1865-1895 By Alexander Maddox 1850 1850-70 1857Bessemer Process Sweat Shops Fredrick OlmsteadDeveloped independently Is a negatively Landscape architect,by the British connoted term for spearheaded themanufacturers. Henry any working movement for the plannedBessemer and American environment urban parks. 1857ironmaker William Kelly, considered to be Olmstead helped draw up asoon became widely used. unacceptably plan for “greensward”This technique involved difficult or which was selected toinjecting air into molten dangerous. become Central Park iniron to remove the carbon NYC.and other impurities.
1859 1862 1862Social Darwinism Homesteader Homestead ActGrew out of the English naturalist Settler on the freeCharles Darwin’s theory of Congress passed in land that thebiological evolution. Darwin 1862. This Act government wasdescribed his observation that which offered 160 giving out by thesome individuals of a species acres of land free to Homestead Act.flourish and passed their traits any citizen oralong to the next generation intended citizenswhile others do not. He who was head of theexplained that a process of household. 1862-natural selection weeded out 1900 up to 600,000less suited individuals and families tookenabled the best adapted to advantage of thesurvive. governments offer..
Credit Mobilizer Form in 1864,Exoduster stockholders gaveAfrican American who this company amoved form the Post- contract to lay trackReconstruction south at two to three timesto Kansas, part of the the actual cost andHomestead Act. pocketed the profits.. 1862 1864 1864 1866 Sand Creek Massacre Buffalo Soldiers Most of the Cheyenne, assuming Formed in 1866, from the U.S. they were under the protection of 10th Cavalry regiment, the the U.S. government had buffalo soldiers were peacefully returned to Colorado’s established by congress as Sand Creek Reserve of winter. first peacetime all-black General S.R. Curtis telegram to regiment in the regular U.S. Colonel John Chivington that Army. These regiments served read, “I want no peace till the to a variety of posts in the Indians suffer more.” Nov.29, southwest and Midwest region 1864 his trooped attack at dawn of the U.S. and killed over 1,150 inhabitants, mostly women and children.
1867 1867 1867Oliver Kelley Grandfather Grange1867 started the Clause Grange members spent most of theirPatron of Stated that if a man time and energyHusbandry, an failed the literacy fighting the railroads.organization for test or could not pay The Granges battlefarmers that became the poll tax, he was plan includedpopularly know as entitled to a vote if teaching itsthe Grange. Its he, his father, or members how tooriginal purpose was grandfather had organize, how to setto provide a social been eligible to vote up farmersoutlet and an before private cooperatives andeducational forum facilities. how to sponsor statefor isolated farm legislation tofamilies. regulate railroads.
1868 1869 1869Tammany Hall Trust TranscontinentalNYC most powerful Railroad Participants in aDemocratic political A railroad line linking trust turned theirmachine in 1868. the Atlantic and the stocks over to aHeaded by Boss Pacific Coasts of the group of trustees-tweed. U.S. completes in people who ran the separate companies 1869.. were entitled to dividends on profits earned by the trust.
1869 1870 1870 John D. RockfellerTweed Ring Graft Established the Standard Oil Company, tookBoss Tweed a different approach to mergers, they joined Once a politicalbecame head of competing companies in trust agreements. machine got itsTammany Hall in He used trust to gain total control of the oil candidates into1868. Between industry in America. In 1870 Rockfeller’s office, it could take1869-1971 Boss Standard Oil Company of Ohio processed advantage ofTweed led the tweed two or three of the country crude oil. Within a numerousring, a group of decade it controlled 90 percent of the opportunities forcorrupt politicians in refining. Rockfeller reaped huge profits by graft- the illegal usedefrauding a city. paying his employees extremely low wages of political influence and driving his competitors out by selling his for personal gain. oil at a lower price than it cost to produce it. Then he controlled the market, he hiked prices far above original levels.
1870 1871 1873 Jacob Riis Andrew CarnegieFredrick Olmstead By 1865, Carnegie wasPlanned landscapes 1870, left his native so busy managing thefor Washington D.C. Denmark for U.S. Riis money he had earnedand St.Louis. found work as a police in dividends that he reporter, a job that took happily left his job at the him into some of New Penn. Railroad. He York City’s worst slums, where he was shocked at entered the steel business in 1873 after the conditions in the touring a British steel overcrowded, airless, filthy mill and witnessing the tenements. Riis used his awesome spectacle of talents to expose the the Bessemer process hardships of NYC Police. in action.
1874 1876 1876George A. Custer Battle of Little Big Sitting BullHe reported that he Horn In early June, 1876, the Sioux and Cheyennethe Black Hills had AKA Custer’s last Stand. held a sun dance,Gold “from the grass Occurred on June 25 and during which Sitting Bullroots down”. Gold 26, 1876. Lakota, had a visions of soldiersrush was on. Northern Cheyenne, and and some Native Arapaho tribe against the Americans falling from 7th Regiments of the U.S. their horses. When 700 men led by Custer Colonel Custer and his suffered a serve defeat. troops reached Little Bighorn River, the Native American were ready for them.
1876 1876 1876Alexander Graham George A Custer Thomas Alva EdisonBell Led the 7th Regiment Became a pioneer onInvented the telephone in the Battle of Little the new industrialwith Thomas Watson Bighorn. The Native frontier when hehelp. It opened a way for American outflanked establishes the world’sa worldwide and crushed Custer’s first research laboratorycommunication networks. troop. Within an hour, in Mento Park, NJ.Telephone particular Custer and all of theaffected office workers men of the 7thand created new jobs for Cavalry were dead.women.
1879 1880 1880Dumbbell Thomas Edison Political MachineTenements Perfected the An organized group thatLaw that required that incandescent light bulb controller the activitiesevery inhabitable room and later invented and of a political party in ahave a window opening entire system for city, there also offeredto plain air, a producing and distributing services to voters andrequirement that was electrical power. business in exchangemeant by including air for political of financialshaft between adjacent support.. In the decadesbuildings. The air shaft after the civil war,gives each tenement political machinesthe shape of a gained control of localdumbbell. government in Baltimore.
1880 1880 1880George Pullman Ida B. Wells RagtimeBuilt a factory for Moved to Memphis in 1880’s A Blend a Africanmanufacturing to work as a teacher. She American andsleepers and other later became a editor of a European musicalrailroad cars on the paper. Radical Justice was a forms, it originated inIllinois prairie. persistent theme in her saloons of the south in reporting. The events of the 1880’s. March 9, 1892 turned that theme into a crusade. Three African American business, friends of Wells, were illegally executed without a trial.
1881 1881 1883George Westinghouse Booker T. Washington Joseph PulitzerAlong with Edison, added Believed that racism would A Hungarian immigrantinnovations that make end once blacks acquires who has bought the NYelectricity safer and less useful labor skills and world in 1883.expensive. proved their economic valve Pioneered popular to society. By 1881 he innovation, such as headed the Tuskegee Sunday edition, comics, Normal and Industrial sports coverage. Institute. In which he aimed to educated African American by teaching diplomats and useful skills.
1884 1885 1886 Sitting Bull Settlement House.Mugwumps Community Centers inRepublicans who By late 1876, however, slum neighborhoodsrefused to vote the Sioux were beaten. that provided assistancerepublican in1884. Sitting Bull and a few to people in the areaBlaire political and followers took refuge in especially immigrants,financial corruption, Canada, where they many settlementsupported Govern remained until 188. workers lived at houseCleavland Democrat. Eventually, to prevent his so that they could learn people’s starvation, Sitting firsthand about the Bull was Forced to problems caused by Surrender. Later, in 1885 urbanization and help he Appears in William F. create solution. “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show.
1886 1887 1887Haymarket Affair Dawes Act Interstate Commerce Congress passed this Act ActEncouraged by theimpact of the 1871 aiming to Americanize the Reestablished that right ofstrike, labor leaders Native American. The Act federal government tocontinues to press for broke up the reservations supervise railroadchange. On the and gave some of the activities and establish aevening of May 4, reservations land to five man Interstate1886, 3,000 people individual Indians, 160 Commerce Commission.gathered at Chicago acres to each head of theHaymarket Squares household and 80 acresto protect. Police to each unmarried adult.brutality-a striker hadbeen killed the daybefore.
George EastmanIntroduced his Kodakcamera. The price$25 included a 100pictorial of film. 1888 1889 1890 Wounded Knee Jane Addams Dec. 28, 1890, the 7th Cavalry, rounded up about 350 One of most influential starving and freezing Sioux member of the movement and took them to wounded (Social Gospel knee creek in South Dakota. Movement). Addams was The nest day soldiers also an antiwar activist, a demanded that that Sioux give spokesperson for radical up there weapons. A Shot was justice and an advocate fires and soldiers open fired for quality of life issues. with deadly cannons, within minutes they slaughtered about 300 unarmed Indians. This event brought the Indian War to an end.
1890 1890 1892Ghost Dance Ellis Island About 20 percent ofA ritual Indians lands Sherman Antitrust Act immigrants at Ellisand way of life would Island were detained forbe restored. Ghost Made it illegal to form a a day or more beforeDance movement trust that interfered with being inspected.spread rapidly among free trade between states However, only about 2the 25,000 Sioux on or with other companies. percent of those whothe Dakota were detained wereReservation. denied.
Omaha Platform Was the party program adopted at the formative convention of the Populism Party held in Omaha Nebraska on July 4th, 1892 1892 1892 1892 1883Scab PopulismA strikebreaker to The movement of the Urbanizationkept the company people. Politicalgoing while a strike movement where the The result of rapidwas going on. people have a greater growth of cities,mostly voice in government and in the region of the seeking to advance the North East and interests of farmers and Midwest. Technological laborers. boom in the late 19th century.
1894 1894 1895Eugene V Deb William Randolph Pullman Strike HearstSome labors leaderfelt that unions should Pullman had hoped that The Wealthy Hearstinclude all laborers- his tightly controlled had purchased the Newskilled and unskilled environment would ensure York Morning Journal inin a specific industry a stable work force. 1895, and Owned thewhich captured the However, pay led to a San Franciscoimagination of violent strike in 1894. Examiner.Eugene. 1894, thenew union won astrike for higherwages.
1896 1896 1896William Mckinley Samuel Gompers Plessy VS Ferguson1896 Republicanparty nominated Led the Cigar Makers In 1896 this, theOhioan William International union to join Supreme Court ruledMckinley for with other craft union in that the separation ofpresident. Mckniley 1896. The American races in publicgot approximately 7 Federation of Labor with accommodations wasmillion votes and Gompers as president , legal and did not violatecarries the east. With focused on collective the 14th Amendment.Mckinley edition, bargaining.Populism collapsedburying the hopes ofthe farmers.
1896 1897 1899Cross of Gold Andrew CarnegieImpassioned addressdelivered by former Karl Marx The Carnegie steelcongressmen William company manufacturedJennings Bryan at the Socialism carried to its more steel than all theDemocratic convention in extreme form-communism factories in GreatChicago on July 8, 1896. as advocate by him, would Britain.The speech talk about the result in the overthrow ofidea of limiting the supply of the capitalists system.gold and silver as currencyand have paper currency sothey would not have ashortage of money.
1901 1906 1910 Instate Commerce Angel IslandAndrew Carnegie Commission Asians, primarily Chinese,By the time he sold arriving on the west coasthis business in 1901, Not until 1906, under President gained admission at thisCarnegie’s Theodore Roosevelt, did the ICC island in San Francisco Baycompanies producer gain the power it needed to be Between 1910-1940 aboutby the far the largest effective. 50,000 Chinese immigrantsportion of the nations entered the U.S. . Contraststeel. form Ellis Island immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in filthy buildings while they waited to find out whether they would be admitted or rejected.
Work CitedNez Perce: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nez_Perce_WarChief Joseph: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_JosephBuffalo Soldiers: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_SoldiersGreenback: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenback_PartySweat Shop: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweat_ShopDumbbell Tenements: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Law-TenementAll the pictures and photos were provided by google images