Economic forced migrants and challenges among the tribal
Economic forced migrants andchallenges among the tribal youths in Kandhamal district of OdishaNational Seminar on Anthropology and human development: Issues and challenges, 7th – 8th March 2013, University of Pune Madhulika Sahoo email@example.com Senior Research Fellow Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Culture Govt. of India, Central Regional Centre, Nagpur
Economic forced MigrationMigration has been defined as crossing of theboundary of a political or administrative unitfor a certain minimum period of time. Itincludes the movement of refugees, displacedpersons, uprooted people as well as economicmigrants. Internal migration refers to a movefrom one area (a province, district ormunicipality) to another within one country(Singh2010).
Migration in Odisha• A key state for supply of migrant labours to various parts of India to work in catering, hospitality, plumbing, construction, textile, and other allied sectors.• Low and variable agricultural production coupled with lack of local employment opportunities• Landlessness, poverty and marginalisation of the poor people turns out to be the main cause of migration• Internal conflicts and political unrest• Remittance coming to the high migration district like, Ganjam, Puri, Nayagarh, Khurda, Jagatsingpur, Kendrapada
Types of migration• Migration due to extreme poverty and destitutions• Opportunity migration for better wage and livelihood• Migration due to industrial and development induced displacement• Migration due to natural disasters and armed conflict• Migration due to human trafficking
Migration in KandhmalKandhamal has witnessed large scale forced migration of people to the cities. Thousands of riot effected people reportedly migrated to Bhubaneswar, Berhampur and also moved to states like Kerala after the riots and still large numbers of people are yet to return to their homes and living under severe distress.
Crossing border to Kerela Peremba/ Alva Manguli Ernakulam BherampurKandhamal
Pros and cons of migration The Pros• Better work culture• Less hours of work 8 hrs• Weekly paid Rs 2000-3000/-• Housing facilities & one time travel allowance• More companies and industries to employ• Formation of Oriya Diaspora in Kerala, attracting many from Kandhamal
The Cons• Distance from culture & tradition• Distance from family• Breakage of kinship bond• Short term migration leading to long term stay, many prefer to stay in Kerala than coming back
Conclusion• Irrespective of ideological interpretations of the phenomenon of migration, it is an urgent crisis for the Indian state. The alarming call of political parties to curb migration on ethnic lines is a by- product of the economic distress facing the nation. Hence it is imperative to implement policy options to alleviate the situation for the short and long term.• Migration was not included in the MDGs when they were launched in 2000,it is now emerging global agenda