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PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
PSU: Perform Or Perish??
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PSU: Perform Or Perish??


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  • Navratnas’ total income equal to 15% of GDPThe 18 Navratnas as identified by the Department of Public Enterprises had a total income of Rs 6,871.62 bn in FY08, which is equivalent to 15% of India’s GDP at current market prices. The share of these Navratnas in the combined total income of 121 CPSUs was an impressive 47% during FY08. Their combined net worth was 41% of the total net worth of all profiled CPSUs.
  • Banking & financial services sector has highest representation but lower share in total income: The banking and financial services sector had the maximum representation of companies (31%). In spite of this, the share of oil and gas generating companies in the total income of all the 121 companies was more than twice the share of banking and financial services companies.
  • . It does not mean PSUs are important only during the time of crisis. In normal course also it is difficult to think of the Indian economy without public enterprises given India's socio-economic and demographic reality. The sector is deeply entrenched in the domestic economy and their business operations are now enmeshed in the common man's life.
  • Transcript

    • 1. I N D I A N
      Perform or Perish?
    • 2. PSUs
      First Page :
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      Regional imbalances
      Social responsibility of the state
    • 3. Public Sector: Inception
      • Prior to Independence- few ‘Public Sector’ Enterprises. These included
      the Railways,
      the Posts and Telegraphs
      the Port Trusts
      the Ordinance Factories
      All India Radio
      few enterprises like the Government Salt Factories, Quinine Factories, etc.
    • 4. Public Sector: Inception
      Post Independence - the country was facing problems like
      inequalities in income
      low levels of employment
      regional imbalances in economic development
      lack of trained manpower
    • 5. Public Sector: Inception
      India at that time was
      predominantly an agrarian economy with a weak industrial base
      low level of savings
      inadequate investments and infrastructure facilities
      The 1948 Resolution envisaged development of core sectors through the public enterprises. Public Sector would correct the regional imbalances and create employment.
    • 6. the Public sector
      What? when? how?
    • 7. Objectives of Establishing PSUs
      Rapid economic growth & industrialization
      Earn return on investment & thus generate resources for development
      Promote re-distribution of income & wealth
      Create employment opportunities
      Promote balanced regional development
      Development of small scale industries
      Save & earn foreign exchange, vital for any economy
    • 8. Major Features of PSU
      18 Navratnas contribute 15% of GDP and 47% of total income of the PSUs FY 2009.
      Share of PSUs in India’s GDP at market prices at 11.12%.
      Contribution to the extent of 27% in the total industrial output
      PSUs account for more than 1/3rd of total revenue receipts of the Central Government
      The net worth of all enterprises stood at Rs 4,530 bn (FY 07)
      PSUs paid a dividend of Rs 268 bn in FY07
    • 9. Major Features of PSU
      Account for 11% of the total merchandise exports of the country
      53% growth in turnover between FY04 and FY07
      Net Profit increase from Rs 695 bn in FY06 to Rs 816 bn in FY07
      Number of loss making institutions decreased from 89 in FY04 to 59 in FY07
    • 10. Maharatnas
      Mega public sector undertakings ONGC, SAIL and NTPC got greater financial and operational autonomy after the government accorded the Maharatna status to these firms to help them emerge as global giants.
      The coveted status empowered the boards of these firms to take investment decisions up to Rs 5,000 crore as against the present Rs 1,000 crore limit without seeking government approval.
    • 11. Navratnas
    • 12. Problems faced by Public Sector Undertakings in India
      Low Productivity. Low capacity utilization and low efficiency.
      Low rate of return on capital. Large number of loss making firms.
      Poor work ethics and quality of services.
      Over capitalization due to substantial time and cost overruns.
      Bureaucratic controls.
      Most of the PSU’s were monopolies in their industries due to tight governmental controls, and hence they were not very efficient
    • 13. Reasons for poor performance of PSUs
      Red tapes
      Risk aversion
      Ineffective governance structures
      Meddling by politicians
      Rampant nepotism in appointments of managers
      Inability to hire the best talent because of poor compensation
    • 14. the Public sector
    • 15. The facts and figures FY 08
    • 16. Source: D&B Research
      Sector-wise Net profit margin of PSUs FY 08
    • 17. The CPSU trends
    • 18. The CPSU trends
      FY 08
    • 19. Comparison of public and private sector
      Dun and Bradstreet Research Aug 2009
      Top 31 government-owned listed companies (29 central government companies and 2 state government companies) in terms of total turnover.
      Subsequently, it identified private companies who had a total turnover of over Rs 10 bn.
      216 private companies where studied.
    • 20. Sales
      High contribution:
      Oil and Gas Sector
      Power Sector
    • 21. Effective tax rates
      PSUs not only take the lead while contributing to the government’s kitty through direct taxes but also lead when it comes to rewarding their shareholders with dividends.
    • 22. Export to Sales
      High contribution:
      Reliance Industries
    • 23. Debt Equity Ratio
      High contribution:
      BHEL (almost zero)
      L&T (0.5:1)
    • 24. Cash Ratio
    • 25. disinvestment
      A necessary evil?
    • 26. Disinvestment
      Disinvestment is the withdrawal of capital from a country or corporation:
      • Disinvestment involves sale of only part of equity holdings held by the government to private investors.
      • 27. Disinvestment process leads only to dilution of ownership and not transfer of full ownership.
      • 28. Privatization refers to the transfer of ownership from government to private investors.
      • 29. Disinvestment is called “partial privatization”
    • The Arguments for Disinvestment
      Measure to curb fiscal deficit.
      Sensex rallying at 17000 points in this FY.
      “There should be no flooding of offers in the market or else they would eat into the valuations”: SivajiSarkar.
    • 30. Disinvestmentfigures
    • 31. Disinvestmentfigures
    • 32. Disinvestment: Present State
      Government Profitable listed public-sector companies, where its stake is more than 90 percent, to have at least 10 percent of their shares held by the public. 2010 FY
    • 33. Disinvestment: Over the years
      Government  disinvestment mechanism  
      *Enterprises disinvested for the first time given in brackets.
      Source: Disinvestment in India, SudhirNaib
    • 34. Disinvestment: Over the years
      Government disinvestment mechanism for total 60 companies
      *Enterprises disinvested for the first time given in brackets.
      Source: Disinvestment in India, SudhirNaib
    • 35. NTPC: Present state
      NTPC Negative rate of growth last year.
      High dividend payout ratio 
      (Rs. In Crs.)
    • 36. Maruti Suzuki: Present state
      • The government announced the sale of its remaining equity shares witnessing wild swings in the share market. FY 2006
      • 37. When the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs gave its go ahead to the sale on December 21, 2006 the company's shares were trading at Rs 926.
      • 38. From the highs of Rs 979 a share during the trading session on January 4 this year, it fell to Rs 755 on March 7, 2007.
    • 39. Maruti Suzuki: Present state
      MarutiHigh dividend payout ratio 
      (Rs. In Crs.)
    • 40. Criticism of Disinvestment
      The equity in PSUs essentially belongs to the people. Thus, in the absence of wider national consensus, a mere government decision to disinvest is not totally justifiable.
      It is not clear if the rationale for disinvestment process is well-founded. The assumption of higher efficiency, better management practices and better monitoring by the private shareholders may not always be true.
    • 41. Case studies
      BALCO and ECIL
    • 42. Coal India: Present state
      Coal India Coal India’s proposed initial public offer by August 2010:Partha S Bhattacharyya.
      2003 YOY PAT (-)52%
      2004 YOY PAT  442% (Rs. In Crs.)
    • 43. Coal India: Turnaround
      Coal India The turnaround in less than 2 years: of a revival strategy focused on:
      (a) enhancing production of high value coking coal and washed coal,
      (b) internalizing premium on coal
      marketed to non-core sector through e-marketing
      (c) arresting / reversing the trend of
      persistent decline in coal production since 1999-2000.
    • 44. ECIL Turnaround
      ECIL, which was a profit making body in 1992-97, incurred a loss of Rs. 60 crore in 1998-99 and the net worth of the company got very badly eroded.
      timely strategic initiatives by the company resulted in an incredible turnaround
      It was made clear to all that no external help should be expected and that the intrinsic strengths of the company
      This was conveyed to head of trade unions and the senior managers across the organization
    • 45. ECIL Turnaround
      Empowering the Performers and Performing Divisions
      Customer Focus
      Memoranda of Understanding and the performance of ECIL
      Good Corporate Governance
    • 46. ECIL Turnaround
      The quality of common purpose and unity of command demonstrated by the company especially in times of crisis is adequate to validate the company‘s capability to combat competition and scale new peaks in performance.
      Stakeholders confidence boasted.
    • 47. BALCO Disinvestment
      In February 2001, the Government of India approved the sale of its 51% stake in aluminium major, Bharat AluminiumCo Ltd (Balco) to Sterlite Industries Ltd. (SIL), for Rs. 551.5 crores.
      BALCO was a profit making public sector company before that. It had a turnover of Rs.898 crores and a profit after tax of Rs. 56 crores.
      The deal witnessed fierce opposition from the opposition Govt. as well as the state Govt. of Chhattisgarh.
      • The employees launched an indefinite strike protesting against the BALCO sell out, which lasted for 62 days.
    • The controversy at BALCO
      The then Chattisgarh Chief Minister Ajit Jogi accused the GoI of indulging in 'underhand dealings’to the tune of Rs 100 Crores; claimed that the sale of Balco equities would have fetched at least Rs 5,000 crore.
      Then opposition party BJP claimed that the deal would have easily fetched the GoI more that 1200 Crores.
      BALCO with a cash deposit of Rs 450 Crores and annual profit of Rs 100-150 Crores was being sold for a paltry Rs 551 Crores.
      • To add to this, the bidding process was anything but transparent. Still the GOI is accused of not disclosing the final bid offers, even after the finalization of the bid. 
    • Conclusions of Case Study
      There’s never been a clear direction to disinvestment as it has been subjected to the vagaries of politics of power.
      Its time a proper consensus is arrived through discussions on disinvestment aimed at restructuring Indian industry to make true the lofty visions of Jawaharlal Nehru and to continue growing at the same rate.
    • 48. Learnings from the Cases
      Disinvestment in India has never been an attractive idea simply because successive governments have treated disinvestment merely as a tool to raise resources rather than as one designed to restructure the massive public sector.
      The fact that only in 3 of the 13 years budgetary targets were met show the ineffective implementation of this process by the government.
      • Red Tapismand administrative loopholes have led to many controversies regarding disinvestment leading to many legal hassles and creating a negative image regarding disinvestment.
    • conclusion
      The future of the PSUs in India
    • 49. Is Privatization good or bad?
      General argument given for better performance of private sector is their ownership structure. But it is not fullproof
      It does not explain the performance of Singapore Airlines and SingTel, which are GLCs.
      Most successful global corporations have dispersed ownership with no dominant owner.
      There are numerous poor-performing PSUs. Indeed, some of the private sector units of today are ailing PSUs of yesterday.
    • 50. PSUs and Recession
      Being the largest commercial enterprises in the country, PSUs provide a huge leverage to the government (their controlling shareholder) to intervene in the economy directly or indirectly to achieve the desired socio-economic objectives.
      At times, these objectives may be misplaced but at others especially in times of do-or-die situation such as in 2008, PSUs play a key role in steering the national economy in the right direction.
      LIC, one of the largest PSUs, was probably the only large investor in the Indian equity market when rest of the large investors preferred to stay away during the market turmoil of 2008
    • 51. Flip Sides
      Trade unions and productivity
      Public sector is a mass employer
    • 52. What’s making News?
      It is encouraging to note that the government made its intentions clear to roll back the fiscal deficit to 5.5% from 6.8% of GDP in FY 11.
      India has a digestible appetite to absorb the massive investments in PSUs via disinvestments mainly due to its 38 % savings rate.
      Disinvestment of 25000 crores in FY 2010 proposed by finance minister in Union Budget.
      Not so promising start with IPOs of NTPC.
    • 53. The Verdict
      In conclusion, the group opines that “performance” is the criterion of judging the credibility of a PSU. But the government at the same time needs to adhere to a restrained calculated approach in going in for disinvestment and then “perish” i.e. privatization.
      India is a welfare state and the social strata need to be looked into as well.
      Hence, the PSUs should be pegged to perform or they have to meet up with the fate of privatization.
    • 54. Thank youFEEL FREE TO ASK QUERIES…
      Presented by:
      Group 4
      GokulNath 91019
      GourabKundu 91020
      H.Sanchay Grover 91021
      Harsh Aggarwal 91022
      HarshdeepGarg 91023
      HarshitaPeriwal 91024