2 One of the largest of its kind, the scientific name of this owl is the Greek word for “swelling” or “groin.” (From that same word we also get the name of an unrelated disease.) The name it’s commonly known by has another bird’s name prefixed to it. Give me the scientific name and the common name of this owl. (2 points) http://youtu.be/FpUiabVDmis
4. Project Nim – about studying animal language acquisition Nim Chimpsky alluding to Noam Chomsky
5. First observed by Hilda Bruce in 1959, when she put pregnant mice with unfamiliar male mice in the same cage. Castrated or juvenile mice did not have any effect on the females. Since then, it has been observed in laboratory rodents, captive horses, and in monkeys and lions (anecdotal evidence only). Long considered to be a quirk of captivity, it wasnt until last month that the first direct observation of this effect in the wild (among gelada baboons) was published. Just tell us what the Bruce effect is.
5. Spontaneous abortion/miscarriage to avoid male violence. Also called the pregnancy block, the females terminate their pregnancy when exposed to the scent of an unfamiliar male.
6. Capra falconeri gets its common name from the Persian words for snake and eater - referring to the fact that it has been seen to kill snakes, or to the appearance of its horns. According to an old-wives tales, the froth produced when it chews the snake is supposed to be a potent antidote to snake bites. ID this animal which happens to be the national animal of Pakistan. (visual on next slide)
7. It may be that the shape and spiral ribbing of a human organ were reminiscent of the two valves of this mollusc, and that gave rise to the English idiom. Some aver that the idiom probably came about after the shape of the mollusc itself. The chambers of a kiln had the same name as these molluscs. The cold chambers of a kiln must be brought to a certain temperature in order to function at its best and so arises the idiom, says theory two. What is the idiom?
8. Despite being known more by its Japanese name, especially in North America, it did not originate in Japan, but rather in continental Asia. The common name is variously prefixed with “White”, “Japanese”, “Oriental” and “Chinese” depending on the market one goes to shop at. Its leaves are used in pickling. Koreans use the leaves in Kimchi. South Indians add the vegetable in Sambar. Give the Japanese name of this vegetable that means “long root” in that language.
8. Daikon What we usually call radish, it goes by White Radish, Japanese radish, Oriental radish, Chinese radish elsewhere.
9. The Peruvian coat of arms shows a wild South American camelid, which lives in the high alpine areas of the Andes, highly valued for its soft fine wool, with some claiming that its fleece is the rarest, most expensive natural fibre in the world and a medicinal plant named by Linnaeus after the wife of a viceroy of Peru, who according to legend was the first European ever to be cured from Malaria fever. Name both. (2 points)
9. Cinchona – the bark of which gives us quinine Vicuna
10 a. This is a technique that dates back 4,600 years to the 4th and 5th Egyptian dynasties. What is going on? b. There is a 6-letter word that is used to describe the method shown, deriving from the Old French for “gullet” or “stuff”. What’s the good word?
10 a. Force feeding geese for foie gras Foie gras – French for fat liver – is a food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. b. Gavage
11 Rules - • plot no greater than 3m x 3m • 5 minute warm up time • 3 person team of charmer, catcher and counter World _____ ________ Championships held every year at Willaston County Primary School, Cheshire (pics in the next slide). Similar events have been held in Canada and the United States. Current world record of 567 held by a 10-year old named Sophie Smith. Fill in the blanks, OR what are these people doing?
12 Paraponera clavata inhabits the rainforests stretching from Nicaragua to Paraguay. The locals call it Hormiga Veinticuatro a.k.a the 24 hour ant. Connect this iruve to the man shown in the picture below.
12 Ant called bullet ant, as its sting is as painful as getting shot by one. The sting of the bullet ant is reputedly the most painful sting on the Schmidt Sting Pain Index. That man is Justin O. Schmidt who came up with the index.
13 Unlike all other birds, the male club-winged manakin exhibits a behaviour more commonly associated with insects and arthropods (particularly crickets & grasshoppers). Another example for sexual selection driven to extremes, it involves the two modified structures shown in the picture (on the next slide). What behaviour? (Looking for a specific word)
13 Stridulation - rubbing body parts together to produce auditory signals to attract mates. Crickets/grasshoppers rub limb structures; the manakin rubs its 4th modified feather like a bow across the 3rd.
15 Alfred Russell Wallace put forth the idea that their purpose was to provide camouflage. A little known naturalist Alexander M’Aldowie disagreed, saying that they shielded embryos from radiation and influenced development. Wallaces argument has been the most accepted so far, although recent research suggests that MAldowie wasnt too wrong either. It has been hypothesised that they influence embryonic development by providing thermo-regulation, UV- B protection, photo-acceleration, lateralization, circadian rhythm, photo-reactivation, and antimicrobial defence. What are we talking about?
16 Dubbed immortal worms, these asexually reproducing organisms have a near limitless capacity for regeneration. It was found recently that this is partly due to the fact that they have a modified telomerase enzyme, and can maintain the telomere (chromosome ends) sequences even in somatic cells. Identify the organism (generic name will not be accepted).
17 In mammals, ‘sense X’ is mediated by a Tas1r2/Tas1r3 heteromer complex, while a Tas1r1/Tas1r3 complex mediates ‘sense Y’(which is a Japanese loanword). ‘Hyper-carnivores’ (all cats, hyenas, dolphins, otters, fossa and seals) do not have ‘sense X’, and it was found recently that this was due to the Tas1r2 gene picking up multiple mutations and becoming a non-functional pseudogene. In hyper-carnivorous sea mammals, ‘sense Y’ is also lost as both Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 have become pseudogenes. Mammals like dogs which stray from a ‘meat-exclusive diet’ have working copies of all these genes. ID X and Y (1 point each)
17 X – taste of sweetness Y – umami – taste of meat
18 As a demonstration of personalized medicine, geneticist Michael Snyder introduced something he called “integrative Personal Omics Profiling.” iPOP involved the merging of Snyders genome sequence with data from RNA, protein, metabolic and auto-antibody profiles. The results showed that Snyder was genetically predisposed to type II diabetes, despite the absence of any family history and risky behaviour. Richard Gibbs at Baylor College of Medicine dubbed this work the “__________-ome” Fill in the blank. (clue in the next slide)
18 The “Narciss-ome” (the flower in the picture is the Narcissus)
19 X, Y and Z get their names as they are thought to have originated in the same city. X is a breed of pet animal most famously associated with a fictional supervillian. We get wool from Y, although it does not look remotely like a sheep. Z did not actually originate in the city, but gets its name as the product Q (obtained from Z) was shipped from this city to England. What are Z and Q?
19 X – Angora cat Y – Angora rabbit Z – Angora goat Q - Mohair
20 For over a century, these two dinosaurs had been classified as separate species. In the last few years, Jack Horner and John Scannella have put forth the idea that dinosaur B was just a grown up dinosaur A. This year, Nicholas Longrich re-analysed the skulls of both animals and came to the conclusion that they are indeed, distinct species. Identify both dinosaurs. (2 points)
20 A – Triceratops B – Torosaurus (has a much larger frill with two holes in it)
21 A prime example of how sexual conflict shapes the evolution of animals. Although males and females in these animals form stable bonds lasting a complete mating season, rival males attempt what we politely call “forced copulation”. To gain an advantage, males have evolved corkscrew phalluses that evert ballistically directly into the female vagina. Penises evert in an anti-clockwise manner, and can extend upto a third of body size. As a counter-measure, females have equally long vaginas that spiral clockwise, and which are lined with dead end pockets and sharp turns. What animals are we talking about?
23 Milvus migrans govinda is a common sight in most Indian cities. Like its namesake, it is also a “dark one.” Another common name for it is also a synonym for outcast but in this case probably refers to its semi-feral state. ID
25 The only member of the Ophistocomus genus, this bird is a native of the Amazon and Orinoco river basins. Its taxonomic position has always been subject to debate, and recent genome sequencing efforts have only muddied the issue. Its chicks are born with two claws on their wings, which are lost as the bird matures. These help in evading predators like hawks – on sighting one, the chicks jump out of the nest into the waters below. Once the danger has cleared, they climb up to the nest using their clawed wings. Identify the bird.
26 The Romans derived these symbols from the initial letters of the Greek words for certain astronomical objects. The symbols were picked up by chemists, who used them to denote iron, copper and mercury. Carl Linnaeus was the first to use these in biology as a scientific shorthand. The first two symbols are still used unchanged, while the third (for mercury) is now used to denote something else (than what Linnaeus used it for) . What symbols?
26 Symbols for male(mars - iron - ♂), female(venus – copper - ♀) and virgin female (mercury - ☿). The symbol for mercury was used by Linnaeus to denote hermaphrodites.
27 A famous film-maker encounters this creature somewhere in the forests of Australia. What follows is a strange sequence of sounds – a medley of various bird calls (including that of a kookaburra), clicking of a camera shutter, sounds from the motor drive of a camera, and finally, sounds of people using chainsaws to cut down trees. What just happened here?
27 David Attenborough encounters the Superb Lyre Bird Here’s the video: http://www.youtu.be/VjE0Kdfos4Y
28 Heterocephalus glaber is one of only two eusocial mammals. It has some very unusual physiological traits that help it survive in its unique environment. Among such traits are the ability to cope with reduced oxygen availability, low respiratory & metabolic rates, and a lack of thermoregulation. For unknown reasons, it also cannot sense pain as its skin does not synthesize the hormone substance P. ‘Modern’ biologists are interested in this animal as it is extraordinarily long-lived, and is highly resistant to cancer. It was found recently that this resistance might be due to the presence of 2 proteins p27 and p16 that serve as checkpoints and regulate cell proliferation. Other mammals have only p27. Identify the animal.
29 This shrub of the Solanaceae (nightshade) family has long been used in traditional medicine for anti-inflammatory purposes. Extracts of the plant contain alkaloids like tropine, and a family of steroidal lactones called withanoloids. Withanolides are responsible for the anti- inflammatory actions. Recent studies have shown that they can be anti-metastatic, and may even prevent aggregation of amyloid-beta (Alzheimer’s disease) Identify this plant that gets its species name from the Latin for ‘sleep-inducing’. You might be more familiar with it as its roots supposedly smell like a horse.
29 Ashwagandha also known as Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera)
30 Escamole has a cottage-cheese like consistency, with a buttery and slightly nutty taste. Considered a delicacy of Mexican cuisine, it is often called ‘_______ caviar’. They are usually harvested from the roots of the agave and maguey plants (from which we get tequila and mezcal respectively). The harvesting is a tricky business, and having experts around is advised. What is escamole?
30 Escamole are larvae of ants of the genus Liometopum
31 The wood of this plant has been used to make artificial bones with a process that lasts 10 days and treatments with chemicals, heat and pressure. It was chosen because its porous nature allows blood vessels, nerves and other compounds to grow through it. Besides the common use we know it for, it was also commonly used for corporal punishment in English schools. What plant is this?
31 Rattan – most commonly used to make furniture or wicker baskets
32 The name __X__ __Y__ refers to their habit of hiding downwind of ships prior to the appearance of bad weather. __Y__ is a diminutive form of St Peter, and might refer to their ability to seemingly ‘walk on water’. The english translation of this writer’s 1901 poem, Song of the __X__ __Y__ has led to the name now being used to describe revolutionary anarchists. Identify.
32 Stormy Petrel Gorky wrote Song of a Stormy Petrel, using the bird as the protagonist in the poem about Russian societys attitudes prior to the revolution.
33 Grimpoteuthis is a genus of deep-sea octopi which use their prominent ear-like fins to hover in one place searching for prey. This feature has led to them being nicknamed after a character from an animation film. Identify. Video: http://youtu.be/2Sn-dlBRkTY
34 Discovered in the early 20th century by Frederick Twort and Felix d’Herelle, they were immediately recognized as a great tool against bacterial infection. Early uses for therapy were unreliable, and with the discovery of antibiotics, this soon became a neglected field of research. Although biologists continued to use them for ‘basic research’, it is only the efforts of George Eliava (and later, the institute named after him) in Tbilsi, Georgia that has kept this alive. The rise of antibiotic resistance has now lead to more people showing interest. Tell us what type of therapy this is.
34 Phage therapy (using bacteriophages to treat infections)
35 According to Greek myth, the lovers __X__ and Ceyx angered Zeus, who punished Ceyx by throwing a thunderbolt at his ship. The grief-stricken X jumped into the sea. The gods then felt sorry, and turned both into a pair of __Y__ birds. Ovid tells us that during a particular period of 7 days each year, __X__ would lay eggs. To protect her & her eggs, her father Aeolus would restrain the winds and calm down the sea. Her name gives us a word referring to such a peaceful time. It also refers to a large group, and a genus of birds __Y__. What is Y?
36 This plant is known for exhibiting thigmonasty or seismonasty. When regions of the cell lose turgor pressure (force applied to the cell wall by water & intra-cellular constituents), there is an efflux of K+ ions. Water is forced out of vacuoles and eventually out the cell. Loss of cell pressure leads to collapse - this differential turgidity between different regions eventually leads to the collapse of the petiole. Identify this plant whose scientific name would translate as ‘bashful mimic.’ Give us the scientific name.
37 The name for this concoction in Quechua translates as ‘spirit vine’. It is made from the jungle vine Banisteriopsis caapi which provides beta-carbolines, and the shrub Psychotria viridis which provides dimethyltriptamine (DMT). Taken singly, these ingredients don’t do much, but synergize spectacularly when taken together. Beta-carbolines inhibit an enzyme called mono-amine oxidase (MAO), which prevents DMT breakdown, and also elevates serotonin levels in the brain. The effect is a hallucinogenic trip (visual+auditory) lasting ~4 hours. The downside of this is elevated heart rates and blood pressure, which cause severe nausea. What is the name of this delicious brew?
38 For years, the reclusive Czech scientist Jaroslav Flegr maintained that a protozoan was subtly changing our brains and behaviour – contributing to car crashes, suicides and mental disorders like schizophrenia. Traditionally though, this parasite is the reason pregnant women are told to avoid cats’ litter boxes. Recent studies have shown that in infected rodents, the parasite up-regulates the production of dopamine, altering regions of the brain involved with pleasure, fear and anxiety (like in schizophrenics). Infection has only been shown to be correlated with increased anxiety, decreased attention and suicide in humans. It is not yet known if the parasite is the cause, and also whether it is sexually transmitted in humans. Give us the name of this opportunistic parasite.
39 Wolffia is a genus of plants commonly called watermeal or duckweed that exists as a free-floating thallus without roots. The flower consisting of one stamen and one pistil is produced on the top surface. What is special/unusual about Wolffia?
40 Achim Reisdorf and Michael Wutke recently published a paper where they try to explain a phenomenon called ophistotonus. They got some chicken carcasses from the local butchers, dunked them under water and observed what happened to the ligaments/musculature. What were they trying to explain?
40 Why many fossilized animals appear with their necks bent backwards “The teams independently concluded that the ligaments in chicken necks were like rubber bands — bendable, but contracted by default to hold the bird’s head upright against gravity. In the dead chicken, those ligaments still want to return to their natural, unstretched position, but the dead weight of the bird fights against it. In water, however, buoyancy and lack of friction allow the ligaments to contract into their natural shape, cranking the neck backward as they go.”
41 Considered a delicacy by the Japanese, they can be eaten raw with ponzu sauce. Their intestines are prepared in a dish called konowata. Salted and dried ovaries are a dish called konoko/kuchiko. What?
42 Long thought to be fossilized bacteria, these microscopic structures were recently recognized to be integral parts of the fossilized animals. Jakob Vinther at Yale was the first to analyze these, and perform a whole body reconstruction for a fossil of Anchiornis. What structures? Or what first was achieved with this reconstruction?
44 The bird is the red-tailed hawk and its call is used for the bald eagle in movies/TV because it’s “cooler” Red tailed hawk: http://www.youtu.be/33DWqRyAAUw Bald eagle: http://www.youtu.be/hlq2kcYQcLc
45 First named after A, then briefly after B and finally the name we now know them by is after C. What? B A C
47 This insignificant animal was recently discovered to be one of the few organisms able to survive in a vacuum (besides bacteria, lichens etc) It was seen alive in the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope and was filmed waving a limb. Once removed from the chamber, it even scampered away. What well-known animal is this?
48 Brookesia micra – a chameleon reported recently from Madagascar. It is the smallest reptile known.
49 About 37% of the plants found here are not found anywhere else leading to it sometimes being called “the most alien looking place on Earth.” Name this island/archipelago located south of Arabia and east of the Horn of Africa.
49 Socotra Apparently now used as a fueling stop by Somali pirates
50 Dubbed the “A-B hypothesis,” this new revisionist theory attempts to explain child development, behavioral genetics and anthropology with an analogy to two plants. Some kids seem to thrive and develop irrespective of what environment they are in (like flower A); while other kids throw tantrums, have trouble adjusting etc (all signs of stress), but given the right environment actually outdo the rest(like flower B.) What are A and B?