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Hiv Tb Vaccines
 

Hiv Tb Vaccines

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The slideshow describes the vaccination strategies for the dreadly diseases HIV and Tuberculosis with a basic introduction to both the diseases.

The slideshow describes the vaccination strategies for the dreadly diseases HIV and Tuberculosis with a basic introduction to both the diseases.

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Hiv Tb Vaccines Hiv Tb Vaccines Presentation Transcript

  • HIV AND TB VACCINES: OBSTACLES MET AND PROGRESSES MADE
  •  
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  • HIV discovery LUC MONTAGNIER BARRE SINOUSSI
  • HIV Virion Structure
  • HIV Lifecycle T Cell CD4
  • Course of HIV Infection
  • Genes in HIV
    • GAG
    • It makes various proteins necessary to protect the virus. In HIV, it has three parts: MA (matrix), CA (capsid), and NC (nucleocapsid)
    • POL
    • It makes enzymes necessary for virus replication. In HIV, it also has three parts: PR (protease), IN (endonuclease), and RT (reverse transcriptase)
    • ENV
    • The envelope gene is also found in all retroviruses. It makes proteins for the envelope to the virus. In HIV, it has two parts. SU (surface envelope, gp120) and TM (transmembrane envelope, gp41)
  • Genes in HIV
    • tat
    • The transactivator gene influences the function of genes some distance away. It controls transactivation of all HIV proteins.
    • rev
    • The differential regulator of expression of virus protein genes.
    • vif
    • The virus infectivity factor gene is required for infectivity as cell-free virus.
    • nef
    • The negative regulator factor retards HIV replication.
  • Genes in HIV
    • vpr
    • The virus protein R gene has an undetermined function
    • vpu
    • The virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication and release. It is found only in HIV-1
    • vpx
    • The virus protein X gene has an undetermined function. It is found only in HIV-2 and SIV
  • Antigen Presenting Cells *“First-line Defense” *Involved in capturing antigen *Display ‘foreign’ antigens to activate T Cells T Cells *Involved in the ‘killing’ of virus-infected cells * Adaptive Immunity B Cells *Involved in making antibodies * Adaptive Immunity
  • The Ideal Vaccine Neutralising Antibody T cell Immunity Mucosal Immunity Innate Immunity
  • Requisites for a successful HIV vaccine:
    • Antibodies
    • Bind virus; neutralize or stop virus from infecting cells; eliminate virus
    • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
    • Recognize cells infected with virus and kill those cells
    • High mutability of virus
    • No protective correlate defined
    • Multiple clades all over the globe
    HIV VACCINES – WHY SUCCESS IS HARD?
  • Strains / Clades Clades differ by around 20% of RNA and Protein sequence C C C E B B B A , D E C C C B B B 2 A-H O, N B
  • What are the steps in Vaccine development? Phase I: 10-30 volunteers, 8-12 months Phase II: 50-500 volunteers,18-24 months Phase III: Thousands of volunteers, 3 or more years
  • What types of HIV vaccines are being tested? Peptide epitopes (protein fragments) Live attenuated HIV Whole, killed HIV Naked DNA
  • Types of HIV vaccines Recombinant Viral Proteins Live bacterial vectors Live Viral Vectors Pseudovirions
  • HIV vaccines in clinical trials for efficacy and immunogenicity
  • Conclusions
    • Increasing understanding of how the immune response attempts to control HIV infection and how HIV evades this
    • Attempts to make a vaccine have been so far unsuccessful traditional approaches
    • Promising new approaches to prophylactic vaccines
    • Therapeutic vaccines may improve therapy
    • However, vaccines still several years away
  • TB statistics : 2006
    • Globally, 9.2 million new cases
    • 1.7 million deaths from TB
    • 0.7 million cases and 0.2 million deaths were in HIV-positive people
  • WORLD TB CASES CASES OF TB PER 100,000 CITIZENS: >300 200-300 <50 100-200 N/A 50-100
  • THE FORERUNNERS ROBERT KOCH ALBERT CALMETTE CAMILLE GUERIN
  • The Bug
  • TUBERCULOSIS
  • BCG VACCINE
    • Deletion mutant of M.bovis
    • Protects against childhood meningeal TB and disseminated TB
    • Protection low in developing countries
  • Replacement BCG vaccines
    • rBCG30
    • Hyperexpression of Ag85B
    • rBCG:  UreC:hly+
    •  Urease gene deleted and listeriolysin gene incorporated BCG
  • Boosting BCG vaccines
    • Ag85B-ESAT-6/TB10.4 fusion protein construct
    • Mtb72f
    • Fusion protein of Mtb32 and Mtb39 proteins
    • MV85A
    • Modified Vaccinia construct with Antigen 85A
  • TUBERCULOSIS VACCINES
  • Conclusions
    • TB vaccines show promising results in clinical trials
    • Vaccine may be available for latently infected individuals and naïve individuals