Fasten RWD Development with Sass

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A short Sass introduction and how Sass can help developing responsive webdesign faster

A short Sass introduction and how Sass can help developing responsive webdesign faster

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  • 1. Fasten RWD Development with Sass Sven Wolfermann | maddesigns
  • 2. Who is the guy? · Sven Wolfermann (36) · Freelancer for modern frontend development (RWD, HTML5, CSS3) from Berlin · CSS3 Adventskalender 2010/2011 · wrotes articles for T3N, PHP-Magazin and Webstandards-Magazin (new: Screengui.de) · Certified TYPO3 Integrator · Twitter: @maddesigns · Web: http://maddesigns.de
  • 3. CSS IS AWESOME
  • 4. old new http://sass-lang.com/
  • 5. What is Sass? Sass means syntactically awesome style sheets is a preprocessor Similar preprocessors: LESS, Stylus (needs JS, i.e. a node.js server
  • 6. Installing Sass In order to install and run Sass, you need to have Ruby installed on your system. Mac OSX Easy! Ruby is built in :) Linux if not installed, use the package manager $ sudo apt-get install ruby1.9.1-full on Windows? use http://rubyinstaller.org/ to install ruby
  • 7. Installing Sass $ sudo gem install sass install beta version: $ sudo gem install sass --pre already installed Sass? check with $ sass --version
  • 8. Create your first Sass (SCSS) file create a sass folder create styles.scss open in your favourite editor* * Sublime Text 2
  • 9. Wait? What is the SCSS-thingy?
  • 10. Sass or SCSS? Sass has two syntaxes. The new main syntax is known as “SCSS” (for “Sassy CSS”). SCSS files use the extension .scss. The second, older syntax is known as the indented syntax (or just “Sass”). Instead of brackets and semicolons, it uses the indentation of lines to specify blocks. Files in the indented syntax use the extension .sass.
  • 11. SCSS section { margin: 1em 0; header { background-color: lightpink; } } Sass section margin: 1em 0 header background-color: lightpink
  • 12. compiling to CSS - watch changes open terminal $ sass input.scss output.css watch folder $ sass --watch sass:css watch file $ sass --watch sass/style.scss:css/style.css
  • 13. GUIs many GUIs for compiling · Livereload ($9.99) · Fire.App ($14) · Compass.app ($10) · CodeKit ($28) · Prepros ($19) · Scout App (free) and build in in many text editors or IDEs
  • 14. Compiling output styles :compressed // sass --watch sass:css --style compressed html,body{height:100%}.container{min-height:100%;max-width:1200px;width:auto;margin: :compact // sass --watch sass:css --style compact html, body { height: 100%; } .container { min-height: 100%; max-width: 1200px; width: auto; margin: 0 auto; padding .container h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid black; color: #ff8700; margin: 0 0 0.5em; }
  • 15. Compiling output styles :nested // sass --watch sass:css --style nested html, body { height: 100%; } .container { min-height: 100%; max-width: 1200px; width: auto; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0 20px; } .container h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid black; color: #ff8700; margin: 0 0 0.5em; }
  • 16. Compiling output styles :expanded // sass --watch sass:css --style expanded html, body { height: 100%; } .container { min-height: 100%; max-width: 1200px; width: auto; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0 20px; } .container h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid black; color: #ff8700; margin: 0 0 0.5em; }
  • 17. Compiling output with line numbers :line-numbers // sass --watch sass:css --style expanded --line-numbers ... /* line 12, ../sass/style.scss */ .container { min-height: 100%; max-width: 1200px; width: auto; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0 20px; } /* line 19, ../sass/style.scss */ .container h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid black; color: #ff8700; margin: 0 0 0.5em; }
  • 18. Debugging in Sass 3.3 Sourcemaps to work with original files in developer tools scss --sourcemap sass/styles.scss public/styles.css Include in Sass: /*# sourceMappingURL=styles.css.map */ Sassmaps output { "version": "3", "mappings": "4DAUA,qFAWQ,CACJ,OAAO,CAAE,KAAK,CAOlB,…", "sources": ["../sass/_vars.css”,”../sass/styles.scss"], "file": "styles.css" }
  • 19. Variables
  • 20. working with variables h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid #000000; // black color: #FF8700; // orange margin: 0 0 0.5em; } SCSS change to global variables $brand-color1: #000000; $brand-color2: #FF8700; h1 { border-bottom: 2px solid $brand-color1; color: $brand-color2; margin: 0 0 0.5em; } SCSS
  • 21. Variables variables can be colors, sizes, percentage, ... $page_max_width: 1200px; $padding: 20px; SCSS .container { min-height: 100%; max-width: $page_max_width; width: auto; margin: 0 auto; padding: 0 $padding; } SCSS
  • 22. Calculating with Sass SCSS .container { max-width: $page_max_width - $padding * 2; padding: 0 $padding; ... } CSS .container { max-width: 1160px; /* 1200px - 20px * 2 */ padding: 0 20px; ... } SCSS
  • 23. Nesting
  • 24. Nesting writing long selectors is time consuming short selectors are better in general CSS nav nav nav nav nav {float: right;} li {float: left;} li a {color: #666;} li a:hover {color: #333;} li.current {font-weight: bold;}
  • 25. Nesting SCSS nav { float: right; li { float: left; a { color: #666; &:hover { color: #333; } } &.current { font-weight: bold; } } } SCSS
  • 26. Nesting identation with SCSS makes no difference in CSS output SCSS nav {float: right; li {float: left; a {color: #666; &:hover { color: #333;} } &.current { font-weight: bold;} }} but sure it looks better if intended SCSS
  • 27. Nesting HOW DEEP CAN I GO? Sass nesting != HTML nesting be careful with nesting! you can run into performance issues with long selectors
  • 28. Combining Selectors
  • 29. Combining Selectors div { color: black .foo { color: black } // + .foo { color: black } // // > .foo { color: black } // ~ .foo { color: black } // // & .foo { color: black } // // &.bar { color: black } &:hover { color: black } } SCSS descendant adjacent sibling child general sibling Sass' parent selector div { color: black; } div .foo { color: black; } div + .foo { color: black; } div > .foo { color: black; } div ~ .foo { color: black; } div .foo { color: black; } div.bar { color: black; } div:hover { color: black; }
  • 30. Parent Selector - the ampersand the & (ampersand) has a placeholder function for the parental selector div { .foo { color: black } &.foo { color: black } } div .foo { color: black } div.foo { color: black; } SCSS
  • 31. Parent Selector - the ampersand a { &:hover, &:focus { color: black } } a:hover, a:focus { color: black; } SCSS
  • 32. Parent Selector - the ampersand Usecase for Modernizr classes div { box-shadow: 0 0 5px rgba(#000, 0.8); // Sass feature for Hex to RGB colors .no-boxshadow & { border: 1px solid #555; } } div { box-shadow: 0 0 5px rgba(#000, 0.8); } .no-boxshadow div { border: 1px solid #555; } SCSS
  • 33. Parent Selector - the ampersand div { .parent & .child { color: black } } .parent div .child { color: black; } SCSS
  • 34. Parent Selector - the ampersand @media queries in place aside { width: 100%; @media screen and (min-width: 680px) { width: 25%; } } aside { width: 100%; } @media screen and (min-width: 680px) { aside { width: 25%; } } SCSS
  • 35. BTW did you recognize the Comments? /* Hey look at this multiline comment * that we want to show up in our CSS output. */ .container { color: black; } // These comments are single lines and // we do not want them to appear in our CSS footer { color: #336699; } This compiles to: /* Hey look at this multiline comment * that we want to show up in our CSS output. */ .container { color: black; } footer { color: #336699; } SCSS
  • 36. Importing Files
  • 37. Importing the way in CSS /* style.css */ @import "base.css"; @import url("styles.css"); @import url("druck.css") print; Importing CSS files into one file can cause performance issues Limit your external references in your HTML Importing in Sass is better split your stylesheet in many chunks and use the import function of Sass
  • 38. Importing @import "modules/base"; @import "partials/header", "partials/footer"; SCSS create subfolders and devide into partials use underscore in your filenames to concatinate the partials within the compiling process
  • 39. Importing Imagine this structure /style.sass /modules/ ┗ _normalize.sass ┗ _base.sass ┗ _mixins.sass /partials/ ┗ _footer.sass ┗ _header.sass /ie.sass /print.sass none underscore files will be compiled into seperate CSS files
  • 40. Importing # style.sass @import modules/normalize @import modules/base @import modules/mixins @import partials/header @import partials/footer @import ie @import print this compiles to 3 files: /css ┗ style.css ┗ ie.css ┗ print.css SCSS
  • 41. @extend
  • 42. @extend @extend clones the attributes from rules and adds them to another rule. .button { background-color: $color-main; font-weight: bold; color: white; padding: 5px; } SCSS Then we can @extend the class to another .button-checkout { @extend .button; background-color: darken($color-main, 20%); } SCSS
  • 43. @extend .button-checkout { @extend .button; background-color: darken($color-main, 20%); .msg & { @extend .button; background-color: darken($color-main, 30%); } } .button, .button-checkout, .msg .button-checkout { background-color: blue; font-weight: bold; color: white; padding: 5px; } .button-checkout { background-color: #000099; } .msg .button-checkout { background-color: #000066; } SCSS
  • 44. Placeholder Selectors: %foo // This ruleset won't be rendered on its own. %button { color: blue; font-weight: bold; font-size: 2em; } SCSS placeholder selectors can be extended, just like classes and IDs. The extended selectors will be generated, but the base placeholder selector will not .btn-notice { @extend %button; } .btn-notice { color: blue; font-weight: bold; font-size: 2em; } SCSS
  • 45. %placeholder placeholder selectors will not be rendered to CSS. %button { background-color: $color-main; font-weight: bold; color: white; padding: 5px; } .button-checkout { @extend %button; background-color: darken($color-main, 20%); } .button-checkout { background-color: #000099; font-weight: bold; color: white; padding: 5px; } SCSS
  • 46. @mixin Man, tell me the cool things!
  • 47. Mixins Are code snippets (reusable elements) Parameterizable (use reasonable defaults) @mixin border-radius($value) { -webkit-border-radius: $value; -moz-border-radius: $value; border-radius: $value; } .box { color: $color-main; font-family: $helvetica-font-stack; @include border-radius(5px); } SCSS
  • 48. Mixins compiled to .box { color: blue; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif; -webkit-border-radius: 5px; -moz-border-radius: 5px; border-radius: 5px; } but thats a bad example – no need for the vendor prefixes of borderradius anymore only use border-radius: 5px; in your stylesheets
  • 49. Mixins Defaults and named arguments @mixin link-colors($text:blue, $hover:red) { color: $text; &:hover { color: $hover; } } a { @include link-colors($hover: green); } a { color: blue; } a:hover { color: green; } SCSS
  • 50. Mixins SCSS @mixin my-btn($color) { color: $color; } @include my-btn(red); SCSS Sass =my-btn($color) color: $color +my-btn(red) SCSS
  • 51. Using @content @mixin ie6 { * html & { @content; } } .m-login { float: right; @include ie6 { display: inline; } } .m-login { float: right; } * html .m-login { display: inline; } SCSS
  • 52. Functions
  • 53. Functions Operators Relational operators (<, >, <=, >=) evaluate numbers 1 < 20 // true 10 <= 20 // true 4 > 1 // true 4 >= 1 // true SCSS Comparison operators (==, !=) evaluate all data types 1 + 1 == 2 // true small != big // true #000 == black // true SCSS
  • 54. Functions Control Directives @if @for @each @while $theme: ocean; div { @if $theme == dusty { background: #c6bba9; color: $color; } @else if $theme == ocean { background: blue; color: white; } } SCSS
  • 55. Functions @for loop @for $level from 0 to 5 { .tag-#{$level + 1} { font-size: .7em + ($level * .5em); } } .tag-1 .tag-2 .tag-3 .tag-4 .tag-5 { { { { { font-size: font-size: font-size: font-size: font-size: 0.7em; 1.2em; 1.7em; 2.2em; 2.7em; } } } } } SCSS
  • 56. Functions User Functions @function grid-width($cells) { @return ($cell-width + $cell-padding) * $cells; } SCSS Function to calculate the em font size from pixels @function px2em($font_size, $base_font_size: 16) { @return $font_size / $base_font_size + em } SCSS
  • 57. Media-Queries with Sass
  • 58. Variables in queries use main breakpoints as variables $break-small: 320px; $break-large: 1200px; .profile-pic { float: left; width: 100px; @media screen and (min-width: $break-small) { width: 250px; float: none; } @media screen and (min-width: $break-large) { float: right; } } Responsive Web Design in Sass: Using Media Queries in Sass 3.2 SCSS
  • 59. Mixin for different media queries using @content SCSS $break-small: 320px; $break-large: 1200px; @mixin respond-to($media) { @if $media == smartpones { @media only screen and (max-width: @content; } } @else if $media == tablet { @media only screen and (min-width: and (max-width: @content; } } @else if $media == desktop { @media only screen and (min-width: @content; } } } $break-small) { $break-small + 1) $break-large - 1) { $break-large) {
  • 60. Mixin for different media queries using @content Usage // profile picture module .profile-pic { float: left; width: 250px; @include respond-to(smartpones) { width: 100% ;} @include respond-to(tablet) { width: 125px; } @include respond-to(desktop) { float: none; } } SCSS
  • 61. Mixin for different media queries using @content CSS output sample .profile-pic { float: left; width: 250px; } @media only screen and (max-width: 320px) { .profile-pic { width: 100%; } } @media only screen and (min-width: 321px) and (max-width: 1199px) { .profile-pic { width: 125px; } } @media only screen and (min-width: 1200px) { .profile-pic { float: none; } }
  • 62. mobile first and IE8
  • 63. Sass-IE Writing mobile-first styles without leaving IE < 9 behind Media Query Mixin: // all.scss $fix-mqs: false !default; @mixin respond-min($width) { // If we're outputting for a fixed media query set... @if $fix-mqs { // ...and if we should apply these rules... @if $fix-mqs >= $width { // ...output the content the user gave us. @content; } } @else { // Otherwise, output it using a regular media query @media screen and (min-width: $width) { @content; } } } // and a respond-max mixin, that does what you might expect Sass-IE
  • 64. Sass-IE OldIE Mixin: // all.scss $old-ie: false !default; @mixin old-ie { // Only use this content if we're dealing with old IE @if $old-ie { @content; } } Separate IE stylesheet // all-old-oldie.scss $old-ie: true; $fix-mqs: 65em; @import 'all';
  • 65. Including the Sass-IE CSS To give the CSS to the browsers, use good old conditional comments: <!--[if lte IE 8]> <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/all-old-ie.css"> <![endif]--> <!--[if gt IE 8]><!--> <link rel="stylesheet" href="css/all.css"> <!--<![endif]-->
  • 66. http://compass-style.org/
  • 67. Compass Compass is to Sass like jQuery to Javascript Compass is a Framework, that extends Sass It brings a lot of CSS3 mixins and useful CSS stuff http://sonspring.com/journal/sass-for-designers
  • 68. Compass Plugins Github List of Compass Plugins loading Compass plugins add to the config.rb # config.rb ... require 'compassplugin' @import 'compassplugin'; SCSS
  • 69. RGBAPNG Plugin Compass plugin for providing cross-browser compatible RGBA support by creating transparent PNGs on the fly for browsers that don't support RGBA. https://github.com/aaronrussell/compass-rgbapng $ sudo gem install compass-rgbapng @import "rgbapng"; .box { @include rgba-background(rgba(0,0,0,0.75)); } .box { background: url('/images/rgbapng/000000bf.png?1282127952'); background: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.75); } SCSS
  • 70. Compass plugins Responsive Grid Plugin – Susy $ sudo gem install compass-susy-plugin $ compass create myproject -r susy -u susy Add Susy plugin to existing projects # config.rb require "susy"
  • 71. Susy Usage SCSS @import "susy"; // global variables $total-columns: 12; $column-width: 4em; $gutter-width: 1em; $grid-padding: $gutter-width; // // // // // usage .page { @include container; @include susy-grid-background; } a 12-column grid each column is 4em wide 1em gutters between columns grid-padding equal to gutters
  • 72. Susy Usage .page { // page acts as a container for our grid. @include container; // header and footer are full-width by default. header, footer { clear: both; } // nav spans 3 columns of total 12. nav { @include span-columns(3,12); } .content { // content spans the final (omega) 9 columns of 12. @include span-columns(9 omega,12); // main content spans 6 of those 9 columns. .main { @include span-columns(6,9); } // secondary content spans the final 3 (omega) of 9 columns. .secondary { @include span-columns(3 omega,9); } } }
  • 73. Compass plugins Responsive Grid Plugin – Singularity – Grids without limits $ sudo gem install singularitygs $ compass create myproject -r singularitygs --using singularitygs Add Singularity plugin to existing projects # config.rb require "singularitygs" @import 'singularitygs';
  • 74. Symmetric Grids - Twitter Bootstrap $grids: 12; $gutters: 1/3; Responsive Grids by @snugug
  • 75. Symmetric Grids - Zurb Foundation $grids: 12; $gutters: 0.9375em; $gutter-style: split; Responsive Grids by @snugug
  • 76. Asymetric Grids with Singularity $grids: 1 4 1; $gutters: 1/6; $gutter-style: split; Responsive Grids by @snugug
  • 77. Singularity Usage @include grid-span($span, $location); SCSS // Span 1 column, starting at the 2nd column .span1-pos2 { @include grid-span(1, 2); } // Span 3 columns, starting at the 3th column .span3-pos3 { @include grid-span(3, 3); } // Span 5 columns, starting at the 7th column .span5-pos7 { @include grid-span(5, 7); }
  • 78. Easy 12 column grid $grids: 12; $gutters: 12px; $gutter-styles: 'split' 'fixed'; $output: 'float'; @for $i from 1 through $grids { .grid#{$i} { @include grid-span($i); } } Easy 12 column grid
  • 79. Compass plugins simple media queries Sass plugin – Breakpoint $ gem install breakpoint Add plugin to projects # config.rb require "breakpoint" // main.scss @import "breakpoint"; SCSS
  • 80. Breakpoint plugin usage // basic media queries, min-width and min/max width $basic: 543px; $pair: 456px 794px; .foo { content: 'No Media Queries'; @include breakpoint($basic) { content: 'Basic Media Query'; } @include breakpoint($pair) { content: 'Paired Media Query'; } } SCSS
  • 81. Breakpoint plugin CSS output /* Nested Breakpoint calls become separate media queries */ .foo { content: 'No Media Queries'; } @media (min-width: 543px) { .foo { content: 'Basic Media Query'; } } @media (min-width: 456px) and (max-width: 794px) { .foo { content: 'Paired Media Query'; } }
  • 82. Breakpoint Media Types $breakpoint-to-ems: true; $media: 'screen' 700px; #foo { @include breakpoint($media) { content: 'Media'; } } @media screen and (min-width: 43.75em) { #foo { content: 'Media'; } } SCSS
  • 83. Team Sass on Github lot of Sass goodies · Singularity · Breakpoint · Toolkit · … https://github.com/Team-Sass
  • 84. Questions? Thanks for your attention! Sven Wolfermann | maddesigns http://maddesigns.de/rwd-sass-compass/ HTML5 slideshow by Google