Auxiliary verbFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search This article needs attention from an expert on the subject. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Linguistics or the Linguistics Portal may be able to help recruit an expert. (May 2010) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2010) This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. Please improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (May 2010)In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb, helper verb, auxiliary verb, orverbal auxiliary, abbreviated AUX) is a verb functioning to give further semantic orsyntactic information about the main or full verb following it. In English, the extrameaning provided by an auxiliary verb alters the basic meaning of the main verb to makeit have one or more of the following functions: passive voice, progressive aspect, perfectaspect, modality, dummy, or emphasis.In English, every clause has a finite verb which consists of a main verb (a non-auxiliaryverb) and optionally one or more auxiliary verbs, each of which is a separate word.Examples of finite verbs include write (no auxiliary verb), have written (one auxiliaryverb), and have been written (two auxiliary verbs). Many languages, including English,feature some verbs that can act either as auxiliary or as main verbs, such as be ("I amwriting a letter" vs "I am a postman") and have ("I have written a letter" vs "I have aletter"). In the case of be, it is sometimes ambiguous whether it is auxiliary or not; forexample, "the ice cream was melted" could mean either "something melted the icecream" (in which case melt would be the main verb) or "the ice cream was mostly liquid"(in which case be would be the main verb).The primary auxiliary verbs in English are to be and to have; other major ones includeshall, will, may and can.Contents[hide] • 1 Functions of the English auxiliary verb o 1.1 Passive voice o 1.2 Progressive aspect o 1.3 Perfect aspect o 1.4 Modality
o 1.5 Dummy o 1.6 Emphasis • 2 Properties of the English auxiliary verb o 2.1 Negation o 2.2 Inversion o 2.3 Ellipsis o 2.4 Tag questions • 3 See also • 4 References Functions of the English auxiliary verb Passive voiceThe auxiliary verb be is used with a past participle to form the passive voice; forexample, the clause "the door was opened" implies that someone (or something) openedit, without stating who (or what) it was. Because many past participles are also stativeadjectives, the passive voice can sometimes be ambiguous; for example, "at 8:25, thewindow was closed" can be a passive-voice sentence meaning, "at 8:25, someone closedthe window", or a non-passive-voice sentence meaning "at 8:25, the window was notopen". Perhaps because of this ambiguity, the verb get is sometimes used colloquiallyinstead of be in forming the passive voice, "at 8:25, the window got closed." Singular-Sing Sing Progressive aspectThe auxiliary verb be is used with a present participle to form the progressive aspect; forexample, "I am riding my bicycle" describes what the subject is doing at the given (in thiscase present) time without indicating completion, whereas "I ride my bicycle" is atemporally broader statement referring to something that occurs habitually in the past,present, and future. Similarly, "I was riding my bicycle" refers to the ongoing nature ofwhat I was doing in the past, without viewing it in its entirety through completion,whereas "I rode my bicycle" refers either to a single past act viewed in its entiretythrough completion or to a past act that occurred habitually. Perfect aspectThe auxiliary verb have is used with a past participle to indicate perfect aspect: a currentstate experienced by the subject as a result of a past action or state. For example, in "Ihave visited Paris" the current state is one of having a Paris visit in ones past, while thepast action is visiting Paris. The past action may be ongoing, as in "I have been studyingall night". An example involving the result of a past state rather than a past action is "Ihave known that for a long time", in which the past state still exists (I still know it) alongwith the resultant state (I am someone who knew that at some past time). An example
involving the result of a past state that no longer exists is "I have felt bad in the past, butnot recently". The alternative use of had instead of have places the perspective fromwhich the resultant state is viewed in the past: "By 1985 I had visited Paris" describes the1985 state of having a prior Paris visit. ModalityModality means the attitude of the speaker to the action or state being expressed, in termsof either degree of probability ("The sun must be down already", "The sun should bedown already", "The sun may be down already", "The sun might be down already"),ability ("I can speak French"), or permission or obligation ("You must go now", "Youshould go now", "You may go now"). See modal verb and English modal verb. DummyDo, does, or did plays a dummy (place-filling) role in transforming simple (one-word)verbs into questions or negatives: "I go" → "Do I go?", "I do not go"; "He goes" →"Does he go?", "He does not go"; "I went" → "Did I go?", "I did not go". EmphasisThe auxiliaries do, does, and did are also used for emphasis in positive declarativestatements in which the verb otherwise contains only one word: "I do like this shirt!", "Hedoes like this shirt", "I did like that shirt". the passive voice Properties of the English auxiliary verbSee also: English verbsSee also: List of English auxiliary verbs NegationAuxiliaries take not (or nt) to form the negative, e.g. cannot (can’t), will not (won’t),should not (shouldn’t), etc. In certain tenses, in questions, when a contracted auxiliaryverb can be used, the position of the negative particle nt moves from the main verb to theauxiliary: cf. Does it not work? and Doesnt it work?. InversionAuxiliaries invert to form questions: • "You will come." • "Will you come?" Ellipsis
Auxiliaries can appear alone where a main verb has been omitted, but is understood: • "I will go, but she will not."The verb do can act as a pro-VP (or occasionally a pro-verb) to avoid repetition: • "John never sings in the kitchen, but Mary does." • "John never sings in the kitchen, but Mary does in the shower." Tag questionsAuxiliaries can be repeated at the end of a sentence, with negation added or removed, toform a tag question. In the event that the sentence did not use an auxiliary verb, a dummyauxiliary (a form of do) is used instead: • "You will come, wont you?" • "You ate, didnt you?" • "You wont (will not) come, will you?" • "You didnt (did not) eat, did you?" • "You (do) know how to dance, dont you?"Similar negative auxiliary verbs are found in Nivkh and the Salish and Chimakuanlanguages formerly spoken in northwestern North America. Salish and Chimakuanlanguages also have interrogative auxiliary verbs that form questions in the same manneras negative verbs do negated statements.In many non-Indo-European languages, the functions of auxiliary verbs are largely orentirely replaced by suffixes on the main verb. This is especially true of epistemicpossibility and necessity verbs, but extends to situational possibility and necessity verbsin many indigenous languages of North America, indigenous Australian languages andPapuan languages of New Guinea.In Hawaiian Creole English, a creole language based on a vocabulary drawn largelyfrom English, auxiliaries are used for any of tense, aspect, and modality expression. Thepreverbal auxiliary wen indicates past tense (Ai wen see om "I saw him"). The futuremarker is the preverbal auxiliary gon or goin "am/is/are going to": gon bai "is going tobuy". These tense markers indicate relative tense: that is, past or future time relative tosome benchmark that may or may not be the speakers present (e.g., Da gai sed hi gonfiks mi ap "the guy said he [was] gonna fix me up". There are various preverbal modalauxiliaries: kaen "can", laik "want to", gata "have got to", haeftu "have to", baeta "hadbetter", sapostu "am/is/are supposed to". Waz "was" can indicate past tense before thefuture marker gon and the modal sapostu: Ai waz gon lift weits "I was gonna liftweights"; Ai waz sapostu go "I was supposed to go". There is a preverbal auxiliary yustufor past tense habitual aspect : yustu tink so "used to think so". The progressive aspectcan be marked with the auxiliary ste in place of or in addition to the verbal suffix -in:Wat yu ste it? = Wat yu itin? "What are you eating?" Ste can alternatively indicate
perfective aspect: Ai ste kuk da stu awredi "I cooked the stew already". Stat is anauxiliary for inchoative aspect when combined with the verbal suffix -in: gon stat plein"gonna start playing". The auxiliary pau without the verbal suffix indicates completion:pau tich "finish(ed) teaching". Aspect auxiliaries can co-occur with tense-markingauxiliaries: gon ste plei "gonna be playing"; wen ste it "was eating".Hawaiian:ch.6; is an isolating language, so its verbal grammar exclusively relies onunconjugated auxiliary verbs. It has indicative and imperative moods, the imperativeindicated by e + verb (or in the negative by mai + verb). In the indicative its verbs canoptionally be marked by ua + verb (perfective aspect, but frequently replaced by theunmarked form); ke + verb + nei (present tense progressive aspect; very frequently used);and e + verb + ana (imperfective aspect, especially for non-present time).In Mandarin Chinese, another isolating language, auxiliary verbs are distinguished fromadverbs:pp.181-2 in that (1) yes-no questions can be answered with subject + auxiliary(e.g., Nǐ néng lái ma? Wǒ néng "Can you come? I can" is correct) but not with subject +adverb (e.g., Nǐ yídìng lái ma? Wǒ yídìng "Will you definitely come? I definitely" isincorrect), and (2) an auxiliary but not an adverb can be used in the yes-or-noconstruction verb + "not" + verb (as in Nǐ néng bu néng lái? "you can not can come?").The auxiliary verbs in Mandarin:pp.182-3 include three meaning "should", four meaning"be able to", two meaning "have permission to", one meaning "dare", one meaning "bewilling to", four meaning "have to", and one meaning either "will" or "know how". See also • Compound verb • Copula • English modal verb • English verbs • Irregular verb • Tense-aspect-mood References 1. ^ Nancy Harrison (1985). Writing English: a users manual. Taylor & Francis. p. 104. ISBN 0709937083. 2. ^ James R. Hurford (1994). Grammar: a students guide. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0521456274. 3. ^ Sakoda, Kent, and Jeff Siegel, Pidgin Grammar, Bess Press, 2003. 4. ^ Dahl, Osten, Tense and Aspect Systems, Blackwell, 1985. 5. ^ Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert, New Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary, U. of Hawaii Press, 1992: grammar section, pp. 225-243. 6. ^ a b Li, Charles N., and Sandra A. Thompson, Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar, Univ. of California Press, 1989.
• The English Verb An Exploration of Structure and Meaning, Michael Lewis. Language Teaching Publications. ISBN 0-906717-40-X [show]v · d · eLexical categories and their features Verb Finite · Non-finite — Attributive · Converb · Gerund · Gerundive · Infinitive · form s Participle (adjectival · adverbial) · Supine · Verbal noun Accusative · Ambitransitive · Andative/Venitive · Anticausative · Autocausative · Auxiliary · Captative · Catenative · Compound · Copular · Defective · Denominal · Deponent · Ditransitive · Dynamic · ECM · Ergative · Verb types Frequentative · Impersonal · Inchoative · Intransitive · Irregular · Lexical · Light · Modal · Monotransitive · Negative · Performative · Phrasal · Predicative · Preterite-present · Reflexive · Regular · Separable · Stative · Stretched · Strong · Transitive · Unaccusative · Unergative · WeakRetrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auxiliary_verb"Categories: Verbs by typeHidden categories: Linguistics articles needing expert attention | Articles needing expertattention from May 2010 | All articles needing expert attention | Articles needingadditional references from October 2010 | All articles needing additional references |Wikipedia articles needing cleanup from May 2010 | All articles needing cleanupPersonal tools • Log in / create accountNamespaces
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