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brand

  1. 1. What is a Brand?
  2. 2. What is a Brand? NAME SIGN SYMBOL/LOGO COMBINATION
  3. 3. BrandingStrategies
  4. 4. Branding Strategies Strategies Brand Multiple Extension Line Extension Branding New Brands• Existing • Same brand • Introduce • Launches brand name name same new brand in new product for new product existing in new product category product category category • Cinthol category • Timex• Maggie • Lays • HUL – Lux, Liril & Lifebuoy
  5. 5. Branding Strategies Strategies Brand MultipleExtension Line Extension Branding New Brands •?
  6. 6. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE 2.5Sales 2 Maturity 1.5 Decline Growth 1 0.5 Introduction 0 Time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
  7. 7. MARKETING STRATEGIES – INTRODUCTION STAGE Price High High Low Low High High Rapid Rapid Skimming Penetration Promotion Low Slow Slow Skimming Penetration Low
  8. 8. Rapid Skimming Launching product at high price & high promotion Strategy makes sense – Large part of the potential market is unaware of the product Awareness – Eager to have & pay the asking price Company faces potential competition Build brand preference
  9. 9. Slow Skimming Launching product at high price & low promotion Strategy makes sense – Market is limited in size & aware of the product Buyers are willing to pay high price Potential competition is imminent
  10. 10. Rapid Penetration Launching product at low price & spending heavily on promotion Strategy makes sense – Market is large & unaware of the product Buyers are price sensitive Company faces strong potential competition Unit manufacturing costs fall - Companys scale of production & accumulated manufacturing experience
  11. 11. Slow Penetration Launching product at low price & low level of promotion Strategy makes sense – Market is large & market is aware of the product Buyers are price sensitive Some potential competition
  12. 12. Marketing Strategies - Growth Improves product quality & adds new product features & improved styling Adds new product models & flanker products Enters new market segments Increases the distribution coverage & enters new distribution channels Shifts from product awareness advertising to product preference advertising Lowers price to attract the next layer of price sensitive buyers
  13. 13. Strategies – Maturity stage Product Modification Marketing Market MixModification modification Strategies Maturity stage
  14. 14. Marketing Strategies - Maturity Market Modification Non-users New Users Enter new market segments More usage New usage
  15. 15. Product Modification Quality Feature Style Improvement improvement Improvement• Increasing • Adding new • Increasing functional features products performance • Size, weight, aesthetic• Durability, rel materials, appeals iability, spee accessories e • Style d, taste etc. • Expand the competition• PLUS launch products • Packaging – versatility, Color, restyle safety, the package convenience
  16. 16. ElementsBCG MATRIX of Macro environment Economic Demographic Political/Legal Macro environment/ External environment Global Technological Socio-Cultural
  17. 17. PESTLE ANALYSIS Term pestle analysis is used to describe a framework for analysis of macro environment PESTLE analysis involves identifying the- Political- Economic- Socio-Cultural- Technological- Legal- EnvironmentalTheir influences on an organization
  18. 18. PESTLE ANALYSIS Economic Socio-Political Cultural PESTLEEnvironm Technolo ental gical Legal
  19. 19. PESTLE ANALYSIS PESTLE analysis is simple to understand & quick to implement Advantage of PESTLE tool: Encourages management - Proactive & structured thinking Provides a way of scanning the environmental influences that have affected or are likely to affect- An organization- Policy PESTLE analysis is an increasingly used & recognized term replacing the traditional framework
  20. 20. POLITICAL FACTORS How & to what extent a govt. intervenes - Economy & activities of Corporate May also include the goods & services – Govt. wants to provide Political stability Government policies Political principles & ideologies Political pressure groups influence & limit organizations
  21. 21. ECONOMIC FACTORS Major impact - business operates & take decisions Strength of consumer spending/Purchasing power Current income, savings, debt & credit availability Exchange rates, inflation, money supply, credit flow Per-capita income, growth rates Economic situations & Trends Marketers – Careful attention to trends affecting purchasing power Strong impact on business-Companies whose products-geared to high income & price sensitive
  22. 22. SOCIAL FACTORS Social factors affect the demand for a company products & how that company operates Lifestyle trends Consumer buying patterns Ethnic/Religious factors Values, attitude & aspirations Belief, values & norms of a society determine how individuals & organizations should be interrelated Consists of factors related to human relationships Impact of social attitudes & cultural values
  23. 23. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS Technology can act as both - Opportunity/Threat Opportunity - Adopting technological innovations Threat - Not able to adopt to owns advantage Technological factors - determine barriers to entry Innovation potential Technology access, licensing & patents Intellectual property rights & copyrights Maturity of technology Risk & uncertainty of technological developments
  24. 24. LEGAL FACTORS Three main purposes1. To protect companies from unfair competition2. To protect consumers from unfair business3. To protect the interest of the society Marketers must have good knowledge of major laws protecting competition, consumers & society E.g.; In India -Green dot/Red hot, M.R.P Factors affect how a company operates its cost’s & the demand for its products
  25. 25. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The deterioration of the natural environment is a major global concern There is a great concern about green house gases Depletion of ozone layer New regulations hit certain industries very hard Auto industry has to introduce expensive emission control systems (Euro II norms) Ecological/Environmental issues Environmental hazards Energy consumption & waste disposal
  26. 26. MICRO ENVIRONMENT Competitors Consumers/ Organization Customers MICRO ENV .Intermediaries Market Suppliers
  27. 27. CONSUMER/CUSTOMERS Customers - Pay money - acquire company’s product Product’s may be in both forms – Products/Services Organization can’t survive without customers Customer may or may not be a consumer Consumer – Ultimately consumes the product Marketer has to closely monitor & analyze changes in consumer taste & preferences Who are the customers/Consumers What benefits they are looking for What are their buying patterns
  28. 28. COMPETITORS Other business entities that compete for resources as well as markets Competition shapes business Marketer – Study the competitive scenario Who are the competitors? What are their strategy & business objective? Who are the most aggressive/powerful competitors Competition may be direct or indirect Direct competition is between organizations which are in same business activity
  29. 29. ORGANIZATION Individuals occupying different positions or working in different capacities in organizations Owners: They are individuals, share holder groups or organizations who have a major stake in Orgaztn. Board of directors/Governing body- Found in companies found under Companies act 1956- BOD are elected by shareholders Employees: People who actually do the work & are the major force within an organization
  30. 30. MARKET Market is a wider term than customers Marketer study the market - Actual & potential size Growth prospects & attractiveness Cost structure of the market Price sensitivity of the market Technological structure of the market Existing distribution system of the market Maturity level of the market Possibility of market segmentation & differentiation
  31. 31. SUPPLIERS Suppliers form an important component of the micro environment Suppliers provide – Raw materials, equipment, services Organizations - major decisions on outsourcing or in house production – Supplier environment Make or buy option Suppliers with bargaining power affect the cost structure Companies have to rely on many suppliers
  32. 32. INTERMEDIARIES Wholesalers, Retailers & dealers establish an important link between the org. & customers Availability of intermediaries Effect of direct dealings with the customers Cost-push effect of intermediaries Intermediaries can be considered as the major determining force in the business Intermediaries can exert a considerable influence on the business organizations
  33. 33. NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESSIDEA GENERATIONIDEA SCREENINGCONCEPT DEVELOPMENT & TESTINGMARKETING STRATEGYBUSINESS ANALYSISPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT & TESTINGTEST MARKETINGCOMMERCILIZATION
  34. 34. IDEA GENERATION EMPLOYEES COMPETITORS CHANNELCUSTOMERS MEMBERS IDEA GENERATION SOURCES
  35. 35. Types Of Buyer Behavior High Low Involvement InvolvementSignificantDifferences Complex Variety SeekingBetween Brands Buying Buying Behavior BehaviorFew Differences Dissonance HabitualBetween Brands Reducing Buying Buying Behavior Behavior
  36. 36. BUYER BEHAVIOUR MODELProblem/Need Information Evaluation of Recognition Search Alternatives Post Purchase Purchase Behavior Decision
  37. 37. INFORMATION SEARCH Sources of Information Personal Commercial Public Experiential• Family • Advertising • Mass Media • Past• Friends • Sales Person • Research Experiences• Neighbors • Dealers Organizations • Free Trials• Acquaintances • Displays
  38. 38. SALES PROMOTION Contests Coupons Prizes Sales Promotions Frequent Demos shopper
  39. 39. SEGMENTATIOIN VARIABLES DEMOGRAPHIC PSYCHOGRAPHICGEOGRAPHIC BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTATION VARIABLES
  40. 40. SEGMENTATION SEGMENTATION VARIABLESGEOGRAPHIC DEMOGRAPHIC PSYCHOGRAPHIC BEHAVIORAL• NATION • AGE • LIFESTYLE • OCCASSIONS• REGION • FAMILY SIZE • PERSONALITY • BENEFITS• STATES • GENDER • VALUES • USER STATUS• DISTRICTS • INCOME • USAGE RATE• CITY • OCCUPATION • LOYALTY• RURAL • EDUCATION STATUS• SEMI-URBAN • SOCIO • READINESS ECONOMIC STAGE • ATTITUDE
  41. 41. GEOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Dividing the market in to different geographic units Nations, States, Districts, Cities Company can operate in One, Few geographic areas or in all Example Times of India publishes local editions Hyderabad Times, Bombay Times
  42. 42. DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Market is divided on the basis of variables such as Age, Gender, Income, Family Size, Occupation, Religion, Social Effective segmentation Taste, Preferences are based on these attributes Consumers are influenced by socio-economic & lifestyle Geo-demographic segmentation
  43. 43. PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTATION Life style Income, Social group – Working women Personality Extroversion, Masculinity, aggression, Adventurous Values Core values, Belief system – Consumer attitude & behavior
  44. 44. BEHAVIORALBEHAVIORAL KEY DIMENSIONSOCCASSIONS REGULAR, SPECIAL (Cadburys, Archies)BENEFITS QUALITY, SERVICE, ECONOMY, SPEEDUSER STATUS NONUSER, EXUSER,POTENTIAL USER, FIRST TIME USER, REGULAR USERUSAGE RATE LIGHT, MEDIUM, HEAVY (Aviation Frequent Fliers)LOYALTY STATUS HARD CORE, SPLIT, SHIFTING, SWITCHERSREADINESS UNAWARE, AWARE, INFORMED, INTERESTED,STAGE DESIRED, INTENDING TO BUYATTITUDE ENTHUSIASTIC, POSITIVE, NEGATIVE, HOSTILE
  45. 45. TARGET MARKETING STRATEGIES
  46. 46. TARGET MARKETING STRATEGIES FULL MARKET SINGLE MULTI SEGMENT SEGMENT SINGLE SEGMENT SELECTIVE UNDIFFERENTIATED SPECIALIZATION FOCUS DIFFERENTIATED PRODUCT SPECIALIZATION MARKET SPECIALIZATION
  47. 47. DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY PERSONNEL DIFFERENTIATION SERVICE CHANNEL DIFFERENTIATION DIFFERENTIATION PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION IMAGEDIFFERENTIATION STRATEGY DIFFERENTIATION
  48. 48. COMPETITIVE FRAME OF REFERENCE
  49. 49. POINT OF DIFFERENCE Attributes/Benefits consumer strongly associate Believe – Do not exist in competitive brands Associations that make point of difference Based on any type of benefits/Attributes Examples – Savlon, Anchor, Promise etc.
  50. 50. POINT OF PARITY Associations - are not necessarily unique to brand Shared with other brands Association are of two types Category points of parity Associations consumers think are essential Category points of association may change Technological advances, Legal changes Competitive points of parity are associations designed to negate competitive points of difference
  51. 51. POSITIONING ERRORS
  52. 52. TYPES OF RETAILERS
  53. 53. RETAILING - OWNERSHIP CHAIN RETAILERSHIPINDEPENDENT LEASED RETAILERS DEPARTMENT OWNERSHIP
  54. 54. RETAILING – PRODUCT LINES DISCOUNT STORES DEPARTMENT SUPER STORES MARKETS SPECIALITY EXTENT OF HYPER STORES PRODUCT LINE MARKETS
  55. 55. NON-STORE BASED RETAILING
  56. 56. FACTORS – ORGANIZATIONAL BUYING ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL FACTORS FACTORSENVIRONMENTAL PERSONAL FACTORS FACTORS BUYING FACTORS
  57. 57. PRODUCT LINE DECISIONS
  58. 58. PRODUCT LINE LENGTH
  59. 59. BRAND EQUITY PERCEIVED QUALITY EMOTIONAL BRAND AWARENESS RATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS BRAND BRAND EQUITY PATENTS LOYALTY DETERMINANTS

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