Oral communication (2)


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Oral communication (2)

  1. 1. By Keerthana Nair
  2. 2.  Introduction Difference between oral and written communication Conversational skills Telephone skills Public speaking Presentation skills Listening skills Questioning skills Feedback skills Group discussion
  3. 3.  Effective communication Methods to express thoughts Managerial management Common function
  4. 4. Written communication Oral communication1.nature:Written communication is Oral communication isformal in nature and it is rigid. informal and is free from all formalities.Record keeping: Oral communication doesWritten communication acts not act like evidence. Recordlike evidence , it is permanent of oral communicationrecord e.g. letter and cannot be maintained.documents which can bepreserved for years.Time element: Oral communication can beWritten communication is made quickly, there is notime-consuming and slow. wastage of time.
  5. 5. Misunderstanding: Oral communication is sometimesThere are less chances of written misunderstood.communication to be misunderstoodAccuracy: Whereas in oral communication thereWritten communication there is more is less accuracy.it may be casual.accuracy. while drafting letters morecare can be taken.Language and possibility of change: Language used is more subject toIn written communication, language change.used is less subject to change.Utility: a) Is good when a brief message is toa) Very useful when legal documents be communicated or an order is to are to be prepared be placed.b) Can reach only literate hence it is b) Can reach illiterate as well as semi of limited use. illitrate;hence it can be used effectively.
  6. 6.  Essential Development of good conversation skills Good conversationalist are good listeners Benefits Business environment
  7. 7.  Looking at the people who are talking. Choosing words that are not offensive or confusing to others. Giving other people a chance to talk. Avoid fidgeting, looking away or yawning. Taking turns in the conversation and saying "excuse me "when interruption of others occur.
  8. 8.  Crucial managerial skill  Telephone manner and courtesy  Control your voice  Pay attention to:a) Pitch-index of your confidenceb) Volume-should be loud enoughc) Rate-your message wont get throughd) Quality-essence of warmthe) Articulation - pronounciation must be clear
  9. 9.  4 things to be remembered while greeting: Welcome your caller Announce the name of your organization Introduce yourself Let them know you are here to help them. Identify yourself Offer explanation
  10. 10.  Pause to prepare to listen Listen as if you will report Eliminate clutter Choose your time Admit your problem
  11. 11.  Important method Preparing and delivery Aware of goals Knowledge about subject matter
  12. 12.  Speaking from a manuscript Speaking from memory Impromptu delivery Extemporaneous delivery
  13. 13.  TIPS FOR SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC SPEAKING: Know the room.be familiar with the place in which you will speak. Know the audience. Greet the audience. Its easier to speak to a group of friends than to group of strangers.
  14. 14.  Don’t apologize. If you mention your nervousness for any problems you think you have with your speech, you may be calling the audience attention to something they hadn’t noticed. Keep silent. Concentrate on the message-not the medium. Focus your attention away from your own anxieties, and outwardly toward your message and your audience. Turn nervousness into positive energy.
  15. 15.  Dress appropriately Project self-confidence Make the listeners feel comfortable Make eye contact Use nonverbal medium as well Modulate your voice Speak clearly Use good grammar Choose words Carefully Be perceptive
  16. 16.  What is presentation? Presentation is a way of communicating ideas and information to a group.characterstics of a good presentation include: Content Structure Packaging Human element
  17. 17.  Strategy-purpose, audience, movement, eye- contact. Delivering-tone, fluency, confidence, context. Handling Q/A-plan, listen, answer, consistent. Designing visual aids- neat, purposeful, consistent.
  18. 18.  Preparing your presentation Presentation room and visual aids Rehearsing Appearance and approach Discussion Evaluation Dealing with nerves Handling Q/A
  19. 19.  Use large, bold sans-serif fonts between 24 and 36pt Keep your slides simple The 6*6 or 3*3 rule Choose appropriate medium for visual aids Creating visual aids Using visual aids
  20. 20.  Underestimate the sensitivity of an audience. Use contemporary colloquialisms Touch audience members Be defensive Lose your temper Talk to yourself under your breath Waste time at the beginning
  21. 21.  Basic listening modes: Competitive or combative listening Passive or attentive listening Active or reflective listening
  22. 22.  Types of listening: Discriminative listening Comprehensive listening Critical listening Empathic listening
  23. 23.  A disparity between the speed at which we normally speak and the speed at which our brain can process data. A desire to keep control of the conversation. Difficulty by the listener. A desire to demonstrate intelligence and skills by trying to give the answer before fully hearing the question.
  24. 24.  To avoid listening errors caused by inattention. To avoid listening errors caused by self-absorption. To reduce listening errors caused by misinterpretation. To avoid listening errors caused by focusing solely on facts.
  25. 25. principle Good listener Bad listener1.Look for areas of Seeks personal Turns out dry subjects ,interest enlighten/ information, narrowly defines what is entertains new topics as interesting. potentially interesting.2.Overlook errors of Attends to meeting and Ignores if delivery is poor ,delivery content, ignores delivery misses messages because of errors while being personal attributes of the sensitive to any message communicator. in them.Postpone judgment Avoid quick judgments, Quickly evaluates and waits until passes judgement,inflexible comprehension of the regarding contrary core message is messages. complete.Listen for idea Take careful notes and Listen for facts and ideas. uses a variety of note taking or recording schemes depending on the speaker.
  26. 26. principle Good listener Bad listenerBe actively Responds frequently Little energy outputresponsiveChallenge Use difficult material to Avoids difficultyour mind stimulate the mind, seeks to material, does notspeed enlarge understanding. seek to broaden knowledge base.Capitalize on Uses listening time to Daydreams with slowmind speed summer4ises and anticipate speakers, becomes the messages, attends to preoccupied with implicit message. other thoughts.Assist and Asks for clarifying information Interrupts, asksencourage the or examples, uses reflecting trivial questions,speaker phrases, helps to rephrase the makes distracting idea. comments.Take notes Take careful notes and uses a Takes incomplete variety of note taking or note using one recording schemes depending system. on the speaker.
  27. 27.  Main types of questions: Factual questions Interpretive questions Evaluative questions
  28. 28.  Direct questions Return questions General questions Hypothetical questions Probing questions The echo questions Leading questions Strategic questions Powerful questions Effective questions
  29. 29.  The ability to give and receive feedback is the most important communication skill that helps in working through any problem. Use softeners and tell the person what SPECIFIC behavior would be useful for them to change and improve. Always use softeners like `I wonder if…’,`perhaps you could…’. Do not use command words like you should….’,`you need to…’.
  30. 30.  How to give effective feed??? Clarity Emphasize the positive Be specific Focus on behavior rather than the person Own the feedback-use `I’ statements. Generalizations Be very careful with advice
  31. 31.  Be descriptive Avoid using labels Don`t exaggerate
  32. 32.  To get the story behind a participant’s experiences. Focus Open-ended questions are asked.
  33. 33.  Informal, conversational interview- General interview guide approach- Standardized, open-ended interview- Closed, fixed-response interview-
  34. 34.  Behaviors Opinion/values Feelings Knowledge Sensory Background/demographics
  35. 35. Sequence of questions:1) Get the respondents involve in the interview as soon as possible.2) Before asking about controversial matters, first ask about some facts.3) Ask questions about the present before questions about the past or future.
  36. 36. Wording of questions: Wording should be open-ended Questions should be as neutral as possible Questions should be asked one at time Questions should be worded clearly Be careful asking “why "questions
  37. 37.  Guidelines for facing the job interview:1. Tell me about yourself2. Where do you see yourself in five years3. Who are your favorite references4. Have you ever owned your own business5. What is your greatest strength6. Are you a risk taker7. Are you self starter8. How well do you handle change9. How do you react to criticism from supervisors that you consider to be unjust10. How do you resolve disputes with co-workers and handle conflict
  38. 38.  Group process or team building exercise Used in the selection process Team player Reasoning ability Leadership Flexibility Assertiveness
  39. 39.  Initiative Creativity Inspiring ability Listening Awareness Interpersonal skills Persuasive skills Conceptualizing skills Problem solving skills
  40. 40.  Positive interdependence Face-to-face interaction and advocacy Individual accountability Group processing
  41. 41.  Getting started how to reframe disagreements in constructive way Common mistakes in group discussion Quality v/s quantity Egotism showing off Get noticed-but for right reasons Managing ones insecurities