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  • 1. Types of questionnaire 1. Structured questionnaire a) Have definite and concrete questions. b) Is prepared well in advance. c) Initiates a formal inquiry. d) Supplements and checks the data, previously accumulated. e) Used in studies of the economics and the social problems, studies of the administrative policies and changes etc. 2. Unstructured questionnaire a) Used at the time of the interview. b) Acts as the guide for the interviewer. c) Is very flexible in working. d) Used in studies related to the group of families or those relating to the personal experiences, beliefs etc. A questionnaire can also be divided as the follows depending on the nature of the questions therein 1. Open ended questionnaire a) Respondent is free to express his views and the ideas. b) Used in making intensive studies of the limited number of the cases. c) Merely an issue is raised by such a questionnaire. d) Do not provide any structure for the respondent’s reply. e) The questions and their orders are pre – determined in the nature. 2. Close ended questionnaire a) Responses are limited to the stated alternatives. b) One of the alternatives is simply YES or NO. c) Respondent cannot express his own judgment. 3. Mixed questionnaire a) Questions are both close and open ended. b) Used in field of social research. 4. Pictorial questionnaire a) Used very rarely. b) Pictures are used to promote the interest in answering the questions. c) Used in studies related to the social attitudes and the pre – judices in the children. case study a process or record of research into the development of a particular person, group, or situation over a period of time.
  • 2. "the case study was undertaken over a period of two months through a series of visits to the school"a particular instance of something used or analysed in order to illustrate a thesis or principle. Definition of SCIENTIFIC METHOD : principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study. The review should describe, summarise, evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help you (the author) determine the nature of your research. Works which are irrelevant should be discarded and those which are peripheral should be looked at critically. Literature of review A literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study. The review should describe, summarise, evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical base for the research and help you (the author) determine the nature of your research. Works which are irrelevant should be discarded and those which are peripheral should be looked at critically. research design A research design encompasses the method and procedures employed to conduct scientific research. The design of a study defines the study type and sub-type, research question, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a . experimental method the use of controlled observations and measurements to test hypotheses What Is the Definition of Tabulations? Tabulations is defined as the information arranged in a tabular manner. It is also defined as the process of arranging data, facts, statistics, etc in an orderly form of rows and columns. Tabulations can be defined as the cutting or forming with a plane surface or a flat surface. Planning of research Selecting a research topic • Reviewing literature on the topic • Writing and gaining approval for a thesis proposal, including selecting specific research
  • 3. questions and developing research methodology • Writing the first draft of the Method chapter • Preparing for data collection • Collecting data • Analysing data • Revising the Introduction and Method chapters and writing the remainder of your thesis, including the Results and Discussion Research methods Types of research Experiments People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities (e.g. word recall, attention, concentration, reasoning ability etc.) usually verbally, on paper or by computer. The results of different groups are then compared. Participants should not be anxious about performing well but simply do their best. The aim of these tests is not to judge people or measure so-called intelligence, but to look for links between performance and other factors. If computers are used, this has to be done in such a way that no previous knowledge of computers is necessary. So people should not be put off by this either. The study might include an intervention such as a training programme, some kind of social activity, the introduction of a change in the person’s living environment (e.g. different lighting, background noise, different care routine) or different forms of interaction (e.g. linked to physical contact, conversation, eye contact, interaction time etc.). Often the interaction will be followed by some kind of test (as mentioned above), sometimes before and after the intervention. In other cases, the person may be asked to complete a questionnaire (e.g. about his/her feelings, level of satisfaction or general well-being). Some studies are just based on one group (within-group design). The researchers might be interested in observing people’s reactions or behaviour before and after a certain intervention (e.g. a training programme). However, in most cases, there are at least two groups (a between-subjects design). One of the groups serves as a control group and is not exposed to the intervention. This is quite similar to the procedure in clinical trials whereby one group does not receive the experimental drug. This enables researchers to compare the two groups and determine the impact of the intervention. Alternatively, the two groups might differ in some important way (e.g. gender, severity of dementia, living at home or in residential care, etc.) and it is that difference that is of interest to the researchers. Surveys
  • 4. Surveys involve collecting information, usually from fairly large groups of people, by means of questionnaires but other techniques such as interviews or telephoning may also be used. There are different types of survey. The most straightforward type (the “one shot survey”) is administered to a sample of people at a set point in time. Another type is the “before and after survey” which people complete before a major event or experience and then again afterwards. Questionnaires Questionnaires are a good way to obtain information from a large number of people and/or people who may not have the time to attend an interview or take part in experiments. They enable people to take their time, think about it and come back to the questionnaire later. Participants can state their views or feelings privately without worrying about the possible reaction of the researcher. Unfortunately, some people may still be inclined to try to give socially acceptable answers. People should be encouraged to answer the questions as honestly as possible so as to avoid the researchers drawing false conclusions from their study. Questionnaires typically contain multiple choice questions, attitude scales, closed questions and open- ended questions. The drawback for researchers is that they usually have a fairly low response rate and people do not always answer all the questions and/or do not answer them correctly. Questionnaires can be administered in a number of different ways (e.g. sent by post or as email attachments, posted on Internet sites, handed out personally or administered to captive audience (such as people attending conferences). Researchers may even decide to administer the questionnaire in person which has the advantage of including people who have difficulties reading and writing. In this case, the participant may feel that s/he is taking part in an interview rather than completing a questionnaire as the researcher will be noting down the responses on his/her behalf. Interviews Interviews are usually carried out in person i.e. face-to-face but can also be administered by telephone or using more advance computer technology such as Skype. Sometimes they are held in the interviewee’s home, sometimes at a more neutral place. It is important for interviewees to decide whether they are comfortable about inviting the researcher into their home and whether they have a room or area where they can speak freely without disturbing other members of the household. The interviewer (which is not necessarily the researcher) could adopt a formal or informal approach, either letting the interviewee speak freely about a particular issue or asking specific pre-determined questions. This will have been decided in advance and depend on the approach used by the researchers. A semi-structured approach would enable the interviewee to speak relatively freely, at the same time allowing the researcher to ensure that certain issues were covered. When conducting the interview, the researcher might have a check list or a form to record answers. This might even take the form of a questionnaire. Taking notes can interfere with the flow of the conversation, particularly in less structured interviews. Also, it is difficult to pay attention to the non- verbal aspects of communication and to remember everything that was said and the way it was said.
  • 5. Consequently, it can be helpful for the researchers to have some kind of additional record of the interview such as an audio or video recording. They should of course obtain permission before recording an interview. Case studies Case studies usually involve the detailed study of a particular case (a person or small group). Various methods of data collection and analysis are used but this typically includes observation and interviews and may involve consulting other people and personal or public records. The researchers may be interested in a particular phenomenon (e.g. coping with a diagnosis or a move into residential care) and select one or more individuals in the respective situation on whom to base their case study/studies. Case studies have a very narrow focus which results in detailed descriptive data which is unique to the case(s) studied. Nevertheless, it can be useful in clinical settings and may even challenge existing theories and practices in other domains. Participant and non-participant observation Studies which involve observing people can be divided into two main categories, namely participant observation and non-participant observation. In participant observation studies, the researcher becomes (or is already) part of the group to be observed. This involves fitting in, gaining the trust of members of the group and at the same time remaining sufficiently detached as to be able to carry out the observation. The observations made might be based on what people do, the explanations they give for what they do, the roles they have, relationships amongst them and features of the situation in which they find themselves. The researcher should be open about what s/he is doing, give the participants in the study the chance see the results and comment on them, and take their comments seriously. In non-participant observation studies, the researcher is not part of the group being studied. The researcher decides in advance precisely what kind of behaviour is relevant to the study and can be realistically and ethically observed. The observation can be carried out in a few different ways. For example, it could be continuous over a set period of time (e.g. one hour) or regularly for shorter periods of time (for 60 seconds every so often) or on a random basis. Observation does not only include noting what happened or was said but also the fact that a specific behaviour did not occur at the time of observation. Observational trials Observational trials study health issues in large groups of people but in natural settings.Longitudinal approaches examine the behaviour of a group of people over a fairly lengthy period of time e.g. monitoring cognitive decline from mid to late life paying specific attention to diet and lifestyle factors. In some cases, the researchers might monitor people when they are middle-aged and then again after 15 years and so on. The aim of such studies is usually to determine whether there is a link between one factor and another (e.g. whether high alcohol consumption is correlated with
  • 6. dementia). The group of people involved in this kind of study is known as a cohort and they share a certain characteristic or experience within a defined period. Within the cohort, there may be subgroups (e.g. people who drink moderately, people who drink heavily, people who binge drink etc.) which allow for further comparisons to be made. In some cases, rather than following a group of people from a specific point in time onwards, the researchers take a retrospective approach, working backwards as it were. They might ask participants to tell them about their past behaviour, diet or lifestyle (e.g. their alcohol consumption, how much exercise they did, whether they smoked etc.) They might also ask for permission to consult the participants’ medical records (a chart review). This is not always a reliable method and may be problematic as some people may forget, exaggerate or idealise their behaviour. For this reason, a prospective study is generally preferred if feasible although a retrospective pilot study preceding a prospective study may be helpful in focusing the study question and clarifying the hypothesis and feasibility of the latter (Hess, 2004). Studies using the Delphi method The Delphi method was developed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s in the military domain. It has been considered particularly useful in helping researchers determine the range of opinions which exist on a particular subject, in investigating issues of policy or clinical relevance and in trying to come to a consensus on controversial issues. The objectives can be roughly divided into those which aim to measure diversity and those which aim to reach consensus. What Is a Proposal?
  • 7. A proposal is a statement of purpose that is presented for someone's acceptance. It intends to persuade that person to fund your project.  It states the problem, or analyzes the situation.  It offers a plan, with clearly stated goals, objectives, and strategies for solving the problem.  It makes a plea for the resources needed to accomplish the plan.  It demonstrates probable success; that is, it shows that you are capable of doing what you say you will. It offers a pledge that you will show by certain specified measures that you have accomplished what you said you would.  Research Proposal Steps  Step 1: The Title  Naming your research is an important part of the research proposal. It should tell the user (In 25 words or less) what you intend to research and how you intend to do it. You may also wish to give your research project both a Māori and English title. The choice is up to you, as long as your title is relevant to the research question.  Step 2: The Abstract  Your research proposal in its entirety may be anywhere between 5,000 to 25,000 words in length. So it is important that you give a summary of the entire document. This summary is known as the abstract, and should demonstrate to the reader the most important parts of each of the sections of the research proposal in around 200 words. It is often useful to write the abstract last, after the rest of the research proposal has been written and fully thought out.  Step 3: Aims and Objectives  In this section you should expand on the title of your research project to articulate in full detail the aims and objectives of your research. You should be able to provide a detailed description of the research question, the purpose of the research, and a description of your approach (methodology and method) to the research.  Included in this section should be discussion around the research problem that you intend to answer or investigate, your hypothesis, the parameters of the research i.e. what you intend to include within the research, and what you intend to leave out.
  • 8.  Step 4: Background  This section should provide detail about the background to the research question. In this section you will need to demonstrate an understanding of the existing literature and research studies within the area of your proposed research topic. This is to assist the reader to understand the significance of your research, and where it fits within the existing body of knowledge.  The background section is a significant portion of your proposal and therefore should be an extensive review of the literature related to your topic (see literature review). You should be able to discuss what the existing literature is about and highlight any gaps, issues or contentions that arise. You also need to be able to show where your research fits within this literature and enter into discussions on issues that relate to your research question. The point of this background section is to demonstrate to the reader your understanding and knowledge of the research area, as well as the contribution that your research project will make to the existing research and knowledge.  Step 5: Methodology and Method  In this section of the proposal you will need to demonstrate how you intend to go about investigating the research question. The methodology generally refers to the theory to be used to justify the use of the particular research methods that you are choosing to use. You may use more than one methodology to inform your method of research. The method describes the way you intend to investigate the question, such as a questionnaire, a hui, in-depth individual interviews, focus group interviews, a wānanga, a survey and so forth.  Kaupapa Māori is a methodology, that also gives rise to and guides research methods. In this section you will need to give a brief overview of Kaupapa Māori theory and/or theories, why you have chosen to use this methodology and how your research question fits within this methodological framework.  If you are using more than one methodology then you will need to demonstrate why you have chosen to use another methodology alongside Kaupapa Māori, and how it is relevant to the aims and objectives of your research.  You should also discuss the different methods you intend to use in full detail, and provide justification as to why you have chosen to use these methods. It is also helpful to discuss how many participants you intend to involve in your research, how you intend to find or approach participants, and how they will be used in your study.  Step 6: Schedule and Timeline  You need to be able to demonstrate that your research is possible within a given timeframe. You may be able to define your own timeframe, or the institution for which
  • 9. you are writing a proposal may have a set timeframe that you will need to work within. Either way, it is important that you are able to plot the intended progress of the project from start to finish. If you intend to produce any outputs, reports, findings then they should be inserted into this schedule.  Step 7: Ethical Approval  Some institutions require that any research involving interaction with human participants get approval from ethical advisory committees or boards. This ethical approval is sought to ensure that the researcher conducts research in a manner that is respectful to the participants and other human beings that may be influenced by the research process. It is important that you seek out what ethical approval is required within your area of research. You may need to seek approval from more than one advisory committee depending on the institutional, financial and disciplinary context. Applications for ethical approval are obtained directly from the ethical committees themselves.  Ethical considerations is a key part of conducing Kaupapa Māori research. Understanding researchethics will impact on all aspects of your research, in particular, how you engage with communities to conduct your research and disseminate your research findings. Māori community research organizations are also beginning to develop their own research ethics guidelines to assist both the researchers and participants to be ‘culturally safe’ during the research process.  In the ‘ethical approval’ section, it is important to outline who you intend to seek ethical approval from, and/or when ethical approval was granted and for what period of time.  Step 8: Resources  This section demonstrates to the reader that you are both suitable and capable of carrying out the proposed research. You will need to discuss what resources you have at your disposal that makes it possible for you to carry out this research. For example, physical resources (such as research instruments), personal resources (such as knowledge of the discipline, area or community under study), as well as any other resources that you have as a researcher (or research team) that will enable you to carry out the research from beginning through to completion.  You may also need to highlight what resources you still require in order to complete the research, and also discuss how you intend to go about acquiring these resources (i.e. through funding, through research collaborations etc.)  Step 9: Budget  Not all research proposal require a budget (such as thesis proposals for academic institutions), however if you intend to apply for funding for research it is important that you are able to show how much money you require, and justify the amount asked for.
  • 10. The way to justify the amount you are asking for is to provide a detailed budget outlining what expenses you predict you will incur in conducting the research. Exactly where and how money will be spent will differ from project to project, and the size of the budget should reflect the size of the research project. Some of the main expenses that may be included in any budget could be researcher’s time, human resources (such as other research assistants, transcribers, advisory board members), technical equipment (Dictaphones, transcribers, computer hardware and software etc), stationary, koha and others.