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Subject Verb Agreement

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2007g2

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  • 1. Subject-verb Agreement 主谓一致
  • 2. Subject-verb Agreement 1.Three Basic Guiding Principles 2.Problems of Concord With Collective Nouns 3. Problems of Concord Whith Nouns Ending Ic-s 4. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject 5. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 6. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord Subject-verb Agreement
  • 3. 主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致,主谓一致必须遵循三原则: 1). 语法一致原则 (grammatical concord) 2). 意义一致原则 (notional concord) 3). 就近原则 (principle of proximity) 1. 语法一致原则:指主语是单数形式,谓语动词用单数形式,主语是复数形式,谓语也用复数形式。    Tom is a good student.   汤姆是个好学生。      They often play football on the playground.   他们经常在操场上踢足球。 Three Basic Guiding Principles
  • 4.   2. 意义一致:指主语形式上为单数,但意义为复数,因此谓语动词用复数形式;或主语形式上为复数 , 但表示单数意义,这是谓语动词用单数形式。    My family are having lunch now.   我们一家人现在正吃午饭。    Twenty dollars is too expensive for the book.   这本书 20 美元太贵了。 3. 就近一致:指谓语动词用单数形式还是用复数形式,取决于最靠近他的主语。例如:    Not only the teacher but also his students like playing football.   不仅老师喜欢踢足球,而且他的学生也喜欢踢足球。    There is a pen and some books on the desk.    课桌上有一支钢笔和一些书。
  • 5. Problems of Concord With Collective Nouns Collective nouns are words that imply more than one person but that are considered singular and take a singular verb, such as: group , team , committee , class , and family . In very few cases, the plural verb is used if the individuals in the group are thought of and specifically referred to. 对于某些集体名词,如 people , police , cattle 等,只当复数看待,谓语动词必须用复数。 People here are very friendly.    The police are searching for the thief. 而 family,class, group,team 等集体名词作主语,若指一个整体时,谓语动词用单数形式,若指一个具体成员时,谓语动词复数形式。这类名词还包括: audience , club , company , crew , enemy , crowd , government , party , public 等。 ★ 名词 population 一词的使用情况类似。“ a group(crowd) of + 复数名词”等短语之后的谓语动词也同样可用单数或复数,前者强调整体,后者强调各个部分。
  • 6. 2. 名词所有格之后的名词被省略,这种情况一般只指商店、工厂、住宅等,作主语时,动词一般用单数。如: The doctor’s is across the street. My uncle’s is not far from here. 常见的省略名词有: the baker’s , the barber’s , the carpenter’s , the Zhang’s 等。 表示店铺的名词,一般作集体名词看待,但用作主语时,谓语动词往往用复数。如: Richardson’s have a lot of goods to sell. Problems of Concord With Collective Nouns Exercises His family _____all very kind and friendly. His family ______a happy one.    A. are,is       B. is,is       C. are,are        D. is,are The answer is A.
  • 7. Problems of Concord Whith Nouns Ending Ic-s 1. 以“ -ics” 结尾的学科名词:指教育、科研的某一学科,作单数。如 : Mathematics seems easy to me . 我似乎觉得数学不难。 2. 但是,表“具体的学业、活动”等时,多用作复数。如 : ①Her mathematics are weak . 她数学差。(指“学业成绩、能力”) ② What are your politiscs? 你的政治观点如何?
  • 8. Problems of Concord Whith Nouns Ending Ic-s 2. “works 工厂, means 方法, series 系列, species 物种, aircraft 飞机”等名词单、复数同形,要从上下文判断其具体意义来决定单、复数。如 : ①This works was(These works were)built two years ago . 这(几)家工厂是两年前修建的。 ② Every means has (All means have) been tried . 各种办法都试过了。 这类名词通常还有“ fish ,deer ,sheep ,headquarters ( 总部驻地 ),bellows( 风箱 ), plastics, gallows ( 绞架 ), manners( 礼貌 ) ,whereabouts ( 行踪 ), ” 等。(但 news (消息)是不可数名词,通常只作单数用。
  • 9. Exercises 1.Maths _______ my favourite subject. A. be       B. is       C. am        D. are The answer is B.
  • 10. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject 1. 用 and 或 both…and 连接并列主语,谓语动词通常用复数形式。如: Plastics and rubber never rot. Walking and riding are good exercises. 但是,并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时,谓语动词用单数形式,这时 and 后面的名词没有冠词。既: a/the+ 单数名词 +and+ 单数名词,指的是同一个人或物; a/the+ 单数名词 +and+ a/the+ 单数名词,指两个人或物。如: The writer and teacher is coming. 那位作家兼教师来了。 ( 作家和教师指同一个人 ) The writer and the teacher are coming. 作家和老师来了。 ( 作家和老师是两个人 ) Truth and honesty is the best policy. To love and to be loved is great happiness. Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit. A knife and fork is on the table.
  • 11. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject
    • Exercises
    • The singer and the dancer _____come to Beijing.    A. has       B. have       C. are       D. is
    The answer is B. 2. The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is    B. was   C. are   D. were The answer is B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除 A , C 。本题易误选 D ,因为 The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有 the ,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用 and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选 B 。
  • 12. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject 2. Expressions such as with , together with , including , accompanied by , in addition to , or as well do not change the number of the subject. If the subject is singular, the verb is too. 当主语部分 ( 主语是单数时 ) 含有 with , together with , along with , as well as , besides , except , but , like , in addition to , as much as , no less than , along with , like , rather than , together with , but , besides , including ,等介词或介词短语时,谓语动词用单数形式;但“名词 +as well as+ 名词”时,谓语动词一般应与第一个名词一致。   Mike with his father has been to England.    Mike,like his brother,enjoys playing football.
  • 13. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject Exercises 1 . You as well as he____ to blame( 责备 ) for the accident. A. are        B. is        C. have         D. has The answer is A. 2 . The boy with the two dogs _____ when the earthquake rocked the city.    A. were sleeping              B. is sleeping    C. was sleeping                D. are asle The answer is C.
  • 14. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject 3. 由 both…and… 连接两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式;由 or,  either…or… , neither…nor…,  not only…but also…,  not…but…, 连接两个名词或代词作主语时,根据就近原则决定谓语动词形式。 Either my wife or I am going. Neither you, nor I, nor anyone else knows the answer. Not only you but also he is ready to leave. Exercises 1 . Either Jane or Steven _____ watching TV now.    A. were       B. is       C. was         D. are The answer is B.
  • 15. Problems of Concord With A Coordinate Subject Exercises 2. Neither Liping nor I _______a basketball player.    A. am       B. is       C. be        D. are The answer is A. 3. That place is not interesting at all. ____of us wants to go there.    A. Neither         B. Both       C. All       D. Some The answer is A. 4. Neither my wife nor I myself ____ able to teach my daughter to sing English songs. A. has been         B. is         C. are         D. am The answer is D.
  • 16. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 1. 单数名词 ( 代词 ) ,不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数形式;复数名词 ( 代词 ) 作主语,谓语用复数形式。    The desk is Tom’s.        Some water is in the bottle.       The students are playing football on the playground.  Exercises 1 . Both Lily and Lucy ______ to the party yesterday.    A. invited                   B. was invited    C. had invited              D. were invirted The answer is D.
  • 17. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 2. 如果主语有 more than one… 或 many a… 构成,尽管从意义上看是复数内容,但它的谓语动词仍用单数形式。如: More than one student has read the book. Many a girl has been there. 但是,“ more + 复数名词 +than one” 结构之后,谓语动词一般多用复数形式。如: More members than one are against your plan.
  • 18. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 3. 在“ one of+ 复数名词 ++who/that/which” 引导的从句结构中,关系代词 who/that/which 的先行词是靠近它的复数名词而不是 one ,因此,从句中的动词应该是复数形式。如: This is one of the most interesting stories that have been told. 但是当 one 之前有 the only 等修饰语时,关系代词的先行词是 one ,而不是靠近它的复数名词,因此从句的动词应是单数形式。如: She was the only one of the girls who was late.
  • 19. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject Exercises There is something wrong with the following sentence. Could you tell me what the fault is? 1.This is one of the rooms that is free now . The correct sentence should be this is one of the rooms that are free now . 析:应改 is 为 are ,因为 one 前没有 the only 之类的限定词,定语从句在意义上修饰的是名词复数 the rooms ,而不是单数 one 。
  • 20. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject Exercises 2.He is the only one of the teachers who know French in our school . The correct sentence should be he is the only one of the teachers who knows French in our school . 析:应改 know 为 knows ,因为 one 前有 the only 之类限定词,定语从句在意义上修饰的是 the only one ,是单数,而不是复数名词 the teachers 。
  • 21. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 4. Nouns such as civics , mathematics , dollars, measles , and news require singular verbs. 表示时间,价格,重量,数目,长度,数学运算等的词或短语作主语时,这些通常作一个整体概念,谓语用单数形式。例如: Two months is a long holiday.    Twenty pounds isn’t so heavy.    Ten miles isn’t a long distance.   Note: the word dollars is a special case. When talking about an amount of money, it requires a singular verb, but when referring to the dollars themselves, a plural verb is required.
  • 22. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject Exercises 1. The number of the students in our school ____1200.    A. is        B. are       C. has        D. have The answer is A. 2. —Two months ______quite a long time.   — Yes, I’m afraid that he will miss lots of his lessons.    A. is    B. are    C. was   D. were The answer is A. 3. Two days _______enough for me to finish the work, I need a third day. A. isn’t       B. is        C. are’t        D. are The answer is A.
  • 23. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 5. 表示数量的 one and a half 后,名词要用复数形式,但是其短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,例如: One and a half bananas is left on the table. 6. a/an+ 单数名词 +or two 作主语,谓语动词用单数。    A student or two has failed the exam.  
  • 24. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 7. Nouns such as scissors , tweezers , trousers , and shears require plural verbs. (There are two parts to these things.) 一些有两个部分构成的名词表示衣物或工具作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式,例如: glasses , clothes , trousers , shoes , compasses , chopsticks , scissors 等。 但如果主语用“ a kind of , a pair of , a series of 等加名词”构成时,谓语动词一般用单数形式。如: A pair of shoes was on the desk.
  • 25. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject Exercises 1. This pair of glasses ______mine.    A. are   B. be   C. is    D. will be The answer is C.
  • 26. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 8.1)“ 分数或百分数 + 名词”构成的短语以及 由“ a lot of , lots of, plenty of , a large quantity of , a heap of , heaps of , half of + 名词”构成的短语作主语时,其谓语动词要与短语中 of 后面的名词的数保持一致,这是因为短语中后面的名词是中心词,而短语中前面的量词是修饰语,例如: Lots of damage was caused by fire. About three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Three-fifths of the workers here are women. 和这种情况类似的还有“ a number of+ 名词复数”,但是,“ the number of + 名词”的中心词却是 number , 试比较: A number of students have gone home. The number of pages in this book is 200.
  • 27. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject ★ 注意: (large)quantities of 修饰可数或不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数,例如: Quantities of food(nuts) were on the table. ◆ 短语 in quantity , in large quantities 意为“大量”; in small quantities 意为“少量”。 2 ) half of , (a) part of 修饰可数名词单数及不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数 ; 修饰可数名词复数时,谓语动词用复数。
  • 28. Problems of Concord With Expressions of Quantity As Subject 3 ) a great deal of , a large amount of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数; large amounts of 修饰不可数名词,其短语作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数,例如: A large amount of(A great deal of)damage was done in a very short time. Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.
  • 29. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord Generally speaking,the words each , each one , either , neither , everyone , everybody , anybody , anyone , nobody , somebody , someone , and no one are singular and require a singular verb. Now let’s go into details.
  • 30. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • Exerceses
    • 1. If Bob's wife won't agree to
    • go on holiday in winter,_______.
    • A.neither he will
    • B. neither won't he
    • C. neither will he        
    • D. he won't neither
    • The answer is C.
  • 31. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 1. 不定代词 somebody, someone, something, anybody, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, nobody,  no one,  nothing 作主语,谓语动词用单数, Is everyone here today.    Something is wrong with him.   Nobody was in.  Exercises 1. Everyone except Tom and John _____there when the meeting began.    A. are       B. is        C. were        D. was The answer is D.
  • 32. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • Exercises
    • 2. Nobody but Jane _____ the secret.
    • A. know   B. knows   C. have know    D. is
    • The answer is B.
    • 3.There is something wrong with
    • the following sentence. Could you
    • tell me what the fault is?
    • Anyone who break the law will
    • be punished .
    • The correct sentence should be
    • anyone who breaks the law will be
    • punished . 析:应改 break 为 breaks ,因为 who
    • 指 anyone ,是单数。
  • 33. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 2. 主语是 each/every+ 单数名词 +and(each/every)+ 单数名词时,谓语动词用单数。不定代词 each , every , no 所修饰的名词即使以 and 或逗号连接成多主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:    Each boy and each girl has got a seat.      Every man and every woman is at work .   Exercises 1.—How many lessons do you usually haver a day?  — Six lessons a day. And each of them _____45 minutes.    A. last       B. lasts        C. have       D. are The answer is B. 2. The children in this class each _____new school bag.    A. have       B. has      C. has got        D. are having The answer is D.
  • 34. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 3. 代词作主语 1 )名词性物主代词作主语时,既 可以用作单数,也可以用作复数, 这取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。如: Ours (Our Party) is a great party. Your shoes are black , and mine(=my shoes) are brown. 2 ) such , the same 起指示代词作用时,应根据其所指的内容来决定单、复数。如: Such is our plan. Such are his words. 3 )关系代词 who , that , which 等在定语从句中作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如: Those who want to go please put up your hands. Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun. 4 )疑问代词 who , what , which 作主语时,谓语动词可根据说话人所要表达的意思决定单、复数。如: Who lives next door ? It is Xiao Liu. Who live next door ? It is Zhang and Liu.
  • 35. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 5 )不定代词 any , either , neither , none , all some , more 等作主语时,有以下两种情况:单独作主语时,视 其在文中的意义,动词用单数或复数形式,例如: Now all has been changed. All are present. either , neither 单独作主语时,谓语通常用单数。 但后接 of 时,若 of 的宾语为不可数名词,动词当然用单数形式,若 of 的宾语为复数名词或代词时,动词可以是单数,也可以是复数,在正式文体中,单数形式的动词更常用。如: Do(es) any of you know his address ? None of them has(have)seen the film. Exercises There is something wrong with the following sentence. Could you please tell me what the fault is? Those who has finished may go home . The correct sentence should be those who have finished may go home .   析:应改 has 为 have ,因为 who 指 those ,是复数
  • 36. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • 4. 名词化的形容词作主语
    • 如果主语由“ the+ 形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时,
    • 谓语通常用复数,这类词有: the brave , the poor ,
    • the rich , the blind , the young , the old , the sick ,
    • the dead , the deaf and dumb , the oppressed ,
    • the injured , the wounded , the unemployed 等;
    • 但也有少数的过去分词与定冠词连用时指个别,则用单数。如:
    • The blind study in special schools.
    • The departed was a well-known engineer.
    • 这类形容词或分词如果要表示个体时,就要与名词 man , person 或表示人单数连和,如: an old man , a rich person , the(a)wounded soldier.
    • 表示抽象概念时,用单数形式 . 如:
    • The beautiful lives forever.   美是永存的。
    • Exercises
    • In the city the old _______.    A. take good care of             B. are taken good care of    C. is taken good care of        D. are been taken good care of
    • The answer is B.
  • 37. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • 5. 动词不定式,动名词作主语
    • 时,谓语动词用单数形式。 To see is to believe .
    •    ( 眼见为实。 ) Doing eye exercises is
    • good for your eyes .
  • 38. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 6 . In sentences beginning with there is or there are , the subject follows the verb. Since there is not the subject, the verb agrees with what follows. 以 there 开头的句子,若主语在两个或两个以上,谓语动词通常与临近的主语一致 . 而 here 的情况是一致的。 There is a book and three pens on the desk. Here are some books and paper for you.
  • 39. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • Exercises
    • 1. There ______ many new
    • words in lesson one,It is very
    • easy.
    • A. is       B. aren’t      
    • C. isn’t       D. are
    • The answer is B.
    • 2. —What’s on the plate? Some
    • eggs and cakes on it?
    • — There _____some eggs
    • and cakes on it.
    • A. is   B. are  
    • C. was   D. were
    • The answer is B.
  • 40. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 7.this kind of book =a book of this kind (这种书), 其谓语动词用单数;短语 this kind of men =men of this kind =these kind of men( 口语 ) (这一类人), 但 this kind of men 的谓语动词用单数, men of this kind 和 these kind of men 的谓语动词用复数, all kinds of 后跟复数名词,谓语动词用复数形式。如: This kind of men is dangerous. Men of this kind are dangerous.
  • 41. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord 8. 在代词 what , which , who , none , some , any , more , most , all 等词的 单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。 All is right.     ( 一切顺利。 ) All are present.    ( 所有人都到齐了。 )
    • Exercises
    • All but one _____ here just now.
    • A. is       B. was      C. has been         D. were
    • The answer is D.
  • 42. Other Problems of Subject-verb Concord
    • 9 .肯定与否定一致
    • 下列形容词、副词、代词从肯定
    • 句变成否定句时须作相应的变化。
    •    ★ They sometimes visit us.
    • -> They rarely (never, seldom)
    • visit us.
    • ★ He has arrived already.
    • -> He hasn't arrived yet.
    •    ★ Li is coming too.
    • -> Li isn't coming either.
    •     ★ Both of us are going.
    • -> Neither of us are going.
    •    ★ He likes both of them.
    • -> He doesn't like either of them.
  • 43.
    • Ⅰ .Please pick out the proper verbs from brackets.(You can choose two verbs if necessary.)
    • 1.Five and eight ______ ( is,are)
    • thirteen.
    • The answer is is or are .
    • 2.Many a student ______(enjoys ,enjoy)
    • pop music.
    • The answer is enjoys .
    • 3.Every man and woman ______(was,
    • were) invited to the party.
    • The answer is was .
    • 4.Here ____(comes,come) the three
    • naughty boys from next door.
    • The answer is come .
    Test
  • 44. Test
    • 5.None of the books ____(are,is) interesting.
    • The answer is is or are .
    • Ⅱ .Some of the following sentences
    • are wrong. Please correct the
    • wrong ones and if the sentence
    • is correct, tick it.
    • 1.The whole family is anainst his
    • plan.
    • The correct sentence is the
    • whole family are anainst his
    • plan.
  • 45. Test
    • 2.The audience was moved to tears at the words.
    • The correct sentence is the audience
    • were moved to tears at the words.
    • 3.The police is searching the building for
    • the murderer.
    • The correct sentence is the police are
    • searching the building for the murderer .
    • 4.Medial help and care are free of charge
    • in that country.
    • The correct sentence is medical help
    • and care is free of charge in the country.
    • 5.Half of them are newcomers.They each
    • has little experience in studying English .
    • The correct sentence is they each have
    • little experience in studying English.
  • 46. Test
    • Ⅲ .Please pick out the correct choice .
    • 1.____ to finish quickly.
    • A.No every student wants
    • B.No every studing want
    • C.Not every student wants
    • D.Not every student want
    • The answer is C .
    • 2.You and I ____ of the same age.
    • A.am B.are
    • C.be D.is
    • The answer is B.
  • 47. Test
    • 3.Either your teacher or you ____ mistaken.
    • A.are B.is C.are D.be
    • The answer is A.
    • 4.Not only I but also Tom and Mary
    • ____ fond of watching TV.
    • A.am B.is C.are D.be
    • The answer is C.
    • 5.That country____ good wine.
    • A.is famous for their
    • B.are famous for their
    • C.have been famous for its
    • D.was famous for its
    • The answer is D.
  • 48. Test
    • 6.There ____ in this room.
    • A.are too many furnitures
    • B.are too much furniture
    • C.are too much furnitures
    • D.is too much furniture
    • The answer is D.
    • 7.All ____ present and all ____ going
    • on well.
    • A.is;is B.are;are C.are;is D.is;are
    • The answer is C
    • 8.I,who ____ your teacher,will try my
    • best to help you with your study.
    • A.is B.are C.be D.am
    • The answer is D.
  • 49. End ... Thank you for your watching. We hope that all of you can have better understanding about subject-verb agreement from the bottom of our hearts.

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