Learning Theories


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Learning Theories

  1. 1. + Constructivism M. Osborn
  2. 2. + Tenants of Constructivism  Learners create their own learning experience  Learning is an active process  Student will learn best by actively participating in the learning process and by using their critical thinking skills to analyze problems  Learners form their own comprehension of reality and thus the knowledge they construct and their learning process is shaped by past experiences
  3. 3. + Founders/Contributors  Jean Piaget  Jerome Bruner  Lev Vygotsky  John Dewey  Richard Rorty  Giambattista Vico
  4. 4. + Piaget: Cognitive Stages  Piaget hypothesized that children move through four stages of development, each which alter the way they think and learn. 1. Sensorimotor  Learning takes place primarily through the senses and motor actions, children are egocentric. 2. Preoperational  Children begin to use symbols and images, are concrete in thinking, and egocentric. 3. Concrete operational  Children begin to learn concrete facts, can reasons, solve problems, understands multiple points of view, and begin to think abstractly. 4. Formal operational  Children can now think very abstractly and can use deductive, logical reasoning.
  5. 5. + How it Applies to Constructivism  Piaget’s theory is similar to constructivism in that it shows that learning is an ever changing process.  Children constantly change how they see things and are forever constructing their worldview.  Piaget also discusses…  Adaptation: Children’s cognitive development  Assimilation: Children taking in new knowledge as they have new experiences  Accommodation: Children taking new information and using it to expand their knowledge base and make sense of the world. all of which support Constructivist theory that learning is an active process.
  6. 6. + Jerome Bruner: Discovery Learning  In this type of learning, the learner draws on past experiences and knowledge to assist in problem-solving and gaining new information  Cognition  A learner progresses through different intellectual stages  He or she will select and alter information to be able to understand it  Inquiry-based  Learners should be participatory and actively engaged in the learning process  Subjects can be learned in a variety of ways in order to allow students to discover concepts by themselves  It is the teacher’s job to engage students and encourage exploration  Spiral Curriculum  Students continually build on what they already know
  7. 7. + Lev Vygotsky: Social Development Theory  This theory is based on the belief that learning is influenced by social development and culture  A child’s social environment could positively or negatively affect their cognitive development  Vygotsky believed that the best way to learn was collaboratively  If other students were to collaboratively learn with and help each other, each would be able to share differing perspectives and benefit everyone  “MKO” or The More Knowledgeable Other is the one who assists others in gaining a better understanding  Zone of Proximal Development refers to the distance between a child’s current problem-solving ability and their potential if helps by an MKO  Vygotsky suggested the use of “scaffolding” or creating a knowledge base off which students and teachers could build further knowledge
  8. 8. + John Dewey  Often called “the Father of American Education”  Founded the University Elementary School, often nicknamed the Dewey School, and several others  Viewed school as an extension of the community  Supporter of progressive education which focused on educating children physically, mentally, and socially to better prepare them for life  Believed learning should be active and student-directed  Students learn best by doing and should be allowed creativity  Teachers should act as resources, not guides
  9. 9. + Classroom Implications  What the teacher does:  Help the students if they need it and provide them with the proper tools and resources  What the students do:  Learn at their own pace and in their own way  Work with their peers to further their learning  Constantly reconstruct their perceptions and knowledge base
  10. 10. + Personal Opinion  I personally like this learning theory and would possibly use it in my classroom for the following reasons  It allows students creative freedom  Students can learn in their own way and at their own pace  Teachers won’t be intimidating and can be seen more as aides  It fosters collaboration which leads to a more positive learning environment  Students will be actively engaged and learn about the world around them, not just facts and figures
  11. 11. + Credits SHELLY, GARY B., Glenda A. Gunter, and Randolph E. Gunter. Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology in a Connected World. 7th ed. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012. Print. "Social Development Theory (Vygotsky)." Learning Theories RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2014 Images: http://thepsychologyforum.com/home/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/12496301-abstract- cognitive-intelligence.jpg http://socdevelopment.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/child-social-development.jpg http://www.mapsnworld.com/world-map/globe.jpg http://ivs.emory.edu/images/Vico.gif http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2007/06/11/us/11rorty.190.jpg http://dewey.pragmatism.org/dewey.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/7/7e/Lev_Vygotsky.jpg/434px- Lev_Vygotsky.jpg http://ece205.wikispaces.com/file/view/bruner.jpg/93241244/261x267/bruner.jpg http://www.nndb.com/people/359/000094077/piaget-3.jpg