooted in human experience and include personal belief, perspective, and values. b) The Value of KM: Knowledge began to be viewed as a competitive asset in the 1980s, around the same time that information explosion started becoming an issue. The trend was fueled by the development of IT systems which made it simple to store, display, and archive classified, indexed information. It is important to manage knowledge assets because – i) Organizations compete increasingly on the base of knowledge (the only sustainable competitive advantage, according to some) ii) Most of our work is information based (and often immersed in a computing environment) iii) Workforces are increasingly unstable leading to escalating demands for knowledge replacement / acquisition. Laws of Library Science Laws of Library Science: According to Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan, considered by librarians all over India as the father of library science, “there can be no doubt however, that there are certain essential principles underlying the management of library according to the present days’ need and conception”. Ranganathan expounded these principles in a systematic form and reduced them to five cardinal principles. He has developed all these rules of library organization and management as the necessary implication and inevitable corollaries of his five laws.
  • 147. Page147 In the context of library science Dr. S. R. Ranganathan conceived the five laws of library science in 1924. The statement embodying these laws were formulated i.e. the laws took the final form in 1928 and a detailed account of these laws and their implication were published in the form of a book in 1931 by Bombay Asia Publishing House (This is also the year in which Melville Dewey passed away). Most librarians worldwide accept them as the foundations of their philosophy. The five laws of library science are: a) Books are for use. b) Every reader his / her book (i.e. books are for all). c) Every book its reader (i.e. every book in a library must find its reader) d) Save the time of the reader (i.e. a user is supposed to be a busy person. So his / her time must be saved). Corollary: Save the time of the staff. e) Library is a growing organism (A library always grows in terms of document i.e. book, reader or user and staff). Ranganathan at first formulated the statement of four laws only, Laws 2-5 in the present state. The first law emerged last from the casual hint provided by his professor E. B. Ross. 1. Need of the Laws of Library and Information Science: In the past before the formulation of library science laws there was no evidence of an overall view of libraries. It looked as if future development were totally unpredictable. By proposing the laws Ranganathan solved the problem. The basic needs of the laws of library science are: a) Give Pressure at the Subconscious Level to Work: Scientific methods are applicable equally in both natural and social sciences. The only difference lies in the status of the basic principles. These were hypotheses in the natural science and normative principles in the social sciences. Hypothesis: Proposed explanation of some thing made on the basis of limited evidence used as a starting point for further investigation. b) Helps Library Science to Become an Independent Subject: A subject cannot stand in its position unless some fundamental laws are not attached to it, so by proposing the laws Ranganathan put the first stone in this direction. c) Denote Library Practices: Laws of library science contain in a latest form all the library practices of the past and the present and those which are likely to be evolved in the future. d) Serve as a Higher Court: These laws are applicable to any problem in the areas of library science, library service and library practice. In case of conflict between canons, an appeal is made to the five laws of library science to resolve the conflict. e) Boundary Condition: Laws of library science locate the boundary condition within which the librarian might work.
  • 148. Page148 2. Usefulness of the Five Laws a) Act as Fundamental Laws: The five laws of library science are fundamental laws of library and information science and are applicable to any problem in the areas of library science, library service and library practice. Five laws are guiding norms; these are the verified principles applicable everywhere in the library world. b) Help in Deriving Canon, Principles and Postulates: With the help of these five laws of Library Science we can derive canons, principles and postulates applicable in different fields of library and information science. These fundamental laws will serve as a source of inspiration and guidance in the years to come. c) Resolve Conflict Between Cannons: The laws of library science help in solving any conflict that may arise during the functioning of libraries. The five laws serve as a higher court. So in case of conflict between canons of cataloguing, classification etc. an appeal is made to the five laws of library science to resolve the conflict. d) Guiding Rules: The laws of library science guide the staff in decision making about what is right and what is wrong in a given situation. As such Ranganathan’s five laws of library science have found universal acceptance as Pentagon of Library Philosophy. 3. Variants of the Five Laws of LIS: According to Ranganathan’s own words “One is the generalization of the concept ‘Book’ this has been emphasized in recent years in the term document”, so Ranganathan later on in his “Documentation and its Facets” reformulated the laws as a) Documents are for use. b) Every reader his / her document. c) Every document its reader. d) Save the time of the reader. e) Library is a growing organism. In 1998, librarian Michael Gorman (past president of the American Library Association, 2005-2006), recommended the following laws in addition to Ranganathan's five in his small book, "Our Singular Strengths": a) Libraries serve humanity. b) Respect all forms by which knowledge is communicated. c) Use technology intelligently to enhance service. d) Protect free access to knowledge. e) Honor the past and create the future.
  • 149. Page149 In 2004, librarian Alireza Noruzi recommended applying Ranganathan's laws to the web in his paper, "Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web" a) Web resources are for use. b) Every user his or her web resource. c) Every web resource its user. d) Save the time of the user. e) The Web is a growing organism. 4. First Law: Books are for Use: The first law embodies an elementary principle and all the other laws of library science are based on the first law. The library becomes great not because of its collection or building but as a result of the use made of by its users. Therefore, the motto of a librarian should be to acquire process and serve document for use. The implication of this law is limited to make the physical carrier of information accessible to the user. A modern librarian who has belief in first law will feel satisfied only if the user keeps the shelves constantly empty. In Ranganathan’s own words the implications of the first laws of library science are a) Location of the Library: Location of the library should be the one which is conveniently accessible to the community to be served. A public library should be at a place which most citizens can frequently visit regularly on some business or other; at the same time the location should be as free from noise and other disturbances as possible so that serious study can be made. A University library should be centrally located. A special library should be near the factory entrance or factory canteen. In case of school and college libraries the location does not matter very much because distances are small from various sections. However it would be preferable to have it centrally located. b) Library Building and Furniture: The library building should be well planned. The exterior should be inviting and the interior should be attractive. The building should be functional and at the same time aesthetic. It should be functional one providing enough space for various purposes to meet the requirements. The furniture should be so provided as to give comfort to the readers and to make use of the resources of the library as conveniently as possible. Racks in which books are kept should not be high and books on the top shelves should be easily reachable. c) Library Hours: The opening hours of the library should be decided keeping in view the need of the user. The influence of the first law on library hours has resulted in opening for long hours and on all days of the year without any holidays. Library hours should also be convenient to the users. If possible, each user of the library should be provided with a key of the library so that the user can use the library at any hour, whenever he feels like using it. d) Library Staff: In order to maximize the use of the library, it is essential that library staff should be qualified and efficient. Every member of the staff should perform the role of a friend, philosopher and guide to all those who come to the library to use it. The staff should believe in and follow the philosophy of service to the user. They should be approachable, courteous, helpful and willing to
  • 150. Page150 appreciate the point of views of others; a missionary zeal to serve the user; amiable manners and professional competence are the essential qualities of the library staff for carrying out the mandate of the first law. e) Book Selection: The books should be selected and acquired keeping in view the present and potential requirement of the user. There should also be a periodical weeding out of books. f) Shelf Arrangement: The books should be classified, catalogued and arranged according to a helpful sequence. g) Reference Service: The personal service will lead to greater use of library document. The forces of the first law can be looked at from the following- In the ancient period books were rare i.e. multiple copies were not available due to the non availability of printing machines. The copying of the Mahabharata was a very tough requiring long hours to copy a document. So, in the past, there was a great deal of negligence towards the first law. In modern times due to the availability of printing technology, photocopying, scanning etc it is possible to overcome all such barriers. But unfortunately due to the result of a rudimentary practice of preserving the documents, that tendency has remained as a regular habit in the successive generation of librarians. The modern librarian should overcome such a habit and there is an urgent need for the vigorous attempt to eliminate the negligence to the first law. A modern librarian who has faith in the first law is happy only when his/her reader make his/her shelves constantly empty. Also in such cases he/she will go to them, not to snatch away the book they are using but to distribute the new arrival that needs to be introduced to them as quickly as possible. The forces of the first law as a whole can be traced out as - Make the library open access rather than traditional closed access; - Make free access to the book world; - Branch libraries should open in the larger cities in order to be easily reachable within a few minutes walk from each house; - Books should be sent free to the houses of those that would offer to get them introduced in their neighborhood; - Books should be carried in motor van from street to street for their distribution amongst the residents. The above forces of the first law will be possible only if library has enough funds and the library itself obtains free copy of books from different sources. But in this industrialized world in which everybody pays according to his/her need or requirement, there is a doubt that an exception will happen for library and information science only. So the fulfillment of the first law is bleak in near future. If library legislation comes to help in this regard or the readers of a library are ready to pay according to their need, the law, Books are for use, can be satisfied in every aspect.
  • 151. Page151 In the fifteenth and sixteenth century books were actually kept in chains (chained library) to confine their movement to the sphere determined by their chain. Such chaining was more conducive to the preservation than to the use of the books. This practice was in contrast to the first law of library and Information Science. 5. Second Law: Every Reader his / her Book: The second law is, every reader his / her book (books are for all). According to the second law every reader of a library should have the books he / she wants. It advocates for a mandatory provision of library services to each reader according to his / her need. It advocates the universal and democratization of library services i.e. documents are not merely for scholars but for all, including the poor, sick, blind, prisoner, neo-literates and the old. The documents should be accessible irrespective of occupational and income lines, irrespective of the normal and the abnormal, or irrespective of an adult and a child. Ranganathan examines the implication of the second law under the following four categories. a) Obligation of the State i) Library Legislation: In order to achieve the second law it is desirable that economy factor should not stand as a barrier. This will be possible through library legislation, which will provide for finance of public libraries at various levels to achieve free library services for all. ii) Maintenance of a Library System (Network): As far as students, teachers and researchers are concerned the public library plays only a marginal role in fulfilling the second law. Therefore, the state also has the responsibility of establishing other types of libraries like school library, college library, university library and special library. iii) Co ordination and Resource Sharing: A given library would not have the finance to purchase documents on occasional demand. Therefore the second law would suggest the formulation of a National library network to share the resources, especially for the purpose of inter-library loan. b) Obligation of the Library Authority i) Choice of Book (Book Selection): The second law implies that all the books that can be useful should be selected and all the useless books should be discarded. The selection should be based on individual needs. The library authority should ensure the proper selection and acquisition policy in order to build up a balanced collection in the library for each category of users i.e. the blind, neo- literates, scholars, children, young, adult, man, women, etc. Buying a document that has no potential demand is a violation of the second law. ii) Choice of the Staff: The library authority should select an adequate and competent team of library staff and it should take utmost care in the recruitment of the library personnel, their subsequent promotion, recognition and status. c) Obligation of the Library Staff i) Open Access: The library staff should also feel the obligation to introduce open access to help the readers in gaining access to all the books of possible interest to them. The open access makes it
  • 152. Page152 possible for a reader to approach books directly and handle them personally without any barrier. A user can, thus browse amongst the world of books and thus they will have better chances of choosing the right book. ii) Cataloguing: Some times the information contained in a chapter or a few pages of a book may be of interest to a reader but the users often tend to miss such content. To avoid such oversight the library should introduce subject analytical or cross reference entries. iii) Shelf Arrangement: The shelf should be arranged according to the subject of the document and not based on the size and other aspects. iv) Maintenance: In case of open access libraries there is every possibility of some document being misplaced intentionally or unintentionally by the patron of the library. To fulfil the second law misplaced books must be restored to their proper places. Books in need of binding or repair should be taken out from the shelves from time to time. v) Reference Service: Reference service is an effective means of ensuring that the reader gain access to all the documents of potential interest to him that are held by the library. So the library staff should have proper training in reference work and be able to provide an effective reference service to the user in getting the right book. d) Obligation of the Reader i) Library Rules Should be Followed: A user must realize that library rules are framed to get the maximum out of the library resources and to prevent the misuse of library resources. The rules are aimed at increasing the use of the library rather than curbing its use. Thus, the user should regard the rigid enforcement of the rules as an aid rather than a hindrance in the use of the library. ii) Maintenance of the System: A user should not misplace the books within the library or damage it. This will deprive the other users; similarly a user should not mutilate or take out cards from the library catalogue, tear pages or steal etc. iii) Should not Ask for Any Undue Special Privileges: The Library is meant for every body’s use and no one should have undue privileges at the expense of others. The current issues, the reference books etc which are in much demand should not go through the process of any special privileges. iv) Returns of Books In Time: The books that are borrowed must be returned on or before due date so that other users do not have to suffer. If a document is lying unused at home, it is the obligation of the user to return it as soon as possible. 6. Third Law: Every Book its Reader: Every book in a library must find its reader. This law emphasizes the approach to the document. According to this law, every book in a library must find its reader, not a single item should be lost in the darkness of the stack. The following measures should be adopted for giving effect to this law. a) Introducing Open Access: In the open access system books are arranged in shelves in the classified order and the readers have freedom to access them. In the course of readers’ browsing through the
  • 153. Page153 shelves they may come across books of interest to them the existence of which they may not be aware of; so the chances of readers noticing the books and reading them are enhanced by the open access system only. b) Provision of Popular Department: The provision of popular department like newspaper reading room, periodical section, etc. offer baits to the reader and such provision increases the chances for every book to get its reader. Recent additions, rare books, specific collection, festival collection etc displayed at prominent places attracts the reader’s attention. c) Book Selection: Best attention should be paid to book selection so that the chances of books remaining unused are reduced. d) Cataloguing: Subject cataloguing, series entries, cross reference entries etc. may often reveal to the reader the books which might not have otherwise been noticed. e) Shelf Arrangement: If the shelf arrangement is made by the subject approach then there are better chances of books finding their reader. Again, the subsequent attention should be given by the library staff to maintain the arrangement by way of restoring the misplaced books to their correct place and so on. f) Reference Service: There must be the provision for personal assistance to each reader when they feel they need it. The reference staff should act as a canvassing agent for book. g) Publicity and Library Extension Service: Internally, within the premises of the library, the staff should provide shelf guide, bay guides, etc. which will guide the reader to appropriate places in the library. Externally, the reference staff should go to make the use of mass media like press, radio, television, public lecture, demonstration, tours, exhibitions, library weeks, brochure and leaflets, etc. for publicizing the library. 7. Fourth Law: Save the Time of the Reader: A user is supposed to be a busy person; so his / her time must be saved. Corollary of this law is “save the time of the staff”. A reader coming to the library should get an exact and fast service; they should not be made to wait longer than necessary. Unnecessary delay may cause vexation and readers may be dissatisfied. Dissatisfied readers may cease to come to the library. The implications of the fourth law are as follows. a) Location of the library: The library must be centrally located so that it is conveniently accessible to the community being served. b) Open Access: There are many advantages of introducing the open access. One of the major advantages of open access system is the subjective time decline which gives satisfaction to the readers. c) Classification and Cataloguing: Proper Classification system which would bring together documents on a specific subject and also the related subject should be adopted.
  • 154. Page154 d) Shelf Arrangement: The arrangement of documents according to the degree of mutual relationship of subjects would lead to saving the time of the readers. e) Signage System: Stack room guide, bay guides, tier guides, gangway guides should be provided to save the time of the reader. f) Reference Service: The fourth law advocates the need of reference service. g) Charging System: The issue method, charging and discharging should be done as quickly as possible. h) Centralized Cataloguing: Cataloguing in press, cataloguing in publication, cataloguing with the aid of OCLC database greatly reduce the time factor. i)Information Technology: The use of IT in libraries invariably speed up many activities. So to fulfill the fourth law the IT should be introduced. 8. Fifth Law: Library is a Growing Organism: The main components of the library are documents, the user and the staff. A library always grows in terms of documents, the reader or the user and the staff. The growth of a new library can be compared to the growth of a child as it grows in every aspect. In case of a service library that has attained certain degree of stability its growth can be compared with the growth of the adult i.e. it grows in terms of replacing old document by new one and new user will continuously replace the old one. The implication of the fifth law of library and information science are: a) Library Building: The library building should be modular and should have the provision of future growth. b) Choice of Classification and Cataloguing Code: The classification and cataloguing scheme chosen should have the provision to keep apace with the development in the universe of subject. c) Physical Forms of Catalogue: The physical forms of catalogue chosen should have the provision of updating, sorting in different order, editing and so on. d) Weeding out of Document: To make the space for new addition the documents that are obsolete and unused should be weeded out. The weeded out document should be stored, where they are available for occasional use or at a central place (a central library) with cooperation among libraries. e) Modernization, Computerization: Library that grows fast both in terms of size and services may have to go for the computerization of various house-keeping operations (i.e. acquisition, circulation, cataloguing etc). In order to take care of the growing collection the documents should be digitized or microfilmed; the new procurement should be made in the form of electronic journals, e-book, etc. To cope with the increased readership the library should go for the video terminal and ultimately to the digital or virtual library.
  • 155. Page155 Previously the libraries grew with the collection, but nowadays the digital library, or virtual library or e-library does not show the characteristics of the growing of a library by volume. The growth is in the use of sophisticated technologies. 9. Let Us Sum Up: Ranganathan’s five laws of library science consist of five short statements but they provide guidance and rationale for practice and teaching of library and information science. With the help of these laws, we can derive postulates, cannons and principles applicable in different fields of library and information science. The first three laws emphasize the exploitation of the documents of the library fully by the maximum number of users. The fourth law gives emphasis on the role of reference librarian and has a great potentiality to bring reforms in the running of libraries. All laws as a whole will serve as source of inspiration and guidance in the years to come. Learning Management System (LMS) Learning Management System (LMS): A Learning Management System (LMS) or Courseware Management System is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, and reporting of training programmes, classroom and online events, e-learning programmes, and training content. LMSs range from systems for managing training and educational records to software for distributing courses over the Internet with features for online collaboration. Student self-service (e.g., self- registration on instructor-led training), training workflow (e.g., user notification, manager approval, wait-list management), the provision of on-line learning (e.g., computer-based training, read & understand), on-line assessment, management of continuous professional education (CPE), collaborative learning (e.g., application sharing, discussion threads), and training resource management (e.g., instructors, facilities, equipment), are dimensions to Learning Management Systems. The following are some of the popular LMS softwares a) ATutor: ATutor is an Open Source Web-based Learning Management System (LMS). It is used in various contexts, including online course management, continuing professional development for teachers, career development, and academic research. The software is cited as unique for its accessibility features, (useful to visually-impaired and disabled learners); and for its suitability for educational use. Website: http://www.atutor.ca/ b) Brihaspati (The Virtual Classroom): Brihaspati is an open source learning management system and of Indian origin. Website: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~ynsingh/tool/brihaspati.shtml c) Claroline: Claroline is a collaborative eLearning and eWorking platform (Learning Management System) released under the GPL Open Source license. It allows hundreds of organizations worldwide ranging from universities to schools and from companies to associations to create and administer courses and collaboration spaces over the web. Website: http://www.claroline.net/ d) Moodle: Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle) is a free and open- source e-learning software platform, also known as a Course Management System, Learning
  • 156. Page156 Management System, or Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It is developed by Martin Dougiamas to help the educators create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative construction of content. Website: http://moodle.org/ Librametric, Bibliometric, Scientometrics, Informetrics Librametric, Bibliometric, Scientometrics, Informetrics: The Librametric, bibliometric, scientometrics, informetrics are overlapping areas, though their scopes are not the same. 1. Librametry: Dr. S. R. Ranganathan coined the term librametry and presented his concept in 1948 at the ASLIB conference held at Lemington Spa. He said that “there is a need to develop this subject on the lines of Biometry, Econometry, Psychometry, etc. He used the term to include statistical approaches to the study of library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. S. R. Ranganathan either under different name or without any name at all. For instance E. J. Cole and Nellie Eales in 1917, graphically mapped the literature and called this as “Statistical analysis”, E. Wyndham Hulme in 1922 studied the literature and called it “statistical bibliography”, but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. 2. Bibliometrics: The formal term “bibliometric” was first used by Alan Pritchard in his article “Statistical bibliography or bibliometric” in 1969 published in the “Journal of Documentation”. “Biblio” means book and “metric” means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science. Pritchard defines bibliometric as “the application of mathematical and statistical methods to books and other media of communication”. Potter defines bibliometric as “the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of written communication and their author”. Thus bibliometric is a sort of measuring techniques by which interconnected aspect of written communication can be quantified. It is the study, or measurement, of texts and information. Bibliometrics utilizes quantitative analysis and statistics to describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Researchers may use bibliometric methods of evaluation to determine the influence of a single writer, for example, or to describe the relationship between two or more writers or works. One common way of conducting bibliometric research is to use the Social Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index or the Arts and Humanities Citation Index to trace citations. a) Bibliometric Techniques: There are different kinds of bibliometric techniques. For example- i) Productivity Count: It deals with books articles, words in a text, place of publication, subject matter, time and date of publication, publishing institution, authors, author’s institution, etc. Nicholas and Ritchie in the book “Literature and Bibliometrics” called it as productivity count or descriptive.
  • 157. Page157 ii) Literature Usage Count: It deals with citation in published works, circulation, frequency of borrowing or browsing different library material, failure and success in search strategies, search option , etc. Nicholas and Ritchie called it as “Evaluative”. b) Laws of Bibliometrics: One of the main areas in bibliometric research concerns the application of bibliometric laws. The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are - Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity, Bradford's Law of Scatter, and Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence; i) Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity: In 1926, Alfred J. Lotka proposed an inverse square law relating to scientific papers to the number of contributions made by each author. Lotka's Law describes the frequency of publication by authors in a given field. It states that ". . . the number (of authors) making n contributions is about 1/n² of those making one; and the proportion of all contributors, that make a single contribution, is about 60 percent". This means that out of all the authors in a given field, 60 percent will have just one publication, and 15 percent will have two publications (1/2² times . 60), 7 percent of authors will have three publications (1/3² times . 60), and so on. According to Lotka's Law of scientific productivity, only six percent of the authors in a field will produce more than 10 articles. Lotka’s equation is xn.y= Constant. Where Y= Frequency of authors making n contribution, the value of the constant was found to be 0.6079 ii) Bradford's Law of Scatter: Samuel Clement Bradford in 1934 points out that if scientific journals are arranged in order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of journals on the subject, relatively few in number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals in the core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the relationship is n². Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n². Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field. He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258
  • 158. Page158 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. iii) Zipf's Law of Word Occurrence: George K. Zipf, 1947 states that if the words occurring in a natural language text of sizable length were listed in the order of decreasing frequency then the rank of any given word in the list would be inversely proportional to the frequency of occurrence of the word. Zipf’s equation is r . f = k Where r = Rank; f = Frequency of Word; k = Constant The Law states that in a relatively lengthy text, if you "list the words occurring within that text in order of decreasing frequency, the rank of a word on that list multiplied by its frequency will equal a constant. The equation for this relationship is: r x f = k where r is the rank of the word, f is the frequency, and k is the constant. Zipf illustrated his law with an analysis of James Joyce's Ulysses. "He showed that the tenth most frequent word occurred 2,653 times, the hundredth most frequent word occurred 265 times, the two hundredth word occurred 133 times, and so on. Zipf found, then that the rank of the word multiplied by the frequency Of the word equals a constant that is approximately 26,500". c) Uses of Bibliometric Studies: Historically bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are used in i) Measuring the scattering of articles on a subject in various periodicals (Bradford). ii) Measuring the productivity of an author based on the number of published articles. (Lotka). iii) Ranking of words in a text based on frequency of occurrence of words. iv) Productivity count of literature. v) To identify the peers, social change and the core journal, etc. vi) Indexing and Thesaurus; vii) Research;
  • 159. Page159 viii) Formulating search strategies in case of automated system; ix) Comparative assessment of the secondary services; x) Bibliographic control; xi) Preparation of retrospective bibliographic and xii) Library Management. 3. Scientometrics: This term was introduced and came into prominence with the founding of the journal named “Scientometrics” by T. Braunin in 1977, originally published in Hungary and currently from Amsterdam. The term “Scientometrics” was used to mean the application of quantitative methods to the history of science but it is now generally used as a generic term for a variety of research approaches within the study of science that a quantifiable aspect of science can be utilized to assess the characteristic of science. Marton and Garfield have defined it as the field of enquiry given over to the quantitative analysis of science and scientific field. 4. Informetrics: According to Brooker the term “informetrics” was first proposed by Otto Nacke of West Germany in 1979. It focused on information productivity. It interprets information technology and considers interaction of information theory, cybermetrics, decision theory, etc. 5. Webmetrics: Webmetrics can be defined as using of bibliometric techniques in order to study the relationship of different sites on the World Wide Web. Such techniques may also be used to map out (called "scientific mapping" in traditional bibliometric research) areas of the Web that appear to be most useful or influential, based on the number of times they are hyperlinked to other Web sites. 6. Let Us Sum Up: According to Sen, bibliometric deals with document and its component while informetrics studies pertaining to information. Morales use the term informetrics to cover almost all the aspect of bibliometric and librametrics. Librarians in Different Types of Libraries Librarians in Different Types of Libraries: The librarians of different types of libraries have to perform work according to the library concerned. Following are the different types of libraries where librarians have different types of work to perform a) School: The school librarianship covers the library services for children in schools. In some regions, the local government may set the standards for the education and certification of the school librarians (who are often considered a special kind of teacher). School librarianship may also include issues of intellectual freedom, pedagogy, and how to build a coordinated curriculum with the teaching staff.
  • 160. Page160 b) College and University: The college / university librarianship covers the library services for colleges / universities. Issues of special importance to the field may include copyright, technology, digital libraries, and digital repositories, academic freedom, open access to scholarly works and specialized knowledge of subject areas which are considered important to the institution. The librarian of a college / university library caters to a large number of user base and therefore, involves higher responsibilities than his counterpart in a school library. c) Public: The librarianship for public libraries covers issues such as cataloguing, collection development for a diverse community, information literacy, community standards, etc. It is a librarianship with focus on public service and serving a diverse community of adults, children, and teens, and therefore, deals with intellectual freedom, censorship and legal and budgeting issues. d) Special: Special librarians include those who are involved with any other form of librarianship that serves in medical libraries (and hospitals or medical schools), corporations, news agency libraries, or other special collections. The issues in these libraries will be specific to the institutions / industries they inhabit. But the librarians in these libraries also include for their work such specialized functions as corporate financing, specialized collection development, and extensive self-promotion to potential patrons. e) Archives: This covers the study required to maintain and build the archives of records intended for historical preservation. Special issues include physical preservation of materials and mass de- acidification, specialist catalogues; solo work, access, and appraisal. Many archivists are also trained historians specializing in the period covered by the archive. Librarian’s Day Librarian’s Day: At the 9th Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centre (IASLIC) seminar held at Nagpur (1980) initiative were made to form JOint Council of Library Association of India (JOCLAI). In the JOCLAI meeting held at Jaipur during the seventeenth conference in 1989 it was decided to observe the birth day of Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan, the father of Library Science in India as Librarians Day all over the country every year. So considering this, 12th August, which was the birthday of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan has been assign as librarian’s day. At Kolkata since 1990, a day long Programme purely professional is held every year not necessarily on 12th August but on Sunday following the date. This is as because librarianship is a service profession so the user cannot be disappointed on working days in the name of the profession itself. This is what librarianship is. Library Library: Libraries are congenial homes of ideas to be enjoyed, valued and used regularly by all. Libraries almost invariably contain long passageway to rows of books. It has materials arranged in a specified order according to a library classification scheme, so that items can be located quickly and collections can be browsed efficiently. Some libraries have additional galleries beyond the public ones, where reference materials are stored. These reference stacks may be open to selected members. Others require patrons to submit a “stack request”, which is a request for an assistant to
  • 161. Page161 retrieve the material from the closed stacks. In today’s context, most of the libraries provide open access to its entire collection. Technical services work behind the scene. It includes selection, acquisition, cataloguing and classification of new arrivals and weeding out of obsolete and unused materials. Collection development orders materials and maintains materials budgets. Larger libraries are often broken down into departments staffed by both para-professionals and professional librarians. Circulation handles user accounts and the loaning / returning and shelving of materials. Reference staffs in the reference desk provide answer to user questions (using structured reference interviews), instruct users and develop library programming. Reference may be further broken down by user groups or materials such as youth, teen, or special collections. Since the advancement in technology made it possible to store information and media in the form other than books, many libraries now act as repositories and access points for a variety of microfilm, microfiche, audio tapes, video tapes, CDs, and DVDs, and provide public facilities to access CD-ROM and subscription databases over the Internet. Thus, modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. 1. Definition: The word “library” comes from the Latin word liber=Book. Library means a collection of written, printed or digital reading material organized to provide different services to the user with the help of a trained staff. It is a collection of sources, resources, and services, and the structure in which it is housed; it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or an individual. However, with the sets and collection of media and of media other than books for storing information, many libraries are now also repositories and access points for maps, prints, or other documents and various storage media such as microform (microfilm/microfiche), audio tapes, CDs, cassettes, videotapes, and DVDs. Libraries may also provide public facilities to access subscription databases and the Internet. Although mostly free to access and use, some libraries assess service charges for some services, such as checking out new fiction, DVDs, interlibrary loan, Document Delivery Service, etc. ALA glossary of Library and Information Science has defined library as “a collection of materials organized to provide physical, bibliographical and intellectual access to a target group, with a staff that is trained to provide services and programmes related to the information needs of the target groups.” According to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, the father of library science in India, “a library is a public institution or establishment charged with the care of collection of books, the duty of making them accessible to those who require the use of them and the task of converting every person in its neighborhood into a habitual library goers and reader of books.” The word “Library Collection” is synonymous with holdings. It is the total accumulation of books and other materials owned by a library, organized and cataloged for ease of access by its users. Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science describes library collection as “the sum total of library material – books, manuscripts, serial, government documents, pamphlets, catalogues, report,
  • 162. Page162 recording, microfilms reels, micro cards and microfiche, punched cards, computer tapes etc. that make up the holding of a particular type of library.” Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats and from many sources. They are understood as extending beyond the four walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amounts of knowledge with a variety of digital tools. 2. Types of Libraries: No single library can contain the information sought by every potential user; as a result, different types of libraries exist to serve different needs. Libraries can be divided into categories by the following methods. 2.1 Based on Mission: The following are the main types of libraries based upon their mission. a) National Library: The mission is to preserve the cultural heritage of a Nation. Eg. The National Library of India, Kolkata. b) Public Library: A free informational and recreational institution. Its mission is to provide reading materials to people without any fee. c) Academic Library: The libraries that are attached with educational institutions are known as academic library. Its mission is to help the students, researchers, faculties in their study or research. The primary mission is to support the educational and research need of the parent institution. Academic libraries may be of the following types: i) University Library ii) College Library iii) School Library d) Special Library: Libraries attached to special institution i.e. industrial firm, insurance company, All India Radio, Dordarshan Kendra, etc. belong to this category. Their aim is to support the parent organization. e) Personal / Private Library: A library owned by an individual or family or a a library with reading materials collected, maintained and intended to be used by a single person or a family. f) Archives: An organized collection of the noncurrent records of an institution, government, organization, or corporate body, or the personal papers of an individual or family, preserved in a repository for their historical value. 2.2 Based on Technology: A shift from the traditional library to digital library has already taken place. The traditional closed access libraries are shifting towards open access library. The open access libraries are shifting towards automated library, the automated one towards the electronics, the electronics to digital and finally end in virtual library. Is it really true? The truth is that nobody knows what will be the future of libraries. Still, based on the technology used in processing of
  • 163. Page163 information as well as in providing services to the user community, the libraries of present times can be grouped into the following types a) Library (Traditional): The collection of the traditional libraries is mostly print material, manuscripts etc and the collections are not well organized and the documents are deteriorating at a rapid rate. The information sources are also hard to locate and so does not easily reach user. Again, the traditional libraries confine themselves within a physical boundary. b) Automated Library: A library with machine-readable catalogues, computerized acquisition, circulation and OPAC are called as automated library. The holding of this type of libraries is same as that of traditional libraries. c) Electronic Library: When an automated library goes for Local Area Networking (LAN) and CD- ROM networking then it is known as electronic library. The resources of the electronic libraries are in both print and electronic forms, but resources are not available over the web. The electronic Media is used for storage retrieval and delivery of information. d) Digital Library: The Digital Library (DL) is a later stage of electronic library. When an electronic library started procuring e-journal and other similar kind of publications and access is over the web, then it is termed as digital library. In digital library, high speed optical fibres are used for LAN and the access is over WAN and it provides a wide range of internet based services i.e. audio and video conferencing etc. The majority of the holding of a digital library is in the computer readable form. They have their own computer readable database and act as a point of access to other on line sources. A DL, like a traditional library, is also a collection of books and reference materials along with its associated services. But, unlike a traditional library, however, the collection of a digital library is in digital form, and is usually served over the World Wide Web. e) Virtual Library: Virtual Library refers to the scientifically managed collection of information resources and services on site as well as off site that are available in a virtual reality environment and accessible electronically through the internet at any time from any geographical location. f) Hybrid Library: The libraries, which are working both in electronic or digital and print environment, are known as hybrid library. Actually it is a transitional state between the print and digital environment. It is estimated that in near future libraries will be of hybrid nature, some of the very strong points in favour of this view are the centuries old reading habit of paper, more convenience of handling and reading a paper document than the digitized one (in case of digitized, some equipment must be needed to read the document), incompatible standard of electronic product, different display standard of digital product and its associated problem, etc. Though, in the above, an attempt is made to categorize the different types of libraries based on the technology used but in reality there is no strict line of demarcation between the last four types of libraries. 2.3 UNESCO’s Division: An overall classification of all types of libraries has been made by UNESCO in “Recommendations concerning the international standardization of library statistics” adopted by the General Conference at its 16th session (Paris, November 13, 1970).
  • 164. Page164 a) National libraries b) Libraries of institutions of higher education i) University library ii) Libraries attached to university / institute or department. iii) Libraries which are not part of a university. c) Other major non specialized libraries d) School libraries (Size of collection only printed materials and manuscripts). i) Up to 2,000 volumes. ii) From 2,001 to 5,000 volumes. iii) More than 5,000 volumes. e) Special libraries open to the public. f) Special libraries, reserved for their primary user. g) Public (or popular) libraries financed by the public authorities, size of collection (Only printed material and manuscripts). i) Up to 2,000 volumes. ii) From 2,001 to 5,000 volumes. iii) From 5,001 to 10,000 volumes. iv) More than 10,000 volumes. Based on the entity i.e institution, municipality, or corporate body that supports or perpetuates the library, library can be divided into Academic libraries, Corporate libraries, Government libraries, such as national libraries, Historical society libraries, Private libraries, Public libraries, School libraries, Special libraries, etc. Again, based on the collection of the library material, library can be divided into Digital libraries, Data libraries, Picture (photograph) libraries, Slide libraries, Tool libraries, etc. Libraries can also be grouped based on the thought contents of procuring document as Architecture libraries, Fine arts libraries, Law libraries, Medical libraries, Theological libraries, etc. It can also be grouped based on the user or patron of the library as Prison library, Library for blind, Public library, Military community’s library, Children library (actually children library has grown as an offshoot of the public library functioning as a part of it. In some cases it has grown independently), Private library, etc.
  • 165. Page165 Let Us Sum Up: Libraries are by far the oldest institutions charged with the responsibility of collecting, storing and disseminating of information. In a more traditional sense a library was defined as “a place where books were kept for reading study or reference”. It is a collection of books or other written or printed materials, as well as the facility in which they are housed to serve the reader within an institution that is responsible for their maintenance. But a modern library with a few exceptions is regarded as a service institution. Its aim is to enable the users to make the most effective use of the resources and services of libraries. A modern library is a public institution which is expected to convert the potential reader into actual reader. In ancient days libraries gathered huge collection of manuscripts and preserved them most efficiently for the posterity. Modern libraries may contain a wide range of materials, including manuscripts and pamphlets, posters, photographs, motion pictures, and videotapes, sound recordings, and computer databases in various forms. Libraries are the carriers of information from one generation to the next generation. Most of the new technology based information businesses are still largely dependent on the library for their survival. The information broker, consultants, referral centre etc still largely depend on the library for their survival. In these days of Information Technology (IT) libraries continue to serve millions of grateful users in new and improved ways and it is hoped that in near future also it will be the only affordable source of information. More recently, libraries are understood as extending beyond the physical walls of a building, by including material accessible by electronic means, and by providing the assistance of librarians in navigating and analyzing tremendous amount of knowledge with a variety of digital tools. National libraries are responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all significant publications published in the country and functioning as a “deposit” library, either by law or under other arrangements. It also produces a national bibliography, holds and keeps up to date a large and representative collection of foreign literature including books about the country, acts as a national bibliographical information centre, compiles union catalogues, and publishes the retrospective national bibliography. Public library serves the population of a community or region free of charge or for a nominal fee. An academic library serves an institution of higher learning and is located on the campuses of colleges and universities for the benefit of the students and faculty of that organization. A school library or a school library media center is a library within a school where students, staff, and often, parents have access to a variety of resources. Libraries had often been started with a donation, an endowment or parishes, churches, schools or towns, and these social and institutional libraries formed the base of many academic and public library collections of today. Special library is established, supported and administered by a business firm, private corporation, association, government agency, or other special-interest group or agency to meet the information needs of its members or staff in pursuing the goals of the organization.
  • 166. Page166 An archives is a place for storing earlier and often historical, material. It usually contains documents (letters, records, newspapers, etc.) or other types of media kept for historical interest. The inactive records of an individual, organization, or institution are kept in archives for their continuing value. Private or personal libraries are mostly made up of non-fiction and fiction books Library and Information Policy at the National Level Library and Information Policy at the National Level: A Policy is a statement of commitment to a generic course of action necessary for the attainment of a goal which in our case is library development. A policy is conditioned on the political, economic, social, and cultural milieu. Policies are value in a number of ways such as they standardise activities, facilitate decision making, minimise confusion, coordinate the activities of various units, conserve time in training etc. Policy statements are to be formulated at the institutional, regional, state, national and international level. It comprehends a set of basic issues which are infrastructure development, information services development, utilisation of new technologies, manpower development and other general recommendations. Many countries have adopted a library policy which helped them undertake library development with a certain commitment and assurance. Policies in certain sectors of the national economy have also had their implications for library development. 1. Meaning and Definition: The concept of Library and Information Policy is new. Here, we are going to discuss, how the concept of “Policy” originated in the field of Library and Information Science. Today’s society is known as an Information Society which require information at every step. In modern society, information is treated as a very important source in all areas of development whether it is social, political, economic, cultural etc. The progress of any nation depends on the information generation, disseminating it to the users, and putting it to work. Lack of information is going to adversely affect the development. It is because of the ever increasing demand for information from all walks of life that the need of a policy is felt. And since, this information is being imparted or disseminated via the Libraries, Documentation Centres, Information Analysis and Consolidation Centres etc. they are the means for collecting, storing, and organizing information. Thus, the policy had to be formulated on Libraries and Information Systems. In almost all countries, national governments are the major investors and disseminators of information. As such, each country should evolve a national policy of its own taking into consideration the developments at national and international level. In the context of India, a National Information Policy must necessarily be governed by and form an integral and harmonious part of the social, economic, educational, research and development and other related policies, which get formulated at various stages of our national development. Further, the Information Policy needs to be properly made compatible with the Five Years National Plans of the country. “A National Information Policy is a set of decisions taken by a government, through appropriate laws and regulations, to orient the harmonious development of information transfer activities in order to satisfy the information needs of the company. A National Information Policy needs provision of necessary means or instruments such as financial, personnel, institutional for concrete implementation”. (UNISIST: II Main Working Document).
  • 167. Page167 A National Information Policy would ensure access to professional and specialized knowledge at the global level as the development of any country directly depends upon the planning and policies followed by the government of the country. 2. Library Information Policy at National Level for India: Libraries in our country function under a variety of ownerships and jurisdiction. There is generally no coordination in their development. The progress of libraries has been very slow because of the following factors: a) Neglect of library services during the British period b) Resource constraint in the post-Independence era c) Sole dependence on Government funds for library development. Due to above said reasons and many more, the need for an integrated library system or policy for India was felt and in this direction, first step was taken by Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, Father of Library Science, in 1944. He suggested that “library edifice of postwar India should be so planned that primary libraries are attached to regional centres, regional centres to provisional central libraries, these again to the national centre libraries of other countries and international centres”. The Government of India made various attempts to improve library services. Under the National Library of India Act, 1948, the Imperial Library was renamed to National Library. In 1951, Delhi Public Library was set up. Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC) was established in 1951. Five Year Plans included funnels for their improvement. In 1957, the Advisory Committee suggested library services “free to every citizen of India.” National Policy on Library Information System was formulated by the Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation (RRRLF) which was set up in 1972 and also by Indian Library Association. The Department of Culture, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, appointed a Committee of senior library scientists and other specialists with Prof. D. P. Chattopadhyaya as Chairman, to prepare a draft document on the National Policy on Library and Information System in October 1985. The Committee completed its assignment and submitted a draft document to the Government on May 31, 1986. The draft policy document consists of 10 chapters. To implement the recommendations of the committee, Government appointed an Empowered Committee under the chairmanship of Prof. D.P. Chattopadhyaya, in October 1986. The committee submitted its report in March 1988. The recommendations of the committee are: a) Constitution of National Commission on Libraries. b) Creatian of All India Library Services. c) Active role of Central Government in Public Library Development in State.
  • 168. Page168 d) Public Library Development has also to be supported by agencies involved in education, social and rural development. e) National Library of India, Calcutta should be strengthened. f) Development of system of national libraries. 3. Salient Features: A number of features that constitute the National Information Policy are given below: i) To establish, maintain, and strengthen the free public libraries. A network of libraries would result with a district library being the apex library in district, with public libraries at city, town and village levels. These would, then be part of the national network with each state having its own library legislation. ii) Every school or college established should have a library and a qualified librarian. The policy states that science libraries are essential part of education. There must be a state level agency for proper development of school libraries of the state and a national agency for coordination at the national level. The policy gives University Grants Commission, the authority for college and university libraries and suggests that all these institutes form a network and share the resources by signing Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). iii) Expansion of national, regional, sectoral, and local levels of NISSAT (National Information System for Science and Technology). The policy recommends that national, regional, sectoral, and local levels of NISSAT scheme should be further strengthened and expanded. iv) Similar systems are organized in Social Sciences, Humanities and Languages. v) Development of information system and data banks in different fields. vi) Parent bodies should be committed to provide support and infrastructure for libraries. vii) The policy recommends for a system of national libraries consisting of The National Library at Calcutta, National Depository Libraries, National Subject Libraries and National Documentation/Information Centres, National Databases of Manuscripts, etc. A National Library Board should be set up by the National Library of India for effective inter-relation among all these national libraries and also between libraries, archives and museums. viii) Manpower, planning and development. The policy also recommends specialized information personnel who could apply modern management techniques to Information Services. ix) Library legislation and regulation of information flow. To meet effectively, with the changing information needs of society, the policy recommends a national library act to be enacted and supplemented by model library legislation at the state level. x) Use of technology. Information revolution is undisputably caused by the unprecedented advances in technology. These advancements have made accessibility to world information and knowledge possible, almost from any part of the world. All these developments in information technology have
  • 169. Page169 far reaching implications for National Information Policy. It recommends the access and use of technology for enhancing the existing services and to exploit and utilise the available resources to its optimum. xi) Removal of communication barriers. Information, being an important resource, any barrier in its free flow should be removed for easy access and maximum use. xii) National network of libraries. The National Information Policy recommends the setting of a National Commission for Libraries and Information System by the Government. This would take charge of the national network of libraries, within which, would be accommodated libraries of different levels from the rural society to the modern society, from the school to the research organisations. The policy states that the necessary financial support 6 to 10% of the education budgets for systems will be made available by the Government of India and state of governments. 4. Other Library and Information Policies: UNESCO has been advocating the adoption of a National (Science) Information Policy by all the countries of the world. In this connection, UNESCO held some regional meetings and seminars in India. NISSAT, which is the focal point in India for the UNISIST/UNESCO programme, is expected to take interest in framing information policy. The Society for Information Science in India has done considerable spade work for preparing the National (Science) Information Policy. Even, in India or other nations, there are various Associations formulated at state and district levels for e.g. Library Association for Chandigarh and so on, contributing in formulating and implementing the Library and Information Policies for the betterment of the Nation as a whole. The policies which have been adopted by Government in a few other sectors have direct impact on Library field such as National Policy on Education 1986, National Book Policy 1986, Scientific Policy Resolution 1958, Technology Policy 1983, Information (Communication) Policy, National Knowledge Commission, 2005. The primary objective of a national policy is to achieve a progressive upliftment of the socioeconomic development of the country through the provision of access to and availability of information and knowledge with speed and efficiency to all those who are involved in activities for national development. Planning and programming endeavours are essential to aim at a systematic and assured development. The formulation of a National Policy on Library and Information System are epoch-making measures in the library movement in the country. If the policy recommendations are faithfully implemented, a new phase in library development in India towards a far better performance and achievement is sure to come about. A National Library Policy is also necessary to have a commitment to provide library service to all the people as it is suggested by the Advisory Committee. The Five Year Plans have given a great deal of attention to library development and informatics and the Ninth Plan has made appropriate provision. If implemented rigorously library development will get assured success.
  • 170. Page170 Library and Information Science Library and Information Science: Library and Information Science is concerned with the body of knowledge relating to the origin, storage, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information. The term “library science” first appeared in the early 1930’s, in the title of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan’s “The Five Laws of Library Science” and in the title of Lee Pierce Butler’s 1933 book “An Introduction to Library Science”. In 1959, Information Science began to be used in USA as a general brand for documentation which is summarized as a discipline that investigates properties as well as behavior of information, forces governing the flow of information and the means for processing information for optimal accessibility and usability. In recent years, the trend is to term the subject as “Library and Information Science (LIS)” by merging both the concepts, and it is the study of issues related to libraries and the information science. This includes academic studies regarding how library resources are used and how people interact with library systems. These studies also tend to be specific to certain libraries at certain times. The organization of knowledge for efficient retrieval of relevant information is also a major research goal of LIS. According to Borko, Information Science is an interdisciplinary science that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces that govern the flow and use of information and the technique, both manual and mechanical, of processing information for optimal storage, retrieval and dissemination. He further stated that information science has both pure science components which enquire into the subject without regard to its application and applied science components which develop services and products. Librarianship and documentation are also the applied aspect of information science. According to J. H. Shera, Librarianship is the generic term and information science is an area of research which draws its substance, method and techniques from a variety of disciplines to achieve and understand the properties, behaviour and flow of information. Information science contributes to the theoretical and intellectual base for the librarians operation. According to C. G. Viswanathan, Information science is concerned with the principles and techniques governing the transfer and communication of organized thought (knowledge) from one human to another and ultimately to society. According to P. B. Mangla, Information science is a discipline which is concerned with the study of the properties and behaviour of information as well as the forces influencing the flow of information. According to P. H. William both library science and information science are swiftly developing subjects and so the relation between them is in a constant stage of change. However, there are many thinkers who see the library science and information science as overlapping discipline. The Library and Information Science is at the cross road of science seeking a basic principle which would bring together the knowledge in a general framework in which each discipline would have its
  • 171. Page171 own place and in which its relationship with other discipline would be clearly perceived. The activities and programmes in LIS often overlap with the activities of computer science, various social sciences, statistics, and system analysis. Many practicing librarians do not contribute to LIS scholarship but focus on daily operations of their own library systems. Other practicing librarians, particularly in academic libraries, do perform original scholarly LIS research and contribute to the academic end of the field. On this basis, it has sometimes been proposed that LIS is distinct from librarianship, in a way analogous to the difference between medicine and doctoring. In this view, librarianship, the application of library science, would comprise the practical services rendered by librarians in their day-to-day attempts to meet the needs of library patrons. Some other scholars are of the view that the two terms do not make any distinction and can be treated as synonyms Library and Information Science Education in India Library and Information Science Education in India: In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners. But, gradually the tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey’s training programme and the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of technology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. 1. First Course of Library Science in India: In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from 1901-06, as mentioned in some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deal with books and other documents. i) Baroda School: In 1911, Siyaji Rao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started. These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 2. Certificate, Diploma, and Training Courses i) Lahore School: In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876–1960) from USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to be the first university course in India. Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later become the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915– 1916.
  • 172. Page172 ii) Andhra Desa: The Andhra Desa Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting “training classes for the library workers” at Vijayawadain 1920. The classes covered a module on running adult education classes in addition to library technique. iii) Mysore State: In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at Bangalore under the “program of library development” initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Visweswaraya. iv) Madras Library Association: A summer school for college librarians and lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929. Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. v) Andhra University: Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was leter abandoned. vi) Imperial Library, Calcutta: The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. K. M. Asudulah in 1935. It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata). It continued till 1946. 3. Post Graduate Diploma i) University of Madras: University of Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. ii) Banaras Hindu University: The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in 1942. iii) Bombay University: University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. iv) Government of India’s in-Service Training Course: A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to the university diploma courses. 4. Degree Courses i) Aligarh Muslim University: In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib. Science Course for the first time in the country. ii) University of Delhi: University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to Bachelor of Library Science.
  • 173. Page173 In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. iii) Madras University: In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.LibSc. Degree course. By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in introducing different degree courses. iv) Government Polytechnique for Women: The Government polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. v) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC): In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. vi) Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC): INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to “Associateship in Documentation and Reprography”. In 1977, the programme was renamed as “Associateship in Information Science (AIS)”. On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science COMmunication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting “Courses in Information Science”. The DRTC and NISCAIR in Delhi concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centers. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes is a class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes. In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, the M.Lib.I.Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 5. Five Year Integrated Course in LIS: In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library & Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way.
  • 174. Page174 6. Present Status of LIS Education in India: A few departments and associations provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS). The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor’s degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Specialization: Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship. In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. Syllabus: The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of Library and Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is free to frame its own course of studies, and syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give students a background in the profession’s past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing & abstracting, Metadata, semantic & syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation & conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to scholarly communication (bibliometrics, informetrics, scientometrics, webmetrics), digital libraries and ICT. * ICT as an Integral Part: Technology is entering in a very big way to LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. * Practical Exposure: All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship courses before practicing the librarianship. Problems with Present LIS Education and Research
  • 175. Page175 * Limited Accommodation Capacity: All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners. But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. * A Very Competitive Entrance Examination: In most of the universities, students desire to study the LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. * Limitation as a Professional Subject: LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses. The non-inclusion of Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 7. LIS Research in India: The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalist, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. a) Dr. S. R. Ranganathan’s Effort: The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathan. He has done individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades. His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are a) Five laws of library science b) Colon Classification c) Prolegomena to library classification d) Classified Catalogue Code e) Documentation and its facets f) Library administration, etc. b) M. Phil Programme i) University of Delhi: University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980. Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. c) Ph.D. Programme
  • 176. Page176 i) University of Delhi: The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Ranganathan (1892–1972). In 1951, he started the same in Delhi University in 1958. The university offered first doctoral degree in Library science to D. B. Krishan Rao for his “Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture” under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 35 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC): In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations: The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is negligible. They restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and workshop, etc. only. The ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of LIS Research in India: The University Grant Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of fellowship to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. Till March, 1997, 350 theses have been awarded under various Indian universities. d) D.Litt Programme: In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world. 8. Let Us Sum Up: The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of some other subjects. Dr. S. R. Ranganathan in a pionner in the field of Library and Information Science in the world as a whole and India in particular. He contributed almost to all aspects of the library science. Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. Library as a Complex Open System 1. Introduction: Libraries are very complex organization and are struggling with problem of shortage of funds, staff, space, facilities and material. These problems are further compounded by ever increasing demand for services; both in kind and in degree and they can no longer be resolved in a piecemeal fashion. Again due to the dynamic of fast changing educational and socio- technical environment the demand placed on the library, the use of system was limited until the availability of automated ways of data processing system, i. e. Computer.
  • 177. Page177 2. Subsystem of a Library: Using one library building a s point for originating the system approach one can proceed upward and investigate how the library contribute to a longer (super social system) proceed laterally and examine its function as part of a regional network of libraries or proceed downwards and examine the subsystem that affects its operation. It is suggested that the downward approach be the first area of investigation for in pyramidal concept. It is best to start at the button and work up. If each small component is doing the job properly then there is an assurance that the entire system is generally healthy. The function of library are analyzed and coordinated by six basic subsystems which are interconnected and relations between these are also clear: a) Acquisition Subsystem b) Technical Processing Subsystem c) Circulation Subsystem d) Serial Control Subsystem e) Reference Subsystem and f) Administrative Subsystem 3. Library as a Complex Open System: The application of system approach in libraries is not restricted to management of the library as a whole institution but in fact is perhaps best of providing services when used with myriad of components or subsystem within the library. The library bears the following characteristics by which it is considered as complex open system: a) Input: The library receive input from external environment in the form of finance, hardware, software, document resources, human resources in the form of appointment, etc. b) Process: Within the boundaries of the library the document resources undergo various technical processes such as classification, cataloguing, indexing, packaging, repackaging etc. The staffs undergo various processes by induction, orientation, training methods etc. c) Output: The result of processing is a collection of well organized which makes them useful product or output for the use of library, who visit the library either to seek some specific information or to acquire knowledge about something. The staffs are outputted in the form of retirement, dismissal etc. All these output may be input for other system. d) Cycle of Events: The document and information generated by society are added to the collection of the library regularly and work out and outdated documents are discarded as waste product. Users comes o the library and acquired desired knowledge and this result in the production of new knowledge which is ultimately becomes output to the library. Thus a cycle of events goes on in the library continuously.
  • 178. Page178 e) Teleology: Open system are supposed to purposive or having certain mission or goals to achieve. In case of library, the mission or purposes of the library is well explained by the five laws of Library Science of S. R. Ranaganathan. f) Equifinality: Like other system in case of libraries also there are various methods or approaches to achieve goals. Different classification scheme, cataloguing arrangement, automated procedure etc. to achieve the same end result. The end result of all libraries is to provide information services to the user by disseminating the end product. g) Interaction: Libraries are always interacts with its external environment is influenced by it and in turn influences it. h) Adaptation: Since ancient times the libraries are responding to the changing circumstances by adjusting their courses of action or functional activities to achieve and maintain desirable level of performance to maintain dynamic equilibrium. Libraries continuously check their backside to increase entropy. This is the reason for which nowadays the traditional libraries are moving towards electronic or digital library. i) Differentiation and Hierarchy: Libraries like any other open system tends to growth that leads to differentiation of function and specialization with the result that open system becomes more complex and often develop specialized component to perform different function. j) Negative Entropy: Libraries like any other open system have natural tendency to decline with age. If any library system unable to respond to the environment directly then no doubt, it will automatically move towards death. An example can be given from the traditional libraries that are existing in these days. If these libraries will not respond to the environment by changing themselves to automated library then they will invite their own death. 4. Conclusion: The library is a social organization as such it exhibits the characteristic of an open system. The subsystem of any library will depend upon its growth, specialization and differentiation that have taken place in that particular library. The subsystem aims at interact with each other and environment in such a way that the effect is put in the direction of achieving the central objectives of the library. The central objective is to satisfy the user need. Library Automation Library Automation: Library is a growing organism that requires constant positive changes to meet the need of its user. The invention of computer has brought in a rapid change in the society. Therefore, automation has become the need of the hour. Library automation not only improves the image of the library staff but also provides additional services to the users with the existing staff. The impact of automation on the library is quite obvious; it creates new environment where each function redefines the traditional organizational structure and transforms it into new institutional entries. In this unit a brief overview is given about library automation. Automation is defined as a technique, a process, or a system which operates automatically. According to the Encyclopaedia of Library and Information Science, “Automation is the technology concerned
  • 179. Page179 with a design and development of the process and systems that minimize the necessity of human intervention in their operation.” Swihart Stanley S and Hefley Beryl F have defined the term ‘library automation’ as “the processing of certain routine clerical function in the library with the assistance of computer or other mechanized or semi automatic equipment”. It may also be defined as a process of mechanization of all the housekeeping operation of a library which is repetitive in nature. The housekeeping operation includes acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serial control, references and administration work. To go with the library automation, the willingness of the librarian and library committee is a must. The library should also have proper planning and adequate finance. The availability of hardware (server, UPS, scanner, printer, storage media, etc.), software (operating system, system software, application software, library automation software, etc.), and also trained manpower together form the prerequisite for the library automation. The first computer network was perhaps the OCLC (Online Computer Library Centre). Although the microcomputer made its first appearance in 1971 it was not before 1981 that they made an impact on libraries. The reason was limited storage capacity of the computer and scarcity of good software for library applications. The development of OPAC in 1980s is a remarkable addition to the field of library automation. Among all the universities in India, Hyderabad University Library was the first to start its automation project by using Libsys software. It gets the software free of cost from the Lybsys Corporation (Now Libsys Ltd) as parts of its development programme. Now the library switches over to BTLS software package. In NE India, all the universities started their automation project. The work done by Tezpur University and NEHU University is quite commendable. In terms of automation, the university libraries of India are lagging behind their counterparts in the developed countries. However, the libraries and the librarians are slowly adjusting with the changes by starting their automation phase. Many libraries have also started their computerized circulation desk and resource sharing. Library Building and Equipments Library Building and Equipments: Library is a trinity considering of the reading materials of various kinds, the library users of various denominations and a good number of library personnel. Library building is a warehouse of books, a workshop for the reader, and business-home for the staff. The building should be designed to supply adequate and efficient accommodations of materials, readers, and staff. The planning for a library and information science centres arises out of a need. A library operates in a complex, dynamic, ever-changing and uncertain environment and as a social organization it has to take care of increasing government regulation, union activities and increasing community interest. It is always a growing organization and, with passage of time, some of the libraries grow into large and complex organizations.
  • 180. Page180 In view of the above, sound planning is highly essential for a library. It is through planning that a manger can deal with a potential problem before it can take an ugly shape. Library Cataloguing Library Cataloguing: The cataloguing department decides on the appropriate form for identifying authorship of works in the collection, describes the item as a physical item or a virtual source, and assigns subject access points. In the cataloguing, on the process lip, headings for different types of entries to be prepared should be listed. The headings should be listed on the pattern of a tracing section. At this state, the cataloguer should pass on the volumes along with process slips to the typist to type out catalogue cards or to handwrite the card. So at the end, the product of cataloguing is just like a card or in modern sense an entry in the OPAC giving essential general information about informational entity. This essential general information includes details about author, title, place of publication, name of publisher, year of publication, edition, editorship, pagination, illustration, etc. The individual cards which bear the class number or call number to enable the item to be located are arranged in some definite order. It may be noted that for each volume, an additional card called shelf list card shall be prepared. Cataloguer / Catalog Librarian: The library professional who is engaged in the process of cataloging of library materials is called cataloguer. He compiles the list of documents according to a definite set of rules to enable the item to be located in the collection 1. Definition: In order to provide access to the holdings of a library, an index or list of the materials is always prepared and maintained systematically for the readers. It contains all the essential details about the documents with location mark, usually in numerical form, by which the documents can be located on the shelves of the library. This list or index or tool is basically called a library catalogue. Cataloguing meant those activities that record, describe and index the resources of a collection that were acquired in a manner that will aid the end-user in locating materials in the collection(s). Library items that are written in a foreign script are, in some cases, transliterated to the script of the catalog. Ranganathan has defined a library catalogue as “a list of document in a library or in a collection forming a portion of it”. A “list” refers to some kind of arrangement based on a set plan and a “document” constitutes embodied thought, which is a ‘record of work on paper or other material fit for physical handling, transport across space and preservation through time’. This means that document includes all types of records in which information can be stored or presented. According to Ruth French Strout, a catalogue may be considered “a work in which contents are arranged in a reasonable way, according to a set plan or merely word by word”. 2. Need and Purpose: The objective or function of the early catalogue was to serve as an inventory list with progressive pattern of arrangement based on the order of accession chronologically by date of publication or period of author. From this arose a wide variety of approaches and an expansion of the inventory idea to include retrieval.
  • 181. Page181 The modern library catalogue serves both the inventory (listing) and retrieval (finding) function. Without cataloguing, it would be difficult for anyone to know what is in the collection, how many items dealing with a particular topic are in the collection and so on. What one sees in the public catalogue is the result of the efforts of the cataloguing staff and the extent of the use of library resources depends greatly upon the quality of it. A well made catalogue definitely adds to the reputation of the library. Library cataloguing allows library aids to assist the end-users in locating the materials. The need and purpose of the library catalogue can be viewed from the following points of view a) General Objectives: The general objectives of library catalogues are- i) Register: At any time the user may not find the entire collection of the library on the shelf. Therefore, to know about the entire collection (what is available) at any time reliance is to be given to some other dependable tool. Catalogue, which is a register of all informational items found in a particular library or group of libraries serves this end. ii) Finding Aid: Cataloguing helps the user in locating the document in the stack. Simply it guides the user to the exact location of a stack in which he / she will find the book of his/her interest. iii) Describes an Entity: Catalogue is only one of the many forms of bibliography, giving essential general information about an informational entity (e.g., books, computer files, graphics, regalia, cartographic materials, a webpage etc.). iv) Satisfies Different Approaches: Cataloguing satisfies different kinds of approaches of the patron of the library, say author, title, series, subject approach etc. b) Charles Ammi Cutter Objectives: Charles Ammi Cutter made the first explicit statement regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in 1876. These have been frequently quoted and criticized. According to Cutter, those objectives are a) To enable a person to find a book of which (Finding objective) one of the following is known i) The author ii) The title iii) The subject. b) To show what the library has (collocating objective) i) By a given author ii) On a given subject iii) In a given kind of literature c) To assist in the choice of a book (Choice objective) i) As to its edition (bibliographically) ii) As to its character (literary or topical)
  • 182. Page182 It is only a few readers who are able to express their subject requirements in specific terms. They think of either a narrower or broader subject rather than the specific subject they require. Considering this, Ranganathan raised an important point by quoting “if it is the interest in the subject which takes him to the library, his wants will be better served if the catalogue can spread before him a full connected panorama of all materials on his specific subject, all its subdivisions and all broader subject of which it is itself a subdivision”. Ranganathan in the light of the five laws of library & information science expressed the objectives of a catalogue as the following A catalogue should be so designed as to i) Disclose to every reader his or her document; ii) Secure for every document its reader; iii) Save the time of the reader and with this save the time of the staff. The Cutter objectives are more specific in comparison to the Ranganathan approach in describing the objectives of a library catalogue. c) Paris Conference: The principles adopted by the International Conference on Cataloguing Principles held in Paris in 1961 are considered a landmark that leads to the standardization of practices. The Paris conference resolved the function of a catalogue as given below The catalogue should be efficient instrument for ascertaining a) Whether the library contains a particular book specified by i) Its author and title or ii) If the author is not named in the book its title alone or iii) If author and title are inappropriate or insufficient for identification, a substitute for the title and b) i) Which work by a particular author and ii) Which edition of a particular work in the library. The function as adopted by the Paris conference is more or less a restatement of the Cutter objectives as described in his first edition of 1876. d) Simonton Objectives: According to Simonton (1964) a library catalogue serves three purposes in the conventional library and especially in the research library. i) Describing all items catalogued to a degree of precision permitting positive identification. ii) Establishing and describing the relationship of all items catalogued in terms of community of authorship or sponsorship, similarly of context and continuity of bibliographic history. iii) Serving as a finding list.
  • 183. Page183 Though the objectives stated by Cutter have been criticized a great deal and quoted very often, these can only explain the explicit objective of a catalogue. These have stood the test of time and according to Patrick Quigg “later statements’ are most usually restatements of them”. 3. Different Kinds of Catalogue: The catalogue may be of different types based on different approaches to division. Based on physical form of presentation library catalogue can be of the following types i) Printed Catalogue: The printed catalogue is also known as dictionary catalogues or bound book catalogue. This type of catalogue is just like a book where individual catalogues are printed to make it easy to consult for the user. The printed catalogues sometimes are interlaced with blank leaves on which additions could be recorded. This type of catalogue is difficult to produce and update; it’s very difficult to interpolate new entries and maintain correct sequence in it. Again, its portability can be a disadvantage to other users because when a single volume is taken to nearby table to be used by a particular user, it becomes difficult for the other user to consult and there is no guarantee that the user will keep the volume in the proper place. The British Museum catalogue of printed books is an example of this kind of catalogue. ii) Guard Book Catalogue: This type of catalogue is also known as paste down catalogue. In paste down catalogue, the base is a bound volume of thick blank sheets; each typed or printed entry is pasted in the correct sequence on the successive right hand pages, leaving space for at least five more entries to be inserted between any two consecutive pages. The left hand page is left blank for pasting down any new entry not finding its due place vacant on the right hand page, in the corresponding position. In case a given portion of the catalogue becomes too crowded, the stripes are lifted and redistributed. This is similar to a printed catalogue except that additional new entries can be pasted in and also new pages can be inserted. It is sometimes used in conjunction with a printed catalogue and used prior to its production, bringing a new edition or in producing a supplement for making addition, deletion, amendment and so on. iii) Sheaf Catalogue: This type of catalogue is also known as loose leaf book form catalogue. It contains about six entries on a single paper slip with holes or slots at one edge so that they can be fastened into binders. Each binder has a locking / releasing mechanism to allow the insertion of new entries when required yet ensures that the slips remain securely in place when the catalogue is consulted. Owing to the fact that more than one entry was included on a single leaf sometimes a break-down in sequence occurs. iv) Card Catalogue: In card catalogue the size of leaf is reduced so that each leaf containes one entry only and as the small leaf is inconvenient to handle so it has been replaced by the card. Each card is of 125 mm X 75 mm. The cards are arranged in trays and held in their relative position by a rod passing through holes near their bottom edge. The trays are all built into a cabinet. The specification for the catalogue cabinet is given by the Indian Standards Institution. The card catalogues allow much more flexibility. v) Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC): The card catalogue was a familiar sight to library users for generations, but the computerization of library activities has led to rethinking regarding the form,
  • 184. Page184 purpose and function of a library catalogue. Now the card catalogue has been effectively replaced by the OPAC or Web OPAC. Some libraries with OPAC access still have card catalogues on site, but these are now strictly a secondary resource and are seldom updated. Some libraries have eliminated their card catalogue in favour of the OPAC. The other form of catalogue can be easily obtained as an output from OPAC. Based on source where cataloguing is done catalogue can be grouped into the following types- i) Individual Cataloguing: Cataloguing done by individual libraries, institution, people to serve their own need and purpose or for their own sake are known as individual cataloguing. ii) Cooperative Cataloguing: Cooperative cataloguing refers to a situation where a number of independent libraries share the work of producing a catalogue for their mutual benefit. It is done in two or more libraries for the benefit of each participant and the results may or may not be made available to other libraries. One of the important outputs of cooperative cataloguing is Union catalogue. iii) Centralized Cataloguing: Centralized cataloguing is defined as the cataloguing of documents by some central organization for the benefit of other libraries. This form of cataloguing can take place within one library system or within a number of library systems. Sometimes centralized cataloguing may be done by another agency. Some of the forms of centralized cataloguing services are Card or shelf service, Cataloguing in source, Cataloguing in publication, and Prenatal cataloguing. The term “Prenatal cataloguing” was used by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. In this process the cataloguing work has been done by the National Central Library of a country on each book before its release by the publisher. This is done with the help of a copy of the form proof of each book sent by each publisher. The National Central Library prepares a muster stencil of the catalogue cards for each book before its release. The catalogue cards are later made available for distribution to libraries on order along with the release of books themselves, Call numbers are also printed on the back of the title pages and tooled on the binding as well. According to Ranganathan, this type of process leads to saving 79% in the technical manpower of an intra National and inter National Library System. Based on the type of entry catalogue can be divided into the following- i) Author Catalogue: A formal catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to the authors' or editors' names of the entries. ii) Title Catalogue: A formal catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to the title of the entries. iii) Keyword Catalogue: It is a subject catalogue, sorted alphabetically according to keywords. The keywords are derived by using some system. iv) Mixed Alphabetic Catalogue: It is a mixture of author / title, or an author / title / keyword catalogue. v) Systematic Catalogue: A subject catalogue, sorted according to some systematic subdivision of subjects is called systematic catalogue.
  • 185. Page185 vi) Shelf List Catalogue: It is a formal catalogue with entries sorted in the same order as bibliographic items are shelved on the stack. d) Based on Scope: Based on the scope of a catalogue unit, cataloguing can be divided into i) Individual catalogue and ii) Union catalogue. When a library catalogue lists holding or part of holding of two or more libraries then it is called a union catalogue. e) Based on Purpose: Based on purpose catalogue can be classified as Library Catalogue, Book Sellers Catalogue, Publisher Catalogue, Dealers Catalogue, etc. 4. Criteria for Selection of Library Catalogue: In selecting the forms of catalogue to be adopted by the librarian, he / she may consider the following factors- i) Economic to produce and handle: The production and its subsequent maintenance cost and labour of the catalogue should be minimal. ii) Compact in size: It should not occupy much space in the library. iii) Bring together like entries: It should have the provision to bring together entries with the same heading or leading section. iv) Updating: The selected catalogue should have the provision to insert or withdraw entries easily as and when required. v) Reproduction: It should have the provision to produce duplicate copies. vi) Durability: The catalogue should be durable. vii) Accessible: It should be reasonably accessible (within approach) to both users and staff members of the library. viii) Easy to handle and consult: To enable a user to find entries with ease. It should be easy to handle and consult. ix) Speed of searching: It should be amenable to fast speed of search. x) Portability: It should be easily portable to enable the user / staff to consult it from inside or from outside the library. The user should be able to take it home and consult it there. 5. Cataloguing Rules: Cataloguing rules have been defined to allow for consistent cataloguing of various library materials across several persons of a cataloguing team and across time and space. Users can use them to clarify as to how to find an entry and how to interpret the data in an entry. Cataloguing rules prescribe which information from a bibliographic item is included in the entry; how this information is presented on a catalogue card or in a cataloguing record; how the entries should be sorted in the catalogue. Currently, most cataloguing rules are similar to, or even based on, the International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD), a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) to describe a wide range of library materials. These rules describe an item in terms of: title and statement of responsibility (author or editor),
  • 186. Page186 edition, material-dependent information (for example, the scale of a map), publication and distribution, physical description (for example, number of pages), series, note, and standard number (ISBN). A catalogue code is a set of rules for the guidance of cataloguers in preparing entries for catalogues so as to ensure uniformity in treatment. These codes may also include rules for subject heading, filling and arranging of entries. Classified catalogue code by S. R. Ranganathan and Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR-II) are examples of such catalogue codes. In June, 2010, the Resource Description and Access (RDA) was published, which will completely take over the place of AACR-II. AACR-II was the most commonly used set of cataloguing rules in the English speaking world. The AACR-II has been translated into many languages for use around the world. AACR-II provides rules for descriptive cataloguing only and does not touch upon subject cataloguing. 5.1 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules – II: AACR-II was jointly prepared by American Library Association, The British Library, The Canadian Committee on Cataloguing, The Library Association, UK, and The Library of Congress. The code was edited by Michael Gorman and Paul W. Winkler. It was published in 1978 by the American Library Association and Canadian Library Association. There are two parts and four appendices in AACR-II. An index was also provided at the end of the code and it has been compiled by KG B Backwell. Part I: Description 1. General Rules for Description 2. Books, Pamphlets and Printed Sheets 3. Cartographic Material 4. Manuscripts 5. Music 6. Sound Recordings 7. Motion Pictures and Video Recordings 8. Graphic Materials 9. Machine-Readable Data Files 10. Three-Dimensional Artifacts and Realia 11. Microforms 12. Serials 13. Analysis Part II: Headings, Uniform Titles and References
  • 187. Page187 14. Choice of Access Points 15. Headings for Persons 16. Geographic Names 17. Headings for Corporate Bodies 18. References Appendix A: Contains instructions for Capitalization Appendix B: Contains list of Standard Abbreviations Appendix C: Deals with Numerals Appendix D: Glossary AACR-II prescribes three levels of details in the description depending upon the nature and the size of the library. The first level provides a brief cataloguing description just to identify a particular document. It is recommended for a small library. The second level description is recommended for a medium size library, whereas the third level of description includes all the elements prescribed in the AACR-II and is recommended for the highly specialized libraries or national and research libraries. Here, we will concentrate only on the second level of description. 5.2 Card Catalogue: In most of the libraries of India the entries are written on card. The standard size of the card is 12.5 X 7.5 cm or 5’’X 3". The catalogue cards which are used for preparing entries may be ruled, semi-ruled or plain. The ruled cards are very convenient if the entries are prepared by hand, and if the matter is typed then plain cards are more suitable and used. There are different lines on the card, which may be of the following types: First Indention: It is the first vertical line that lays nine (9) spaces from left margin. This line is in red ink. Second Indention: It is the second vertical line that lays thirteen (13) spaces from left margin or four letters space from first indention. It is also indicated in red ink. Third Indention: Beyond the second vertical line there is also a third indention which is an imaginary line. It lays fifteen (15) spaces from left margin. In a reference, referred-from heading continues from third indention Horizontal Line: The card has also one horizontal line in the upper section of the catalogue card. It is a bold line and is also indicated in red ink. Hole: The card also contains one hole at the bottom portion at equal distance from both the vertical cores of the cards. A rod of iron or brass is used to support all the cards in the tray through this hole.
  • 188. Page188 5.3 Types of Entries: Each library prepares various unit records for each document in its holding. These unit records are prepared to meet the various need and approach of the library user to the document. These unit records are called as entries. AACR-I regards the main entry as “the complete catalogue record of a bibliographical entry, presented in the form by which the entity is to be uniformly identified and cited. The main entry normally includes the tracing of all other headings under which the record is to be represented in the catalogue”. An added entry is “an entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalog” (AACR-II, p. 563). The additional entries supplement the main entry by providing an additional approach to the documents listed in the catalogue. a) Type of Information Needed for Cataloguing: The cataloguer needs the following information about a document for cataloguing. Name of the authors Name of the collaborators Title, subtitle or alternative title of the document Edition Name of the series Editor of series Name, place and year of publication Size and number of pages of the document Copyright year ISBN/ISSN The call number (class number and book number) of the document. It can be found at the verso of the title page that will be provided by the classifier. The accession number of the document. It also can be found at the verso of the title page. The accessionist will provide this number. b) Sources of Information Needed for Cataloguing: The prescribed source of information for the preparation of the card catalogue is the title page. It provides most of the information about the book. It is the next printed page to the cover of the book. Please note here that the cover page of the book is not the title page. The page leaving one or two pages from the beginning and on which the description mentioned bellow is printed is called the title page. The title page, in upper most part of it, contains the title and subtitle (if any) of the book. The names of authors and collaborators with their working institutions are given in the middle of the page. In the lower part, the name of the
  • 189. Page189 publisher, place and year of publication and price etc are given. If there is no title page, one can consult the cover caption or the half title page of the book. In the half title page of the book, only the title of the book, but no author and publication statements, is printed. Sometimes, the name of the series is also printed on this page. The verso / back of the title page contains copyright year, print and reprint, edition, name and address of the publisher, the price, and so on. Besides the title page, we can also collect information about the book (in order of the following preference) i) Accompanying material ii) A container iii) Another published description of the book or iv) Any other available sources. AACR-II recommends the following types of entries i) Main Entry: The Main entry is an author entry in AACR-II. If the authorship is diffused or not known the main entry is prepared under the title. The Main Entry is the complete catalogue record of an item. It also includes the tracing of all other headings under which the record is to be presented in the catalogue. ii) Added Entry: An added entry is a secondary entry, additional to the Main Entry, by which an item is represented in a catalogue. S R Ranganathan calls it “entry other than the main entry”. There are different types of added entries. i.e. Joint author(s), Editor(s), Translator(s), Compiler(s), Subject, Title, Series, etc. The number and kind of added entries required by a document depends upon the nature of a particular document and also on the nature of the catalogue used in a library. iii) Reference: Reference is a direction from one heading or entry to another. There are different types of references in AACR-II. They are See Reference, See also Reference, Name title Reference, Explanatory Reference, etc. Out of all the references “See” and “See also” type of references are frequently used. * See Reference: It directs the user of a catalogue from a form of the name of a person or a corporate body or the title of a work to the form that has been chosen as a name heading or a uniform title. Example Md. Syed Ahmed Khan see Syed Ahmed Khan Dhanpat Rai see Prem Chand
  • 190. Page190 * “See Also” Reference: The function of a “See also” reference is to direct the user from one name heading or uniform title to another that is related to it. If the works of one person or corporate body are entered under two different headings a “see also” reference is prepared from each heading. Example: Home Science See also Interior decoration 5.4 Rules for Description of Monograph: The elements to be included in the catalogue entry are divided into the following areas: a) Call Number: Call number is the combination of class number and book number. It is the first item which should be recorded in the upper left hand corner of the catalogue card with pencil. b) Accession Number: It should be recorded on the seventh line from the top of the card or fourth line from the bottom. c) Author: “Author” in the entry is indicated by writing the surname first which is followed by a comma “,” and the remaining parts of the name (i.e. forenames) are given after leaving one space which is followed by the date of birth and / or death of an author in full, if any, and a full stop. This is written from the first indention and continued from the third indention on the next line. d) Title and Statement of Responsibility: The title proper should be recorded exactly as the wording, order and spelling as it is found in the title page of the document. Capitalization and punctuation should be avoided i) Alternate Title: Use the first part of the title with commas, and then the alternate title. Examples:Another world watching, or The riddle of the flying saucers Indian song of songs, or Gita govinda ii) Abridge Title: Abridge a long title proper only if this can be done without any loss of the essential information. Indicate the omission by the mark of three dots “…”. iii) Initial and Acronyms: If a title proper includes separate letters or initials without full stops between them, record such letters without spaces between them. If such letters or initials have full stop between them, record them with full stops. Example:“ALA Rules for filling catalog cards” and “A.L.A. Rules for filling catalog cards” iv) Parallel Title: Record parallel title in the order indicated by their sequences. If the title appears in two or more languages, choose one of these as the title proper and record the other titles as parallel title. The parallel title appearing outside the chief source of information should be noted in the note section of the catalogue card.
  • 191. Page191 v) Title in Numerals: If the title of a document appears in numerals, record it in letters and endorse it in the square brackets. Example: “20 [Twenty] – point programme”. vi) Other Title Information: Record other title information (subtitle, etc) appearing in the chief source of information. Use space colon space “ : “ between the title proper and other title information. Example: “Cataloguing : theory and practice”. e) Statement of Responsibility: Record statement of responsibility in the form in which they appear in the chief source of information. The statement of responsibility should be preceded by a diagonal slash. If there is more than one statement of responsibility, record them in the order indicated by their sequence on or by the layout of the chief source of information. If the statement of responsibility is taken from outside enclose it in square brackets. Example: “Cataloguing practice / by S R Ranganathan”. f) Edition: This area should be preceded by a full stop, space dash space “. – “. The statement of responsibility should be preceded by a diagonal slash, and then each subsequent statement of responsibility should be preceded by a semi-colon. The standard abbreviations and numerals in place of words should be used. Example: “2nd ed”, “3rd ed”, “New ed”, “Rev ed”, “Rev and enl ed”. g) Place: If a publisher has many offices in more than one place, always prefer the name of the first place and omit all other places. If the place of publication, distribution, etc is uncertain, give the probable place with a question mark in square brackets. Example: “[Delhi?]”. If, no place or probable place can be given, put the abbreviation sl (Sine loco) in square brackets “[s.l.]”. “Sine loco” means “no place” in Latin. Example:“[s.l.]: Vikas, 2001”. h) Publisher: After the place of publication, use the shortest form of the publisher in which it can be understood and identified internationally. If the book has two or more publishers, record the first named place and publisher. If the name of the publisher is not known, the abbreviation sn (sine nominee) is given in square brackets. Example: “[s.n.]”. i) Date of Publication: Give the year of publication in Arabic numerals preceded by a comma. Example:“, 2001”. If there is no date, the copyright date is given. Example:“, c 1999”.
  • 192. Page192 If the date of publication is not known then n.d. (no date) is written in square brackets. Example:[n.d.]. j) Physical Description Area: This paragraph starts from the second indention and continues from the first indention. This area consists of pagination, illustrative matter and size of the document expressed in cm. If the volume is without pagination, ascertain the total number of pages and give the number in square brackets. The sequence of describing page information is “Preliminary pages, Roman pages, Arabic pages.”. Example: “xii, 786 p.”. When preliminary pages are not numbered it should be in the form of : “[xii], 786 p.”. The connecting symbol between pagination and illustrative matter is a colon “:”. The illustrated printed monograph is described as “Charts”, “Maps”, “Music”, “Plans”, “Portraits”, “Samples”, or simple as “ill”. Example:“786 p. ; ill.”. The connecting symbol between the illustrative matter and the height of the document is semi colon “;”. The height of the document is written in cm. Example“786 p. : ill.; 18 cm.”. k) Series: The series are preceded by a full stop space dash space “. - “. Series statement is recorded in circular brackets. The series statement may consist of name of the series, statement of responsibility relating to series and number of series. Example:“. - (Ranganathan series in Library Science; 4)”, “. - (Research monographs / Institute of Economic Affairs; 3)”. l) Notes: Notes may be given to explain the nature, scope or artistic form of the item, language of the item, sources of the title proper, variation in title, accompanying material, contents, etc. m) Standard Number: If the item contains ISBN / ISSN, record International Standard Book Number (ISBN) or International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) for the item. Example: “ISBN : 0-910608-70- 9”. n) Tracing: Tracing is the record of the heading under which an item is represented in the catalogue. The information about the added entries should be recorded in a paragraph starting from the second indention. Before going for tracing, the subjects of the document need to be determined. In the main card, the added entries for subject should be numbered in Arabic numerals (Example “1”, “2”) whereas, the other entries should be numbered in Roman numerals (Example “I”, “II”). Another point to be noted
  • 193. Page193 is that, in the added entries for subject, the names of the subject are written in all capital letters. Example: “LIBRARY SCIENCE”. 6. Sorting: In a title catalogue, one can distinguish two sort orders- a) Grammatic Sort Order: In the grammatic sort order, the most important word of the title is the first sort term. The importance of a word is measured by grammatic rules; for example, the first noun may be defined to be the most important word. The most important word of the title is also a good keyword and it is the word most users remember first when their memory is incomplete. This is an advantage in favour of grammatic sort order. However, it has the disadvantage that many elaborate grammatic rules are needed, so that only expert users may be able to search the catalogue without help from a librarian. b) Mechanic Sort Order: In the mechanic sort order, the first word of the title is the first sort term. Most new catalogues use this scheme. Still, the mechanic sort order includes a trace of the grammatic sort order as they neglect an article (A, An, The etc.) at the beginning of the title. c) Alphabetic Sorting: Here entries are arranged alphabetically. In a subject catalogue, one has to decide on which classification system to be used. The cataloguer will select appropriate subject headings for the bibliographic item and a unique classification number (class number). 7. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC): The catalogues which are available for searching online are known as OPAC. Such OPAC may be searched from a terminal within the originating library or at a terminal elsewhere in the organization or remotely via national or international telecommunication network. Now the scenario is that these databases are available over web. OPAC has two different meaning- a) Access to library housekeeping especially circulation (primarily for library staff use) and which could also serve as rudimentary catalogue for the library user. b) Access to machine readable bibliographic records from which card and computer output in Microform (COM) can be generated. a) Definition: The A. L. A. Glossary defines OPAC as “a commuter based and supported library catalogue (bibliographic database) design to be accessed via terminal so that library user may directly and effectively search for and retrieve bibliographic records without the assistance of a human intermediary such as a specially trained member of the library staff”. b) Types of OPAC: OPAC can generally be viewed being of two types- i) First Generation OPAC: First generation OPAC has been derived from traditional catalogues or computerized circulation system. They are also referred to as phase – indexed or pre-coordinated OPACs and it demands exact matching between the search term and pre-coordinate phrase. The number of access keys is limited and they are similar to that of manual catalogue i.e author, title, class number and possibly subject heading.
  • 194. Page194 ii) Second Generation OPAC: Second generation OPAC originated from common bibliographic information retrieval system and so there is a growing similarity between second generation OPAC and traditional information retrieval system. This generation OPAC provides key word searching that is post coordinate searching together with phrase searching or pre-coordinate subject heading. c) Components of OPAC: There are three main components of OPAC. They are- i) Computer and Terminal: The hardware requirement for OPAC i.e computer terminal and server from which databases can be accessed. ii) Software Enabling Networking: The network enabling software which will be able to manage the entire database. iii) Database: The database of books, serial, dissertation, etc can be generated by two different ways. One is developing database by direct entry and the other is developing database through retrospective conversion process. d) Searching and Browsing OPAC: When the searcher knows precisely what he wants i.e. when user information need is fairly well defined he/she can use word truncation, range search, field level search, Boolean combination, word adjacency / proximity operator, etc. which are of generally two types. i) Phrase Searching: Phrase searching is done on pre-coordinate subject heading. ii) Keyword Searching / Post Coordinate Searching: When a query is formulated using Boolean expression. iii) Browsing: Browsing is used when user’s information needs are not precisely defined. By browsing one can determine the exact forms of entry of a subject heading or author name. e) OPAC Vs Card Catalogue: The difference between OPAC and card catalogue are represented in the following table. Characteristic OPAC Card Catalogue Time OPAC allows rapid retrieval. It is a time consuming job. Access point It provides multiple access to the database and helpful for Boolean searches Access is only through entry point and a build in cross reference structure. Indexing techniques Support both pre-coordinate and post coordinate searching. Support only pre coordinate searching. User Friendliness It is more user friendly and guides the user in a step by step manner to find the information. The user has to decide himself how to find the required card. Current Status OPAC provides the current status of the item being search i.e whether a document is on the shelves, on loan, on reservation or at binders or the document is lost. It does not provide current status of the document. Enhance Feature OPAC provides acquisition of titles, to reserve material and to send personalized SDI, overdue/ recall / collect notices and Such types of facilities are not found in a card catalogue
  • 195. Page195 messages by Email. Union Catalogue Helps to develop centralized database and resource sharing among different libraries. It is very difficult to achieve resources sharing through card catalogue f) OPAC vs Information Retrieval System: The difference between OPAC and Information Retrieval System are - Characteristic OPAC Information Retrieval System Coverage OPAC database includes one or more than one library’s collection; hence its coverage is on wide variety of discipline and subject areas. Its coverage is limited in subject scope either to a single subject or to a range of discipline linked to a particular mission. Abstract Records in the OPAC mostly lack abstract and subject descriptor is inadequate. Information retrieval systems records are well indexed and are supported usually with abstract. Indexing System OPAC provides pre-coordinate phrase searching and browsing option. Information retrieval system mostly provides post coordinate searches. Underlying Assumptions The most searches will be on known document i.e searches for document whose bibliographic details are known at least partially. Searching will be for document containing information of a particular subject. Skill OPAC is designed for end-user and so menu driven and provides facilities like on-line help message, on-line index with different approach points (author, ISBN, class number, etc.) It is not designed for end user and required the skills of information professional. The search negotiations are carried out by the librarian. He/she should interact with the user to know their information need then formulate search strategy using vocabulary control devices and modify the search if required. g) Advantages of OPAC: The main advantages of OPAC are - i) OPAC searching is speedier and user friendly than that of manual cataloguing. ii) Provides multiple access to the database and more or less designed as an information retrieval system. iii) Guides the user in a step by step manner for retrieving the specific information. iv) Supports the post coordinate searcher, Boolean operation, etc. v) Provides the current status of the item being search i.e. whether a document is on the shelves, on loan, on reserved for someone, at the binder or whether it is lost.
  • 196. Page196 vi) Designed as an integrated library management system. vii) Helps to develop centralized database and resources sharing among different libraries. h) Limitation of OPAC: Different in user and system vocabulary is a major reason for user dissatisfaction with OPAC. Library Classification Library Classification: Classification means putting together the like-entities and separating the unlike entities. The characteristics of entities are used as a basis for determining the likeness and unlikeness between them. A class consists of entities which are like in some respects and possessing certain qualities in common. This helps in distinguish them from another class of entities. 1. Definition: A library classification is a system of coding and organizing library materials (books, serials, audiovisual, computer files, maps, photographs, manuscripts, regalia, gramophone records, tape records, microfilm and so on) according to their subject. It provides formal access to documents in a library. Sayers defines library classification as “the arrangement of books on shelves or description of them in the manner which is most helpful to those who read”. The emphasis is on usefulness so that the users can locate the document without complication. According to Margaret Mann, classification is “the arranging of things according to likeness and unlikeness. It is the sorting and grouping of things, but in addition classification of books is a knowledge classification with adjustment made necessary by the physical forms of books.” According to S.R. Ranganathan, “it is the translation of the name of the subject of a book into a preferred artificial language of ordinal numbers and the individualization of the several books dealing with the same specific subject by means of a further set of ordinal numbers which represents some features of the book other than their thought content”. The first of these ordinal numbers is called the class number of the book. The second ordinal numbers is called its book number. The class number and the book number together constitute the call number of the book. The library classification system provides a system for organizing the knowledge embodied in books, CD, web, etc. It supplies a notation (in case of DDC, it is Arabic numerals) to the document. The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is a general knowledge organization tool that is continuously revised to keep pace with the development of knowledge. It is the most widely used classification scheme in the world. Libraries in more than 135 countries use the DDC to organize their collection. It is also used over the web for organizing the web resources for the purpose of browsing. 2. Need: Until 19th century, most libraries had closed stacks, so the library classification only served to organize the subject catalogue. In the 20th century, libraries opened their stacks to the public and started to shelve the library material itself according to certain library classification scheme to simplify subject browsing. So classification is needed for providing the following advantages
  • 197. Page197 i) Helpful Sequence: Classification brings the like documents together on the shelf in a helpful sequence providing approach through subject. ii) Locate a Particular Document: A library collects / preserves documents. It is very difficult to locate a required document from a system of disorderly collection. So, it needs classification to bring order to the collection. iii) Self Help: Classification helps the locating of document by the patron of the library itself, thus requiring less assistance from the library staff. iv) Correct Replacement: Documents would be taken out from shelves by the users or library staff. The classification helps in the correct replacement of documents after these have been returned from use. v) Mechanical Arrangement: The classification helps the mechanization of the collection by allocating notation. 3. Different Schemes of Classification: To derive the particular class number different libraries use different classification schemes. All classification schemes can be categorized into three kinds- based on the language, based on the synthesis and based on arrangement. Let us discuss them in detail Based on the language library classification can be: i) English-Speaking World: In the English –speaking countries Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Library of Congress Classification (LC), Bliss Bibliographic Classification (BC), Dickinson Classification are generally followed. ii) Non English Speaking World: Non English speaking countries use Nippon Decimal Classification (NDC), Principes de Classement des Documents Musicaux (PCDM), Chinese Library Classification (CLC), Korean Decimal Classification (KDC), etc. Synthesis means combining codes from different lists to represent the different attributes of a work. Based on synthesis library classification may be Bibliographic Classification by Bliss, Colon Classification by Ranganathan, Expansive Classification by Cutter, Universal Decimal Classification, etc. Based on the arrangement there are three main types of classification systems: i) Enumerative: Produce an alphabetical list of subject headings; assign numbers to each heading in alphabetical order. The most common classification systems, LC and DDC, are essentially enumerative, though with some hierarchical and faceted elements, especially at the broadest and most general level. ii) Hierarchical: Divides subjects hierarchically, from general to specific.
  • 198. Page198 iii) Faceted or analytico-synthetic: Divides subjects into mutually exclusive orthogonal facets. The first true faceted system was the Colon classification of S. R. Ranganathan. iv) Specialist Classification: Specialist classification systems have been developed for particular subject areas, and some specialist libraries develop their own classification system that emphasizes those areas they specialize in. An example is the Medical Subject Headings devised by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). Another example is the specialist classification system for art and iconography (Iconclass). There are also emerging metadata standards that are being developed for web resources, digital images, and other specialized materials. 4. Dewey Decimal Classification: The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system is the world’s most widely used library classification system. American librarian and library educator Melville Dewey devised the system in 1873 while he was a student at Amherst College in Massachusetts. The Dewey Decimal system was first published in 1876 as “A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library”. It appeared in the form of a small book of 44 pages. The Decimal Classification Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) was established in 1937 to serve as an advisory body to the Dewey Decimal Classification. In 1988, Online Computer Library Center, Inc (OCLC) acquired the DDC. The editorial headquarters was located at the Library of Congress in the Decimal Classification Division. The editors prepare the proposed schedule revisions and expansions, and forward the proposals to EPC for review and recommended action. Nowadays, DDC is published by Online Computer Library Center, Inc in full and abridged editions. The abridged edition targets the general libraries having less than 20,000 titles. Both the full and abridged editions are available in print as well as in electronic version. 4.1 Introduction to 22nd Edition of DDC: The edition 22 is the first edition of the DDC, which is produced in the context of the web environment. DDC 22 is composed of the following major parts in four volumes. a) Volume 1: It includes special features of edition 22, introduction regarding how to use the DDC, glossary, index to the introduction and glossary, a manual (guide to the use of the DDC), and six numbered tables. It also has the lists that compare editions 21 and 22 with the list of relocated, discontinued and reused numbers. b) Volume 2: It includes DDC summaries (the top three levels of the DDC), and schedules (from 000- 599). The summaries will help you to visualize at a glance the structure and scope of various subjects as laid down in DDC. The first summary contains ten main classes. The first digit in each three-digit number represents the main class. For example, 600 represents technology. The second summary contains the hundred divisions, ten for each main class. The second digit in each three-digit number indicates the division. For example, 600 is used for general works on technology, 610 for medicine and health, 620 for engineering, 630 for agriculture.
  • 199. Page199 The third summary contains the thousand sections. The third digit in each three-digit number indicates the section. Thus, 610 is used for general works on medicine and health, 611 for human anatomy, 612 for human physiology, 613 for personal health and safety. c) Volume 3: It includes the organization of knowledge schedules from 600-999. d) Volume 4: It includes a relative index. The relative index (it relates subjects to discipline) contains an alphabetical list of subjects with the disciplines in which they are treated as sub-arranged alphabetically under each entry. 4.2 Understanding the Structure of DDC: The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system uses simple decimal notation to divide recorded knowledge into 10 main classes at the broadest level which together cover the entire world of knowledge. Each main class is further divided into ten divisions, and each division into ten sections giving 100 divisions and 1,000 sections. All the numbers for the divisions and sections have not been used. a) Tables: The six tables in the DDC are as following T1 Standard Subdivisions T2 Geographic Areas, Historical Periods, Persons T3 Subdivisions for the Arts, for Individual Literatures, for Specific Literary Forms T4 Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families T5 Ethnic and National Groups T6 Languages The notation from T1can be added to any numbers unless there is an instruction in the schedules or tables to the contrary. The other table notations may be added only when instructions are given in the schedules or tables. b) Summaries: The Dewey Decimal Classification divides human knowledge into ten basic categories, with subdivisions indicated by decimal notation. Each of the ten main classes has the potential to be broken down into smaller multiples of ten. The word decimal in the name of the classification system comes from decem, the Latin word for “ten”. DDC has three summaries. The first summaries includes 10 main classes, the second summary includes 100 divisions and the third summary includes 1000 sections. i) First Summary: The ten primary classes of DDC are as follows: 000 Generalities 100 Philosophy and psychology 200 Religion
  • 200. Page200 300 Social 400 Language 500 Natural sciences and mathematics 600 Technology (applied sciences) 700 The arts; fine and decorative arts 800 Literature and rhetoric 900 Geography and history A brief explanation of each of the class is given below. 000: Class 000 is the most general class. It includes the works that are not limited to any one specific discipline or the works that are related to information and knowledge. It includes encyclopedias, newspapers, general periodicals, computer science, library and information science, journalism, etc. 100: Class 100 covers Philosophy, Parapsychology and occultism, and Psychology. 200: Class 200 is devoted to Religion 300: Class 300 covers the social sciences that include Sociology, Anthropology, Statistics, Political science, Economics, Law, Public administration, Social problems and services, Education, Commerce, Communications, Transportation, Custom (including folk literature), etc. 400: It comprises languages, linguistics, and specific languages. 500: It includes Natural sciences and Mathematics. 600: Class 600 includes technology. 700: It covers arts in general, fine and decorative arts, music, and the performing arts. It also includes recreation, including sports and games. 800: It covers literature, and includes rhetoric, prose, poetry, drama, etc. 900: It is devoted to History and Geography. ii) Second Summary: Again, each of the 10 Main Classes is subdivided into 10 Divisions resulting in 100 Divisions on the whole. The entire second summary is reproduced bellow for your reference. You should remember the first and second summary of DDC fully. 000 Computer science, knowledge & systems 010 Bibliographies 020 Library & information sciences
  • 201. Page201 030 Encyclopedias & books of facts 040 [Unassigned] 050 Magazines, journals & serials 060 Associations, organizations & museums 070 News media, journalism & publishing 080 Quotations 090 Manuscripts & rare book 100 Philosophy 110 Metaphysics 120 Epistemology 130 Parapsychology & occultism 140 Philosophical schools of thought 150 Psychology 160 Logic 170 Ethics 180 Ancient, medieval & eastern philosophy 190 Modern western philosophy 200 Religion 210 Philosophy & theory of religion 220 The Bible 230 Christianity & Christian theology 240 Christian practice & observance 250 Christian pastoral practice & religious orders 260 Christian organization, social work & worship 270 History of Christianity 280 Christian denominations 290 Other religions
  • 202. Page202 300 Social sciences, Sociology & Anthropology 310 Statistics 320 Political science 330 Economics 340 Law 350 Public administration & military science 360 Social problems & social services 370 Education 380 Commerce, communications & transportation 390 Customs, etiquette & folklore 400 Language 410 Linguistics 420 English & Old English languages 430 German & related languages 440 French & related languages 450 Italian, Romanian & related languages 460 Spanish & Portuguese languages 470 Latin & Italic languages 480 Classical & modern Greek languages 490 Other languages 500 Science 510 Mathematics 520 Astronomy 530 Physics 540 Chemistry 550 Earth sciences & geology
  • 203. Page203 560 Fossils & prehistoric life 570 Life science; Biology 580 Plants (Botany) 590 Animals (Zoology) 600 Technology 610 Medicine & health 620 Engineering 630 Agriculture 640 Home & family management 650 Management & public relations 660 Chemical engineering 670 Manufacturing 680 Manufacture for specific uses 690 Building & construction 700 Arts 710 Landscaping & area planning 720 Architecture 730 Sculpture, ceramics & metalwork 740 Drawing & decorative arts 750 Painting 760 Graphic arts 770 Photography & computer art 780 Music 790 Sports, games & entertainment 800 Literature, Rhetoric & Criticism 810 American literatures in English 820 English & Old English literatures
  • 204. Page204 830 German & related literature 840 French & related literatures 850 Italian, Romanian & related literatures 860 Spanish & Portuguese literature 870 Latin & Italic literatures 880 Classical & modern Greek literature 890 Other literatures 900 History 910 Geography & travel 920 Biography & geography 930 History of ancient world (to ca. 499) 940 History of Europe 950 History of Asia 960 History of Africa 970 History of North America 980 History of South America 990 History of other areas iii) Third Summary: In the third summaries, each one of the 100 divisions is further subdivided into 10 sections resulting in 1000 sections. For the copyright issue, the third summary is not included here in this unit. But, you can find the complete summaries of DDC 22nd edition over OCLC website (http://www.oclc.org/dewey/resources/summaries/default.htm), and Chopac.org (http://chopac.org/cgi-bin/tools/ddc22.pl). The Chopac.org provides the DDC summaries of 22nd edition in a very easy to browse, and search structure. You can also use this interface to obtain the main class number of any document. You can also find the Dewey Decimal Classification System (13th Abridged) in the website of Near North District School Board (http://www-lib.nearnorth.edu.on.ca/dewey/ddc.htm). c) Schedules: Schedules contain the schedules of Class Numbers assigned in numeric order from 000 to 999. To follow the correct use of the Schedules, it is necessary to understand the various notes and instructions suggested in different entries. So, let’s explore the schedule in some details. Entries in the schedules and tables are composed of DDC number in the left margin, a heading describing the class that the number represents, and often one or more notes. All entries, numbers,
  • 205. Page205 headings, and notes should be read in the context of hierarchy. The first three digits of schedule number appears only once, when first used, in the number column. They are repeated at the top of each page where their subdivisions continue. Subordinate numbers appear in the number column, beginning with a decimal point. The numbers and notes in parentheses provide options to standard practice. Numbers in square brackets represent the topics that have been reallocated or discontinued, or unassigned. Square brackets are also used for standard subdivision concepts that are represented in another location. Only a fraction of the potential DDC numbers is included in the schedules. It is often necessary to build or synthesize a number that is not specifically listed in the schedules. If you turn the third page of the schedule (Vol 2), you will see that entries start with the notation “000” at the top of the page and a summary of all divisions and sections below it. In the 5th page you will see the first entry that is “001” which stands for knowledge, and below it the numbers and descriptions and different notes to arrive at the correct class number of a document. d) Relative Index: The volume 4 contains the Relative Index. It is an alphabetical list of all the subjects given in the Schedules and Tables. It is called the Relative Index because it brings together under the name of the subject the various aspects of a subject which are scattered in the schedules according to the disciplines. This index not only arranges the concepts and their terms in an alphabetical sequence but also shows the relation between the terms and the contexts in which the subjects appear in the Schedule. It is a key to the Schedules as well as an independent approach to classification. In the index, all possible subjects are included under main divisions and sub-divisions so that the classifier finds it easy to search out the possible subjects under the alphabetical list of relative index. The numbers that are given for subjects in the index are readymade numbers, but they are not the same as those of the schedule. The classifier has to finally decide the number himself. 4.3 Steps for Classifying with DDC: While doing the classification of a document one should procede to the class number in the following ways a) Determine the Subject: First, try to determine the subject of the book or document in your hand. The title often provides a clue to the subject, but it should never be the sole source of analysis. The subject which the book deals with can be determined by going through the table of contents, chapter headings, the preface or introduction, and the book jacket or the accompanying materials. If a work includes multiple subjects, class it under the subject that is being acted upon (rule of application). The rule of application takes precedence over any other rule. For instance, class an analytical work dealing with Shakespeare’ influence on Keats with the subject Keats. Class a work (book) on two subjects with the subjects receiving fuller treatment. If two subjects receive equal treatment, class the work with the subject whose number comes first in the DDC schedules (first-of- two rule). For example, history dealing equally with the United States and Japan, should be classed under history of Japan, because 952 Japan precedes 973 United States (even if in the title of the work United States appears first, and it is discussed first in the contents of the work). Class a work in which three or more subjects are treated equally but are all subdivisions of a broader subject in the first higher number that includes them all (rule of three). For instance, a history of Portugal (946.9), Sweden (948.5), and Greece (949.5) is classed with the history of Europe (940).
  • 206. Page206 b) Determine the Discipline: After determining the subject the classifier should try to determine the disciplinary focus and, if possible, the approach or form of the work. If a work is dealing with more than one discipline, interdisciplinary number should be provided to the work. If you are not able to determine the subject and the discipline of the book in hand, you can consult “The Relative Index”. It will help by suggesting the discipline(s) in which a subject is normally treated. c) Consult the Schedule: The schedules are the only place where all the information about coverage and use of the numbers may be found. So, once the subject has been determined and information on the discipline has been found, the classifier should turn to the schedules. The summaries, headings and notes within the schedules will provide the necessary guidance to arrive at the appropriate class number. In the schedule of DDC, special headings, notes, and entries indicate relationships among the topics that violate the notational hierarchy. The notes are usually given at the highest level of application. For example, the scope note at 700 applies to 730 to 736 and to 736.4. So, during the process of classifying a document the classifier has to turn the pages up and down. Even if the classifier has used “The Relative Index”, he should still rely on the structure of the classification schedule to arrive at the proper class number of a work. Even the most promising Relative Index citations must be verified in the schedules. d) Close and Broad Classification: Close classification means that the content of a work is specified by notation to the fullest extent possible. Broad classification means that the work is placed in a broad class by the use of notation that has been logically abridged. For example, a work on French cooking is classed closely at 641.5944 (641.59 Cooking by place + 44 France from the T1), or broadly at 641.5 (Cooking). The DDC provides the basic options of close versus broad classification. A library should choose between these two option based on the size of its collection and the needs of its users. The abridged edition of the DDC is another source for broad classification. e) Other Points: It should be noted that DDC uses the convention that no number should have fewer than three digits; zeros are used to fill in the numbers. A decimal point (or dot) follows the third digit in a class number, after which division by ten continues to the specific degree of classification needed. The “dot” is not used as a decimal point in the mathematical sense; it used to ease the transcription and copying of the class numbers. A number should never end in a zero anywhere to the right of the decimal point. Again, subdivisions beginning with zero should be avoided if there is a choice between zero and 1-9 at the same point in the hierarchy of the notation (rule of zero). 4.4 Examples of Classifying a Document with DDC Summaries: Now let’s try to classify some general books practically, wherein we do not require to use seven tables and the details about the Schedules.
  • 207. Page207 For classification of such books, the three summaries of DDC and the Relative Index will be enough. Now, for example, take a book whose name is “A Text Book of Geometry” Here, in the title, it is very easy and expressive enough to determine the subject. Geometry is the branch of Mathematics and it will come under science. So, go to the first summary wherein you will find “500 Science”, then consult the second summary, wherein under 500 you will find “510 Mathematics”. Now, in the third summary under “510 Mathematics”, you will find “516 Geometry”. Now, consult the schedule for verification. In the schedule also the 516 is for Geometry. So, the class number of the above book will be “516”. Now, suppose, in lieu of the above approach you want to move from the Relative Index. In such cases, find the word Geometry in the page number 331 of volume 4. Opposite to the word you will find the number “516” in the following format. Geometry 516 famous problems 516.204 Now consult the schedule for verification. In page number 515 of volume 2, you will find “516 Geometry”, so the class number of the above book will be “516”. 4.5 Classification of Document by Using the Web: The cost of DDC is very high. Every library in India and in other developing countries cannot afford to have a set of DDC as its own. But the classification of the documents in a library is a must. To meet this end, librarians can use some tools and techniques to have a class number of a document they have procured in their library. There are some excellent tools over the web that share the class numbers. Some of these tools and techniques are discussed bellow. They will provide the readymade class number of a document and will save the time of the classifier. We may not require to follow these options if we have a set of DDC. We are to only follow the options listed below in the event of not having a set of DDC. We can also follow these options to verify the class number obtained by consulting the DDC on our own. a) Classify: An Experimental Classification Web Service: OCLC Research experimental classification service launched “Classify” (http://classify.oclc.org/classify2/) which is targeted to support the assignment of class number and subject heading by using the web. The interface can be used both by a machine as well as human being. It provides access to more than 36 million collectively built records from a large pool of related resources. Each record in the database contains Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) numbers, Library of Congress Classification (LCC) numbers, or National Library of Medicine (NLM) Classification numbers, and subject headings from the Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST). In the database of Classify (http://classify.oclc.org/classify2/) by inputting any one or in combination of some basic information related to the document, the class number or subject heading can be obtained. The inputted information may be of the following types- i) ISBN: You can use the 10 or 13 digit ISBN. The ISBN should be used without hyphens in between. You can find more about ISBN over: http://www.isbn-international.org/
  • 208. Page208 ii) OCLC #: Each bibliographic record in the WorldCat has a unique number that range from 1 to 9 digits in length. You can also use this number to find out the information from the database. More about OCLC # is available over: http://www.worldcat.org/links/default.jsp iii) Barcode / The Universal Product Code (UPC): You can use the 12 digits UPC number found in the document. You can know more about Barcode over: http://www.gs1us.org/ iv) International Standard Serial Number (ISSN): You can use the eight digits ISSN with or without hyphen (as it is appeared in the document). You can know more about ISSN over: http://www.issn.org v) Title and / or Author: You can also use full title of the document or some portion of it or its author or both the title and the author as a combined search. vi) Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST): You can also use the FAST controlled vocabulary that is based on the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). You can collect more information about FAST over: http://www.oclc.org/research/activities/fast/ If you go to (http://classify.oclc.org/) web address and enter the ISBN / ISSN or any standard number correctly in the interface it sometimes shows a “No data found for the input argument” error. But, if you use the title and some portion of the authors’ name of the same document it shows the result. It happens probably because sometimes people perhaps do not entered those fields in the records of the database, while preparing it. Entering some portion of the title and the first author’s surname (or sometimes the forename) of the document in the interface mostly leads to the relevant document and class number. You can use this option as your first approach to obtain the class number of the document or its subject heading. b) DeweyBrowser: The DeweyBrowser (http://deweybrowser.oclc.org) provides access to approximately 2.5 million records from the OCLC Worldcat database. You can also use this interface to obtain readymade class number of a document in your library. Just make a search by entering the complete title of the document in the search box of the site to have its class number. c) ISBNdb.com: ISBNdb.com (http://isbndb.com/) is a database of books that is built by taking data from hundreds of libraries across the world. It is developed by Andrew Maltsev. He has also a company named Ejelta LLC (http://ejelta.com/), based in San Gabriel, CA. This ISBNdb.com is one of the outputs of the company. You can enter the keywords, book title, author, publisher, topic or ISBN of the document in its search box to have its class number. After displaying the result by the interface, click on the most relevant title under the heading of “Books Matching (‘your enter title’)” and consult the “Dewey Class:” under “Classification:” heading. Here you will find the classification number of the document you are looking for. If you don’t find the heading “Classification:” or you find the heading “Classification:” but don’t find the “Dewey Class:” then you should move to the appropriate title under “Libraries this book has an entry in:”. Now under the “MARC Record” you should consult the number against: 092: $a: or 082. This will be your classification number of the document you were looking for.
  • 209. Page209 d) Library of Congress Online Catalogue: To classify document by using Library of Congress Online Catalogue (http://catalog.loc.gov/), enter the address http://catalog.loc.gov/ in the address bar of your browser, and then click on “Alternative Interface to the LC Online Catalog (Z39.50)”. It will lead you to a new screen, from where you have to opt for “Advanced Search (multiple terms using Boolean operators)”. In the new page you have arrived at (it will look just like the following) you can search for class numbers by entering different details about the document in your library. Your search term may be the name of the author, title, series, ISBN, ISSN, publisher and many others to choose from. After submission of the details in the interface you have to click on "Submit Query" and then should navigate to “More on this record". Now, against the "Dewey No.:", you will find the class number of the document you are searching for. Please note that for some titles you will not be able to find DDC number in this database, as it was mainly designed by using the Library of Congress Classification number. The WebDewey also offers easy-to-use, World Wide Web-based access to the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and related information, with searching and browsing capabilities. One can also find Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) intellectually and statistically mapped to Dewey numbers; and links from the mapped LCSH to the corresponding LCSH authority records. It is also an excellent tool for online classification of the document, but the bad thing is that it is a paid service. It costs from $ 225-$575 per year. 4.6 Let Us Sum Up: In this unit you have learnt how to classify a document by using the DDC summaries as well as by using different online tools and techniques. Sometimes a book itself may contain the classification number. In such cases, you can simply copy down that classification number from Cataloguing in Publication (CIP) data. The CIP will provide classification number, subject headings, and notes. This type of data is very common in the verso of the title page of many books published from U.S., Australia, British, and Canada. So, if you have a book published from the above countries, try to find the CIP data and copy it to your document. The unit takes into account the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) that includes the structure of the DDC consisting of Tables, Summaries, Schedules and Relative Index. Classification of document by using the web is another important point of discussion in the unit. In this section the relevant matter includes “Classify”, Dewey Browser, ISBNdb.com and Library of Congress Online Catalogue. Each of these concepts has been exercised to give an idea about the use of the web for classification. 5. Library of Congress Classification: In 1898 a group under the guidance of J. C. M. Hanson, the head of the catalog division at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C, and Charles Martel, the library’s chief classifier, developed the first part of the Library of Congress (LC) Classification system. In the years that followed, numerous specialists contributed to the further development of the system and expanded it to cover other subject areas. The Library of Congress Classification system divides human knowledge into 21 major classes, using letters of the English alphabet for each, with further subdivisions indicated by decimal notation. The system does not use the letters I, O, W, X, and Y.
  • 210. Page210 The major classes of the Library of Congress Classification system are as follows: A General works B Philosophy; psychology; religion C Auxiliary sciences of history D History: General and Old World E-F History: America G Geography; anthropology; recreation H Social sciences J Political science K Law L Education M Music and books on music N Fine arts P Languages and literature Q Science R Medicine S Agriculture T Technology U Military science V Naval science Z Library science 6. Universal Decimal Classification: UDC, which was designed to facilitate the organization of a universal bibliography of all recorded knowledge, first made its origin at Belgium in 1895 by bibliographers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine. Initially UDC was based on the fifth edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification that combines notation to express multiple concepts. The Universal Decimal Classification system is issued by the International Federation for Documentation, in the Hague, Netherlands, which is responsible for its ongoing revision. 7. Colon Classification: In 1933 Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan introduced the Colon Classification system, which classifies all knowledge into broad, fundamental concepts. The
  • 211. Page211 Colon system then divides these concepts into several distinguishing characteristics, which Ranganathan called facets. The classification system uses colons (:) to distinguish between the various facets in a single notation and the name “Colon Classification system” is derived from its use in its notation scheme. In United States, most research and academic libraries use Library of Congress Classification, while most schools and public libraries use Dewey Decimal Classification. The UDC system is widely used in Europe, Latin America, Russia, and Japan. Although the use of the Colon Classification system is limited to a few Indian libraries, Ranganathan’s concept of facet analysis in classifying knowledge has been widely recognized. Some of its key concepts have been adopted by subsequent editions of the DDC or UDC, among others. 8. Allotting Class Number: In classifying, a classifier first takes up those books which are additional copies or new editions of works available in the library. In such cases, he/she would put down the call number in the book order slip and on the process slip along with the fact whether the book in hand is an additional copy or a new edition. Sequence numbers are also copied in the processing slip. The rest of the books received by a classifier are sorted by basic classes. The indexes attached to the classification schedules are used to find out the basic class numbers. Each basic class is taken, one by one. In the process of classification, based on the subject content of the item, a class number is assigned by consulting the schedules. The classification of the document can be made by manual means or by copy cataloguing, etc. The practice of complete reliance on the indexes for deriving the class number of any document is not advisable. The class numbers so arrived at should be tallied with the other standard catalogues, if necessity arises, especially in doubtful cases. The class numbers are given in pencil on the upper half portion of the verso of the title page. It is in pencil, because in case there is some changes in the class numbers, in future it may be corrected without any damage to the book by rubbing the earlier class numbers. This phenomenon is common because almost every classification scheme is revised periodically. 9. Allotting Book Number: Generally, the author marks constitute a book number. Cutter’s Author Table, Cutter-Sanborne Author Table, Merrill’s Author Table, Author Tables of L. Stanley Jast, Biscore Time Numbers, Ranganathan’s Book Numbers System may be used to allot author marks. A decision is to be taken by each library as to which system is to be used for allotting book numbers. The class number and book number together constitute the call number of the book. The call numbers should be written on the processing slips, adding the sequence number, wherever required. 10. Assigning Subject Heading: Subject heading is the words or group of words under which books and other materials on a subject are entered in a catalogue. The heading may include punctuation to which an arranging significance may be assigned. In a classified catalogue the subject heading consists of a classification symbols with or without its verbal meaning. It may also include entries for all materials on the same subject in an index or bibliography. For assigning subject heading, Library of Congress List of Subject Headings, Sears List of Subject Headings, ALA List of Subject Headings, Ranganathan’s Chain Procedure may be used. The chain procedure method is useful in deriving proper subject headings. The smaller libraries, where minute subject headings are not required, may use Sears List of Subject Headings or ALA List of Subject Headings. But large, research or special
  • 212. Page212 libraries may use the Library of Congress List of Subject Headings which is a very comprehensive and standard one. Each library due to some local and special conditions may adopt certain subject headings of its own in order to meet the readers’ demand. Library Committee Library Committee: A library authority may appoint a library committee, which is a body consisting of persons who are assigned the job of looking after the library. The library committee is needed because the librarian alone should not carry the whole burden of a big institution like a library. a) Members of the Library Committee: In case of a University, the library committee is formed with the heads of the departments of the University, the Vice-chancellor, the Librarian, etc. The Vice chancellor is the Chairman of the library committee, and the Librarian is the Secretary. In case of college library, the principal is the chairman, and the librarian is the secretary. In case of school library, there is no need of a library committee because the library itself is a very small one and the librarian is the working head of the library. The library committee should not be a very large. Only those people should be included as members of the library committee who are interested in the library and in this way the membership is restricted within the limit of twenty. b) Types of Library Committee: There are mainly two types of library committees i) Executive Committee: This committee is most powerful as it has full power over those matters which are delegated to them by the library authority. So the decision of the library executive committee is final and mandatory. It need not report its decision to the library authority. ii) Advisory or Recommendatory Committee: It simply gives proposals which are subject to the approval of the library authority. If we go deep into the history of library committee we will also find some other types of library committees. These are as follows: iii) Self Perpetuating Committee: These committees have the sole authority and independence as regards the control and management of the library under it. It does not have to report to any other higher body about its activities. iv)Adhoc Committee (Statutory Committee): It has the advantage of being independent of politics. It takes decision expeditiously. This committee is more or less independent. The Madras Public Library Act of 1948 provides the appointment of such a committee. This type of committee serves as library authority. v) Nominated / Elected Committee: A large committee or an authority nominates or elects a smaller body for looking after certain bodies under it. It delegates certain power to such smaller bodies or committees. vi) Recommending Committee: It does not have any real power except that it simply gives certain proposals which are subject to the approval of the library authority.
  • 213. Page213 vii) Reporting Committee: This committee has sufficient powers to decide the matters within certain limit. Such decision needs no confirmation of the supreme authority but the decision is to be reported to the latter for information. c) Powers and Functions of Library Committee: Powers and functions of a library committee vary according to its nature. In case of the Executive Committee the powers, functions and responsibilities are more whereas in case of a recommending committee, these will be narrowed to a great extent. Almost all the proposals for discussion at the library committee meeting are put forth by the librarian who generally acts as an ex-officio secretary to the committee. The library committees generally serve the following purposes. i) Library Building: Library committee plays a great role in the construction of the library building and also makes necessary arrangement for the maintenance of the library building. ii) Library Furniture and Fittings: Library committee ensures the availability of the adequate and proper standard furniture so that in future any number of identical articles may be added without any wastage of money or space. iii) Library Staff: A library committee employs the qualified and adequate library staff for the library. iv) Library Rule: It frames a set of library rules and keeps them up-to-date. v) Library Finance: The librarian not being an elected representative of the people cannot successfully appeal for more fund allocation for the library. But the committee being a representative body of the people can successfully and convincingly appeal for more funds. The committee can also allocate the funds for the library. vi) Collection of Documents: A library committee may appoint a sub-committee to serve as book selection committee so that the lists of books are thoroughly scrutinized to avoid the purchase of undesirable books. vii) Library Accounts and Audits: A library committee provides the proper machinery for checking the library accounts. It may appoint an account sub-committee for auditing the accounts. viii) Standard Library Service: A library committee put in its best efforts to secure full coverage and standard library services to the users. ix) Library co-operation: A library committee finds out ways and means of securing co-operation between various branches within a locality and between other authorities. x) Supervision and Advice: Public functions are best performed by a committee of persons who may be elected or nominated out by the people themselves as such the library committees also supervise and advise the librarian in matters on which public participation is essential. xi) Buffer Agency: The committee serves as a buffer agency and an interpreter of the needs of the library to the community, controlling and guiding the library activities. In the absence of a library committee the librarian would find himself defenseless and unprotected.
  • 214. Page214 Library Consortia Library Consortia: The basic premise of consortia is that its members can collectively achieve more than what they can achieve as individual institutions. a) Definition: According to American Heritage Dictionary a consortium is “a cooperative arrangement among groups or institution,” or “an association or society”. According to Oxford English Dictionary, “Consortium means temporary cooperation of a number of powers, companies, etc. for a common purpose. It is an association of similar type of organization / institution who are engaged for producing and servicing the common things / for providing services for a specific purpose of its users.” Library consortium is a “community (a cooperative) of two or more information agencies which have formally agreed to coordinate, cooperate or consolidate certain function” to achieve mutual objectives. It is an association of a group of libraries to achieve mutually the joint benefits. It provides a way for its members to conduct business in a comparative manner. Library consortia is a network for buying and accessing e- information in a cooperative arrangement among a group of libraries in providing instant access to greater resources for the users of the individual libraries. One of the libraries or agencies of the consortia works as coordinator for identification of libraries for each publisher, negotiation, legal matters, etc. Library consortia may vary from being decentralized to highly centralize in nature. The degree of centralization of consortium is the primary factor affecting not only how member institutions interact with one another, but also maintain relationship with external party (publisher/vendor). More decentralized the consortium, the greater the degree of autonomy each member retains. b) Precondition for Consortia: Technological developments, electronic publishing of scholarly journals, emergence of consortia, pricing models of publishers are some of the factors that create the condition for the development of the library consortia. i) Emergence of Electronic Document: The whole world is moving towards electronic publishing and the cost of the electronic publishing is much less than that of the print version. The users also hope to have access to their learned journals article in electronic form. ii) Access to Electronic Resources is a Precondition for a Modern Library: Library materials have grown exponentially in many forms and formats like e-books, e-journals, etc. and all these are very essential for the survival of the library itself. The limitation in finance, space and manpower also stresses upon the need for library consortia. c) Benefit of Consortia: Library consortia increases the Cost Benefit Per Subscription. The other advantages are: i) Reduced Information Cost: Many libraries currently subscribe only to those journals that they can afford. Though interested in other journals yet they cannot afford to provide access to them. Consortia approach helps them to provide the access.
  • 215. Page215 ii) Access to More Resources Than the Capabilities: A number of publishers offer consortia. If the library’s purchase power is big enough they provide access to their whole range of journals – that is, every member of the consortium gets electronic access not only to the journals currently subscribed to but also to all the journals published in the field. ii) Promoting the Rational Use of Funds: By forming consortia the purchasing power of the collaborating institutions can expand the resource availability and offer automated services. iii) Ensuring Continuous Subscription: The continuous subscription to the periodicals subscribed is ensure in library consortia. iv) DDS: Inter-libraries loan services will grow and it is interlinked with the search of the union catalogues which will build effective DDS. Delivery of documents will be fast, either electronically through Xeroxing, fax, courier or e-mail. Consortia will give the library and also the user extended access- that is, better service for reduced costs. With subscribed resources accessible online in electronic format, the member libraries would have less pressure on space requirement for storing and managing print- based library resources. Moreover, all problems associated with print media such as their wear and tear, location, shelving, binding, organizing, etc. would not be an issue for electronic resources. d) Development of Library Consortia in India: Library consortia has become quite popular in India and many intuitions some of which are furnish below has made use of it. i) Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) e-Journals Consortium <http://124.124.221.7>. ii) The Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy & Astrophysics (FORSA) <http://www.iiap.res.in/library/forsa.html>. iii) Health Sciences Library & Information Network (HELINET) <http://www.rguhs.ac.in/hn/newhell.htm>. iv) Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI) Knowledge Park <http://www.iciciknowledgepark.com/>. v) The Indian Institute of Management (IIM)’s Library Consortia. vi) Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences and Technology (INDEST) Consortium <http://paniit.iitd.ac.in/indest/>. vii) UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research <http://www.tifr.res.in/~libws/>. viii) UGC- INFONET <http://web.inflibnet.ac.in/info/ugcinfonet/ugcinfonet.jsp>. ix) ISRO Library Consortium, ICMR Library Consortium, etc. The library cooperation / resource sharing / networking / consortia or by whatever name we term it aims to improve the existing organizational infrastructure of the participating libraries in terms of
  • 216. Page216 finance, manpower, equipment, document, and other library facilities. It improves the effectiveness and efficiencies of the participating libraries to serve the needs of the user, improves access to resources, widens information coverage and accelerates the sphere in the supply of information, and helps in utilizing the available resources to the optimum level. Library Extension Services Library Extension Services: Extension work is defined as those activities which are undertaken with the objective of reaching the group of people who might otherwise be unaware of the library services and book stocks. Mc Colvin considers it as means “to increase the number of readers and the volumes of work and later to make the library more useful to more people”. ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science 1983 defines it as “the provision by a library of materials and services (including advisory services) to individuals and organizations outside its regular service area, especially to an area in which library service is not otherwise available. 1. Objectives: The main objectives in providing extension services are i) To convert a library into a social, cultural and intellectual centre; ii) To convert non reader into reader, non user to user. iii) To bring books and readers together. iv) To inform those who do not use the library services and to attract them to those services. v) To inform the reader of all the facilities offered by the library. vi)To remind both the reader and the non reader of the library and its resources. vii) As a means of publicity to enlist financial support or otherwise for the libraries. 2. Prerequisites for Extension Services i) The library should have a good collection to support all extension activities. ii) The trained and experienced staff is obligatory. iii) The library should have a lecture hall, an exhibition hall for holding meeting of different groups. iv) The library should possess audio-video equipment i.e. LCD projector, slide projector and mike arrangement. v) The librarian should be a good organizer, should understand the needs of the different categories of the community and be knowledgeable about the collection of the library. 3. Forms of Extension Services: The Library extension services may be of internal or external type. The internal extension service includes orientation programmes and the external extension service includes the mobile library service, publicity programmes etc. Some of the main forms of extension services are as follows
  • 217. Page217 i) Library Orientation / Library Tour: Many potential library patrons do not know how to use a library effectively. This can be due to the lack of early exposure, shyness, or anxiety and fear of displaying ignorance. These problems led to the emergence of the library instruction movement, which advocated library user education. Libraries inform the public of what materials are available in their collections and how to access that information. The reference staff may orient the user either in formal way or informally into the library system. ii) Reading Circle, Study Circle: Persons with common interest may be bought together by the library to a reading circle. Each reading circle should be given necessary facilities regarding the materials and a suitable place to hold the meeting. iii) Forming Friends of the Library Group: The Library can also think of forming “Friends of the Library Group”; such group can assist the library through fund raising, volunteering, and advocacy. They also hold book sales at the library. iv) Reading to Illiterates: Reading hours for adults who cannot read should be arranged by public libraries. Once they become neo-literates the public library then should take upon itself to see to it that they do not lapse into illiteracy again. v) Meeting, Public Lectures and Talks: A library should organize public lectures and talks by eminent persons and also by library staff. vi) Celebration of Festival and Events and Arranging Cultural Programmes: It is a good idea to arrange popular festivals and events in the library which may also arrange a drama, a puppet show, a music concert, a film show, a magic show etc. Such cultural programmes can prove great attraction for the community. On such occasions a book exhibition related to the programme should be arranged. vii) Book Fair and Exhibition: At the time of talk, festival, fair, drama, etc. a book exhibition on the relevant topic may be arranged. Exhibition on local history, local festivals, art, photograph and painting can offer great opportunity to attract the attention of the community. Periodical exhibition of books which have a bearing on topical theme enhances the chances of books finding their readers. Occasional exhibitions of unused books might prove useful for the reader in getting interested in books and using them. viii) Mobile Service: Introduction of mobile library services to provide service to citizens without access to central or branch libraries has devised an interesting variety of delivering methods. For offering this service, the time for each locality is to be fixed and notified earlier. ix) Publicity/ Propagenda: Propaganda through the newspaper, radio, television can be introduced. x) Book by Mail and Telephone Request: The public library should also provide library lending service through mail and Dial a book and Dial a fact method. A public library can also think of delivering books to any home bound person on a request. Introduction of library website is also a good form of extension service.
  • 218. Page218 xi) Publication: Publications like annual report, reading guide, library magazine / bulletin and other similar publications are also helpful. * Library Bulletin: The library bulletin should not only list fresh books and some important articles published in current issues of journals but should also give brief annotations wherever the content of new material needs. The library bulletin can take the form of indexing or abstracting service or table of content of periodicals received in the library or the list of recent publications or acquisition. * Annual Report: The annual report is the official document of the library for recording the annual library activities in totality. It is the statement of assessment and evaluation of all the departments of the library. It is the survey of works carried out during the preceding year with summarization of the activities and achievements of the library. Libraries are the democratic institutions for the profit and enjoyment of all. So, in the recent years much thought has been given to the best methods of popularizing the use of libraries. How does one attract readers to libraries? How were it extend to all classes the facilities for using them? How can one render the maximum amount of help to those who desire to use libraries and how to save the time of the reader and library staff alike are some issues to be addressed. Library Furniture and Fittings Library Furniture and Fittings: The furniture and fittings can be made of metal, wood or plastic. The furniture and fittings should also be modular. This would be the case for tables, chairs, book racks, book trolleys, doors, windows, etc. a) Book Racks: For normal shelving in general libraries, the standard racks or shelves made of either seasoned teak or sheesham wood can prove useful and functional. Book racks are used to store books, bound volumes of periodicals, reports and such other kinds of materials. Each individual rack is usually 180 cm wide, 195/225 cm high and 25/50 cm deep depending on whether it is a single- sided or double sided. The number of shelves in a rack is usually 5-6 depending on the high of the rack. A number of racks can be joined together to make one row. In general, the height of the unit book rack should be such that a person of normal height should be able to pick up books from top- most shelf. The popular kinds of stacks are: i) Fixed Shelves with Double Row: They are normal fixed shelves where material can be arranged in double rows. ii) Hinged Stacks: Here two shelves are joined together with hinges on one side and one shelf fixed while the other is mounted in front of the hinges. iii) Rolling Stacks: These are metal stack units mounted on ball bearing wheel placed side by side. iv) Compact Storage: This system consists of units of three stacks, the centre row of fixed double- sided stacks at each side. This helps in increasing the capacity of the storage space. v) Multitier Stacks: This kind of stacking consists of stacks from the floor to the roof and it has become quite popular in very large libraries.
  • 219. Page219 b) Periodical Display Rack: Double sided periodical racks are not recommended since the unit becomes too bulky. It is better to place two single sided racks back to back, if necessary. The following types of periodical display racks are generally available in the market. i) Step or Gallery Type: In this type the periodicals are displayed stepwise, each step being 5 cm deep and 15cm high. Length of the rack is generally 90cm. There may be 4-5 steps and on each step 4-5 journals can be displayed and on a single sided rack 20-25 journals can be displayed. i