Music & Psychotherapy


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Music & Psychotherapy

  1. 1. Sameer, Madhu 1 Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy Psychotherapy and Music The neurotic is the artist manque. an artist who cannot transmute his conflict into art… - Otto Rank For: Dr Alan Bishop Madhu Sameer Track B1 Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  2. 2. Sameer, Madhu 2 Psychotherapy and Music Introduction “Music is spiritual and is a doorway into that world. Its power comes from the fact that it plugs directly into the soul, unlike a lot of visual art or text information that has to go through the more filtering processes of the brain.” —Peter Gabriel Human brain functions in the continuum between polarities posited by opposites, between eros and logos, arts and mathematics, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, right and left hemispheres, conservative tendencies guided by instinctual self preservation and expansive tendencies that propel us towards risk and novelty – to name a few. Creativity falls within the realm of the last, and demands the courage to risk, for man’s need and his will to create transcends all other needs (May, 1976; Malchiodi, 2002). Infants as young as 4 months of age have known to react to music affectively (Zentner & Kaan, 1996, 1998). This paper discusses creativity in general and musical creativity in particular and its place in psychotherapy. The following explores the metaphorical and the biological relationship between creativity, music and psyche. The terms creativity, musical creativity and musical receptivity are used interchangeably in this document. The paper is divided into four sections. The first section explores the philosophy and psychology of creativity. The second part details the mythological dimensions of creativity. The third section explores the musical receptivity, its association and interaction with psychic states. The concluding section discusses psychotherapy and its relationship with music. Section I Philosophy of Musical Creativity In his thesis The Psychology of Imagination, Sartre (1991) describes “feeling” to be a process of becoming conscious of organic changes. For Sartre, feeling, is a living state, a flux of subjectivity with inexpressible qualities, and a string of such affective states is associated with representations of objects in the external world. He believes that mental images represent surrounding objects and physical sensations attenuate rather than enhance this representation. Consciousness “takes in” a sign or a symbol as a hybrid – half meaningful, half imaginative. Restating this in constructivist language, perception hastens to fill the gaps that our observation leaves unfilled, but perception itself leaves gaps, or distorts reality, and imagination is then used to refine an understanding of this reality (Sameer, 2007). Sartre (1991) believed that the illusion of immanence consists of transferring externality to the transcendent psychic content which does not possess, but merely represents those qualities in its own way. This mental content is used to envision a real thing that exists in the world of perception. However, all external objects including the mental content are objects for consciousness – hence our awareness of an awareness. This necessity of content to be represented as an object is called transcendence of representation. When Sartre’s imaginative consciousness wanes, there remains a sensible residue which is describable. Sartre’s (1991) deductions are important because they provide a philosophical validation that in permitting art to act upon us, the analogue can be reconstructed from the sensible residue without totally forming the imaginative consciousness again. What this posits is that any forms of art - music included - evokes imagination that reconstructs from the psychic residue. Thus Sartre appears to validate the notion that all art provides us with a way, a means of reconstructing our psychical content not the way it is in reality, but in the way that we experienced and perceived it. Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  3. 3. Sameer, Madhu 3 He further states that when the imaginative consciousness is destroyed, its transcendent function is destroyed; no describable residue remains and we’re confronted by another synthetic consciousness which has nothing in common with the first. We cannot get to this content thru introspection. Freud would say that such “consciousness” may have a component in the unconscious repression. It seems highly likely that the music breaks thru this barrier on a cellular level, and “reaches” (and stirs) the repressed imagination and the transcendent function in the unconscious. However, in the mental image there is a psychic factor that functions as analog, but when we wish to ascertain more clearly the nature and components of this factor, we are reduced to conjectures. Hence the fleeting feelings evoked by images, and music, a feeling that cannot be fully captured or quantified. Sartre’s theory of imagination provides a philosophical grounding that attempts to explain the surreal experience of music. Psychology of Musical Creativity Creativity occurs in an act of encounter and is to be understood with this encounter as its center. . .[It] is the encounter of an intensely conscious human being with his or her world. – Rollo May All aesthetics and creative endeavors, especially music because it can be experienced in the absence of all other senses, appear to be psychic efforts at stimulating the imaginative functions to help the mind engage in a harmonic communication between the external and the internal world. Rollo May describes the creative process as an encounter between the subjective and objective poles stating that whereas the subjective pole is easy to comprehend, the objective pole, or the external world and its reality, are difficult to define. However, if this space enabled by creative acts overcomes the polarity between the subjective and the objective, new symbols that reveal new meaning are born along with an emotion of ecstasy (May, 1997). McLeish (1930), quoting a Chinese poet who said: “We poets struggle with non-being to force it into being. We must knock upon silences for an answering music” would say that music struggles with the meaninglessness of silences of the world in an effort to create meaning that creates a being out of a non being. This constitutes May’s subjective projection inherent in the creative act (May 1975). However, May is careful to point out his differences with psychoanalytic projection which Freud posited to be essentially a regression in the service of the ego, and Adler’s compensatory theory of creativity which he finds too simplistic and reductive. In fact May(1975) associates courage, and intensity with creative acts and echo’s Jung’s assertion that there exists a bipolarity between the conscious and the unconscious experience. It appears as if “the unconscious takes delight in breaking thru – and breaking up – exactly what we wish to cling to most rigidly in our conscious thinking” (May, 1975, p. 59). In the creative space, the genius and the psychosis have been closely interlinked throughout history, and creativity appears to carry an inexplicable guilt that causes many artists to commit suicide at the very height of their achievement. May holds that the creative anxiety and guilt arise from destruction of the conscious, the known, the established, the conformed in the narcissistic psychic striving towards creative joy which is the other pole that arises of gratification inherent in creativity. The insights thru music, according to May, create a new vividness and clarity, a “state of heightened consciousness” (p. 61) specifically in the area that we are most consciously committed to, it “complete(s) a Gestalt” (p. 61) with which one is struggling in conscious awareness. May further elaborates on the nature of technical and technological creativity, stating that the latter is incumbent on the courage and the intensity of artistic creativity for its source and nourishment. When artistic creativity is bound and limited by rationalized logic, spatial, quantitative and/or technical creativity becomes too mechanistic and all internal and external progress stagnates - the individual, and the world, degenerates because new ways of meeting social and personal challenges are arrested. Conscious problem solving involves processing information in a linear, logical fashion whereas artistic creativity allows for unconscious intuitions that are non-linear, abstract and multidimensional. Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  4. 4. Sameer, Madhu 4 Musical creativity is especially important in its impact on problem solving as it combines the spatial with the non-spatial ways of problem solving (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996)1 appearing as the fuel, the nourishment that propels the individual, and the world, psyche towards non-linear progress. The fuel fans courage, such courage being not only the absence of despair but an ontological necessity (Tillich, as cited in May, 1975) that embraces the courage to live, to love, to trust, to give of oneself in illogical, uncertain and chaotic world. Musical creativity embodies the experiences of the collective unconscious, the buried dimensions of our being – partly genetic, partly experiential – to give us a distant early warning of our cultural future (May, 1965). These creative endeavors thus take us beyond our own death, these symbols and forms creating and shaping our conscience and the ethical structure of the society and the individual. Creativity enables Masterson’s (1988) Real Self to come alive, and thru this experimentation we find new, and constructive ways to negotiate our everyday life and the courage to move beyond trauma and loss. Masterson (1988) implicates the loss of creativity in disorders of the self. An Object Relationist, Andre Green (1999) attributes all creative endeavors as being of sacrificial value, an outcome of a mourning process that seeks revival and reunion with the dead mother. Section II Mythological Dimensions of Musical Creativity The interrelationship between creative process, death and regeneration is echoed in the myth of Prometheus who stole the fire from the gods and gave it to the mortals in a creative act of civilization, albeit incurring the wrath of Zeus, who bound him in chains, and to Mount Caucasu where the vultures tore his liver out every morning. Our lived experiences and perverse suffering inherent in everyday journey thru life mirrors Prometheus’ tale, especially for the sensitive-souled artists. In them, the metaphorical liver grows back every morning as they get back in the smithy of their souls, enabling them to resume their Calcinatio in a hope for alchemical opus. May(1975) holds that Adam and Eve’s tale is another metaphor for development of moral consciousness - every child is born as pure Adam or Eve - the innocence of the womb is then traded for developmental achievement. What is lost cannot be recovered and must be endured. Like Prometheus, creative artists pass thru their days fighting with the gods of society – the conformist gods, gods of apathy, of materialism, of exploitation, injustice and hate (to name a few), suffering the wounds inflicted on the Self. In the myth, Prometheus is promised freedom from eternal torture provided an immortal sacrifices his immortality in exchange. Thus the sorrow and torture of everyday wounds, and the creativity required for negotiating existence, is intractably linked to the problem of sacrifice, selflessness and death. That Chiron, the Wounded Healer, would be the one to sacrifice his immortality for Prometheus, is significant in psychotherapeutic context. Chiron here symbolizes the purpose of creative endeavors and its salvation – perhaps all creativity arises of the necessity to heal the soul that is repeatedly wounded in its everyday journey of life. And as therapists we are destined to a role that demands that we sacrifice the power of immortality posited by the conscious ego, in service of our patient’s well being. Section III Musical Receptivity Creating music presupposes listening to music as it is being created/played. However, this section addresses the impact of music on those of us that are unable to create. I believe that an auditory 1 Czikszentmihalyi’s creative process folds over 5 distinct stages: 1) Preparation/immersion 2) Incubation when ideas churn below threshold of consciousness 3) Insight – the aha moment 4) Evaluation – whether insight is worth pursuing 5) Elaboration – translating the intuited ideas into work of music/art/innovation (Czikszentmihali, 1996, p.79-80) Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  5. 5. Sameer, Madhu 5 relationship with music is almost as fulfilling and follows the same philosophical and psychological rules as creation of music entails. In listening to music, the limits imposed by the form, and the mathematical structure of musical composition provide a rigid container, much like the therapeutic container proposed by Winnicot. This container serves a similar psychical function, the spatial character of external rhythms harmonizing with the cellular circadian rhythms, resonating in synchronicity, begetting unconscious memories of mother’s heartbeat and the safety, dependability and trust embodied in the womb, bringing order to chaos, containing anxieties and heightening individual awareness of lack – lack that posits nothingness, as well as lack of physical and musical freedom that resonates with and stirs the inherent repressions and other defenses that contribute to individual intrapsychic structure - like the contained and restrictive existence in the womb. New empirical evidence suggests that music and other rhythmic stimuli can alter mental states in predictable ways and heal damaged brains. As this lack of freedom becomes apparent, in music and in therapy, the conscious mind appears to constellate its opposite in order to center the self (Jung, 1974) causing unconscious frustrations that must contribute to ego-strength – in the twilight where the sound of musical rhythm beats against the infinite boundaries of silence, there are no obligations, no responsibilities, no deadlines, no necessity for movement, and the psyche can remain still, linger, lounge, and indulge unhurriedly. Romanyshyn (2007) would say that such musical interludes appear perfect opportunities to cohere, to re-member the dis-embodied, dis-owned, dis-membered parts of our lived experiences, the resulting insights and the psychic constellation being experienced as freeing and uplifting – freedom from deterministic bonds causing libidinal energy to become freely available for living life. Music therapy strives to achieve the goals of traditional talk therapy using music as a form of communication and a tool for regression. According to Bruscia (1987), the therapist conveys empathy, mirroring, understanding, grounding, conversation, and symbiotic oneness much the same way as traditional talk therapy does, by utilizing musical instruments and music for intrapsychic and interpsychic communication with the patient. This is done by improvisation – a technique similar to the unstructured talk therapy – that involves imitating, reflecting, rhythmic grounding, dialoguing and accompanying the patient’s melody. These aspects of music, much like traditional therapy, may enable rapport building and psychical regression to a point of the developmental arrest, Balint’s basic fault. Music thus appears to provide a neural pathway that short circuits cognition, moving emotional memories from the unconscious to the conscious, from repression to feeling and sensations, often bypassing the thinking/cognitive process. A similar containing function appears to be performed during meditation. Most forms of meditation enables traumatic experiences stored in the unconscious to bypass cognition and manifest themselves directly as sensations processed and expressed thru sensate bodily experience (Sameer, 2007), the expression of these freeing up the psychic energy utilized in repressions. Though images/visions/hallucinations may be encountered during the process of meditation, the meditators are taught to discard the emotional and the imaginal experiences, remaining focused on the sensory experiences. Theoretically speaking, if one were to ignore the imaginal and the emotional components of the musical experience, these experiences may be redirected to the sensory realm, replicating results similar to those achieved thru meditation. Only, music evokes outcomes at many more levels than does meditation and thus may be experienced as an alternate and a more intense form of meditation, an intense spiritual activity. Attesting to the power of rhythmic music, ritual drumming and rhythmic prayer are found in cultures throughout the world and are used in religious ceremonies to induce trance states (Sarmaan, 2006). Peter Gabriel, a musician and a songwriter, validates this assertion in his comment cited in the introduction of this document (reproduced below): Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  6. 6. Sameer, Madhu 6 Music is spiritual and is a doorway into that world. Its power comes from the fact that it plugs directly into the soul, unlike a lot of visual art or text information that has to go through the more filtering processes of the brain. (Peter Gabriel, n.d.) Since most worship and religious ceremonies are meditative in nature, the therapeutic effects of music, including the feeling of oneness with the world that leads to unitive consciousness, appear to be similar to those experienced during religious or spiritual activity. In essence, it is my unsubstantiated assertion that intense concentration in music must invoke the same neural circuits that are invoked by processes involving a close personal relationship – love, intimacy, worship, and or sacrifice – and the act of creating or listening to music essentially parallels intimacy, even sex, with all its intensity, dedication and other relational aspects, with similar exchange of projects and introjects, including the daimonic nature of Eros (discussed in the following paragraph) that gets invoked in any of these process. Creativity and Mental Health Although creativity is often associated with psychological problems, May(1975) insists that it isn’t necessarily a by-product of neurosis and that any such reductive conclusion would interpret all acts of creation as having pseudo value where talent would be a disease and creative endeavors a neurosis. He holds that all creative acts are, instead, a sign of highest emotional health that enable self actualization (May, 1975) a thought also echoed by Abraham Maslow who attributed human creative endeavor to the highest transcendental function that emerges only when the lower needs are satisfied, the soul’s drive to care for itself being tested in the most adverse human conditions. However, in contradiction to epigenetic character of Maslow’s stages, the self actualization and transcendental striving may be observed in every aspect of human existence and all living entities, including plants, appear to be responsive to the musical creativity and receptivity. May(1975) further states that the daimonic is any natural function which has the power to take over the whole person (May, 1969). It is an archetypal function of human experience that may usurp the total personality – psychosis being the contemporary name for such daimonic possession. Psychosis has repeatedly shown its presence in the acts of creativity. Although the power to open ourselves to Eros lies in the diamonic realm, it needs to be directed and channeled. It is this erotic chaos, the inability to contain and limit the experience of ecstasy that associates depression and madness with music. Nature draws no distinction between the individual and the collective, and man loses his individuality, his diamonic, his shadow, to the collective. The creative aspects of the shadow, the vitality, the energizing and individualizing aspects of shadow are given up in the process of civilization and conformity (Zweig & Wolf, 1999). Robbed of this vitality, man castrates himself by losing himself in the herd and displacing/projecting his inherent aggression onto external objects. The daimonic remains impersonal, and man forfeits his claim to individuality and uniqueness thus choosing to remain anonymous, unknown – leading to loneliness, isolation and alienation. Thus the daimonic is creative and destructive at the same time, and assails the creative minds so often. Music individualizes the collective, and is a means by which man is enabled to own his projections and externalizations. Section IV Music therapy has received recognition and validity thru The American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) founded in 1998. It is used clinically - to address psychiatric disorders, medical problems, physical handicaps, sensory impairments, developmental disabilities, substance abuse, communication disorders, interpersonal problems, and aging. It is also used to improve learning, build self-esteem, reduce stress, support physical exercise, and facilitate a host of other health-related activities. (Wikipedia, n.d.). Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  7. 7. Sameer, Madhu 7 Contemporary Research The following excerpt from a research paper by Boso et al (2006) provides further insight into physiological and neurological correlates to music: Musical stimuli have been shown to activate specific pathways in several brain areas associated with emotional behaviors, such as the insular and cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. In addition, neurochemical studies have suggested that several biochemical mediators, such as endorphins, endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide, may play a role in the musical experience. A growing body of evidence also indicates that music therapy could be useful in the clinical management of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, music therapy could be effective in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson’s disease, as well as in psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. Since music affects portions of the brain, and therapy is used to manage emotions and hence social interactions of individuals, music therapy has been empirically associated with a decrease in depression, improved mood, and a reduction in state anxiety (Nayak, et al., 2000), improvement in quality of life, involvement with the environment, awareness and responsiveness, positive associations, and socialization (Magee & Davidson, 2000), improvement in autism (Wigram, 2000; Magee & Davidson, 2000; Whipple, 2004; Hugh, 2008,), a positive effect on social and behavioral outcomes and encouraging trends with respect to mood (Nayak et al., 2000), increased social interactions (Jeong & Kim, 2007) motivation and positive emotions (Nayak et al, 2000; Magee & Davidson, 2002; Wheeler, 2003), recovery of motor skills, walking, (Schauer & Mauritz, 2003; Schneider, Schönle, Altenmüller, & Münte, 2007), pain reduction (Kim, 2005) and increased success rates in treatment of stroke victims (Kim, 2005; Schauer & Mauritz, 2003; Wilson, Parsons, & Reutens, 2006; Schneider, Schönle, Altenmüller, & Münte, 2007; Jeong & Kim, 2007). It is used in speech production in victims of Broca’s aphasia (Wilson, Parsons, & Reutens, 2006), and enhanced mental state functioning for people diagnosed with schizophrenia (Gold et. al., 2006). In experiments conducted at Stanford University (2006), rhythmic light and sound therapy helped students achieve a significant improvement in their grades, and many seniors improved performance on an array of cognitive tests (Sarmaan, 2006). Listening to music seems to be able to change brain functioning to the same extent as medication, in many circumstances (Sarmaan, 2006). However, despite the variety of physiological and psychological changes that occur when listening to music, broad conclusions cannot yet be made concerning the relationship and the direction of the relationship between music and emotion as various facilitating and mediating factors and placebo effects have been found to counfound results (Vink, 2000; Boso et al., 2006). Although it evokes several of the same emotions as other stimuli in life, music has been shown to have a characteristic frequency distribution that is skewed towards positive emotions. These emotions vary from simple to complex, from mere brain stem responses to cognitive appraisals in relation to goals in life. (Juslin et. al, 2008; Juslin & Vastfjall, in press). Juslin (2008) regard emotions as “brief but intense responses to change in the environment featuring a number of subcomponents. In addition to emotional response, there are self reported feelings (Gabrielsson, 2001) physiological response (Gomez & Danuser, 2007), activation of cortical as well as subcortical brain areas previously associated with emotions (Blood & Zatorre, 2001), expression of emotion (Witvliet & rana, 2007), action tendency (Fried & Berkowitz, 1979), and regulation (Becker, 2004). They maintain that individuals listen to music for a variety of reasons – to alleviate boredom, to relax, to get energized, to influence feelings. Yet in their research, the listeners who had no choice but to listen to music were affected as well. However, listeners’ intent was related to experienced states – thus calmness and contentment is associated with an intention to relax, and sadness and melancholy is related to intention to influence Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  8. 8. Sameer, Madhu 8 one’s feelings. Hence the reasons for listening to music will often reveal the effect that a particular piece of music has on an individual. Justin et al also found prevalence of musical emotions and Big Five personality factors. In their study, “pleasure-enjoyment was positively correlated with neuroticism” - musicians tend to be more neurotic than general population (Kemp, 1996) - and negatively correlated with openness, whereas fear- anxiety was related to conscientiousness. They also found that emotions of happiness-elation and nostalgia-longing were more prevalent with musical emotional episodes, while anger-irritation, boredom-indifference and anxiety fear were more common during non musical episodes. According to Zentner, Grandjean & Scherer (2008): music is an effective means of mood induction in the laboratory (Vastfjall, 2002; Westermann, Spies, Stahl, & Hesse, 1996), a means of mood manipulator to alter consumer behavior (Alpert & Alpert, 1990; Bruner, 1990), tool or treatment of emotional disorders (Gold, Voracek, & Wigram, 2004). It is used for mood and emotional regulation (Laukka, 2007, Saarikallio & Erkkila, 2007; Sloboda & O’Neal, 2001). Empirical research has found that although there exists a physiological aspect to emotional response elicited by music (Chapados & Levitin, 2008), negative emotions are rarely experienced by music (Juslin & Laukka, 2004; Laukka, 2007; Zenter, Granjean & Schere, 2008) although they may be “perceived as an expressive quality of music.”(Zenter, Grandjean & Schere, 2008). Active Music Engagement treatment has been correlated with increase in effective coping behaviors for children diagnosed with cancer. Although more research is needed to understand how auditory stimuli is received, stored and disseminated by the brain, given all the above, music, much like meditation, appears to be poised to become a cost effective and easily available and admissible adjunct to psychotherapeutic interventions. Musical interventions may be effectively used to recreate developmental trauma in the here and now, that can then be processed in therapeutic sessions, or for stress reduction, mood disorders, psychiatric issues and in other ways discussed above. Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  9. 9. Sameer, Madhu 9 References Adler, A. (1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. Heinz L Ansbacher & Rowena R Ansbacher (Eds.). NY: Harper & Row Aung, S. K.H., Lee, M. H.M. (2004). Music, Sounds, Medicine, and Meditation: An Integrative Approach to the Healing Arts, Alternative & Complementary Therapies, Vol. 10, No. 5: 266- 270. Balint, M. (1992). The Basic Fault. IL: Northwestern University Press. Boso M, Politi P, Barale F, Enzo E. (2006). Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience. Funct Neurol 21 (4): 187–91. Bruscia, K. E. (1987). Improvisational Models of Music Therapy. IL; Charles C. Thomas Publications. Chapados, C, Levitin, D.J. (2008). Cross modal interactions in the experience of musical performances: Physiological correlates. Cognitions. 108 (3), 639-651. Crawford, M. J.; Talwar, N. (2006). Music therapy for in-patients with schizophrenia: Exploratory randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 189: 405–409. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and psychology of discovery and intervention. NY: Harper Collins. Gold, C., Heldal, T.O., Dahle, T., Wigram, T., (2006). Music therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 4. Green, A. (1999). The dead mother: The work of Andre Green. Translated by Gregorio Kohon. NY: Routledge. Hanser S.B, Thompson L.W. (1994). "Effects of a music therapy strategy on depressed older adults". J Gerontol 49 (6): P265–9. Hart, H. (2008). A Season of Song, Dance and Autism. New York Times. Section: AR; Page 20. Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  10. 10. Sameer, Madhu 10 Jeong S, Kim M.T. (2007). "Effects of a theory-driven music and movement program for stroke survivors in a community setting". Appl Nurs Res 20 (3): 125–31. Jung, C.G. (1974). Dreams. Translated By: R. F. C. Hull. NY: Barnes & Nobles. Juslin P.N, Lilestrom D, V, Barrades, G, Silva, A. (2008). An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: Listener, music, and situation. Emotion. 9 (5), 668-683. Kim, S. J. (2005). The Effects of Music on Pain Perception of Stroke Patients During Upper Extremity Joint Exercises. Journal of Music Therapy. 42(1) 81-92. Lecture Notes. Dr. Michael J. Crawford page at Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychological Medicine. Magee, W.L., Davidson, J.W. (2002). The effect of music therapy on mood states in neurological patients: A pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy 39(1) 20-29. Malchiodi, C. A. (2002). The soul’s palette: Drawing on art’s transformative powers for health and well-being. London: Shambala Masterson, J.F. (1988). The search for the real self: Unmasking the personality disorders of our age. NY: The Free Press May, R. (1975). The courage to create. NY: Norton & Co May, R. (1969). Love and will. NY: Norton & Co McLeish, A. (1930). Poetry and experience. NY: Houtin Mifflin. Nayak, S. et al. (2000). Effect of music therapy on mood and social interaction among individuals with acute traumatic brain injury and stroke. Rehabilitation Psychology 45(3) 274-283. Romanyshyn, R.D. (2007). The wounded researcher: Research with soul in mind. CA: Spring Journal Books. Sameer, M. (2007). Vipassana Meditation: A qualitative study. Fresno: CSUF. Sarmaan, E. (2006). News Release: Symposium looks at therapeutic benefits of musical rhythm. Brainwave Entrainment to External Rhythmic Stimuli. CA: Stanford University. Sartre, J. P. (1991). The psychology of imagination. NY: Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)
  11. 11. Sameer, Madhu 11 Scott, E. (2007). Music and your body: How music affects us and why. Retreived Dec 27, 2008. Schauer M, Mauritz K.H. (2003). Musical motor feedback (MMF) in walking hemiparetic stroke patients: randomized trials of gait improvement". Clin Rehabil 17 (7): 713–22. Schneider S, Schönle P.W., Altenmüller E, Münte T.F. (October 2007). Using musical instruments to improve motor skill recovery following a stroke. J. Neurol. 254 (10): 1339–46. Vink, A. (2001). Music and emotion: Living apart together: A relationship between music psychology and music therapy. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. 10(2) 144-158. Wheeler, B.L. et al. (2003). Effects of Number of Sessions and Group or Individual Music Therapy on the Mood and Behavior of People Who Have Had Strokes or Traumatic Brain Injuries. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. 12(2) 139-151. Whipple, J. (2004). Music in Intervention for Children and Adolescents with Autism: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Music Therapy. Volume 41, Issue 2, pp. 90–106. Wigram, T. (2000). A Method of Music Therapy Assessment for the Diagnosis of Autism and Communication Disorders in Children. Music Therapy Perspectives. Volume 18, Issue 1, pp. 13–22. Wilson, S. Parsons, K. & Reutens, D. (2006). Preserved Singing in Aphasia: A Case Study of the Efficacy of Melodic Intonation Therapy. Music Perception. 42(1) 23-36. Zentner, M, Grandjean, D, Scherer, K.R.(2008). Emotions evokes by the sound of music: Characterization, classification, and measurement. In Emotion, Vol 8, No 4, 494-521 Zweig, C., Wolf, S. (1999). Romancing the shadow. NY: Ballantine. Cultural Foundations in Psychotherapy (Alan Bishop)