Design based research


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Design based research

  1. 1. J. Bourdeau, R. Rosenberg, M. Maina, I. Savard LICEF Research Center Tele-University, Montreal June 6th, 2008
  2. 2. 1- Qu’est-ce que DBR?2- Historique3- Un tour guidé de DBR4-Trois types, trois projetsConclusionInvitation
  3. 3. DBR aims at developing empirically grounded theoriesthrough combined study of both the process oflearning and the means that support thatprocess. (diSessa, Cobb, 2004).3 caractéristiques principales:1) Le but est double: comprendre les phénomènes étudiés, et ajuster le design (interventionniste)2) Le protocole et le design peuvent être modifiés en cours d’expérimentation (souple)3) Un protocole DBR peut réunir des méthodes et techniques quantitatives et qualitatives (ouvert)
  4. 4. Conducting research in authentic, natural educational contexts, rather than laboratories.(O’Donnell, 2004, A Commentary on Design Research.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p255-260.) The desire for research to have a practical impact, by having clear relevance for the improvement of education- (utility).(Bell, 2004). “On the Theoretical Breadth of Design-Based Research in Education.” Educational Psychologist, v39 n4 p243-253. An insistence on theory-guided educational intervention: ‘interventions embody specific theoretical claims about teaching and learning’ (The DBR Collective, 2003). A pluralist approach with respect to theories, research designs, methods, and procedures - includes mixed methods-hybrid where qualitative and quantitative techniques are used in combination (Bell, 2004) The use of an iterative design and evaluation cycle: interventions are adjusted as the research proceeds ( Dede, 2004. “If Design-Based Research is the Answer, What is the Question? Journal of the Learning Sciences, v13 n1 p105-114. A focus on how the intervention worked. (DBR collective, 6)
  5. 5. DBR est une méthodologie systématique etflexible dans le but d’améliorer la pratiqueéducative par des analyses itératives, dudesign, du développement et del’implantation dans un contexte réel pourétablir des principes et des propositionsthéoriques (Wang and Hannafin, 2005,p. 6)
  6. 6. Ann Brown, 1992, Design ExperimentsAlan Collins, 1992, A Design Science of EducationAERA 1998, presentation: Using Science and Design Experiments toUnderstand Innovative Uses of Technology in ClassroomsDBR Collective, 2001Educational Researcher Special Issue 2003◦ DBR Collective’s Manifesto: Design-Based Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Educational InquiryCollins & al: Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological IssuesDiSessa’s video presentation at Kal’s VDS on DBR, 2006Tom Reeves’ Tutorial ED-MEDIA 2007
  7. 7. DBR et le design: Explore, Explain, Design(Gibbons & Bunderson ) et Designerly ways ofknowing (Cross) MarceloDBR et la théorie, RivkiDBR et les méthod(es)ologies: JacquelineDBR: les cycles/étapes, et l’alignement, Isabelle
  8. 8. Gibbons, A. & Bunderson C. (2005). Explore, explain,design. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia ofSocial Measurement (927-938). New York: ElsevierCross, N.◦ (2001). Designerly Ways of Knowing: Design Discipline versus Design Science, Design Issues 17(3), 49-55◦ (2006). Designerly ways of knowing. In Designerly ways of knowing (pp. 1-13). London: Springer (first published in 1982, Design Studies 3(4), 221-227
  9. 9. Gibbons & Bunderson"Design" is a term that describes intentionalstructuring of artifacts and intervention plans tobring about predictable outcomes.Design is both 1) a subject of research and 2) a method of research and knowledge production.
  10. 10. Gibbons & Bunderson Knowledge-producing processes natural history science design technologyType of natural phenomena are seek to discover and seek to learn principles knowledgequestions observed, described, describe for connecting human producingthey measured, and authoritatively the intentions with the form studies andaddress collected to amass a single best coherent and function of human experiments into (1) body of facts and description of the made artifacts the act of designing, identify patterns and nature of the attempts to discover (2) the design trends underlying efficient structuring processes and Questions seek the operations that lead principles and processes generative principles growth of collections to observed that will produce a for design, and (3) based on the patterns phenomena variety of solutions to a study of the and trends in order to problem, from which the structural properties support or question most suitable may be of designed things. new models and selected on the basis of hypotheses problem-specific criteriatype of Exploratory Explanatory Normative (MM) Normative (MM)knowledgetheyproduce
  11. 11. Gibbons & Bundersonconcept designates three synergistically related knowledge-producing enterprises.knowledge-producing enterprises are necessary conditions foreach other, each producing results that become mutually andself-inputting, providing a continuous stream of researchquestions in all three are discriminated on the basis of the kinds ofquestions they address and the types of knowledge theyproduce, but not definitively on the research techniquesemployed.
  12. 12. Gibbons & BundersonSeek two kinds of theoretical knowledge◦ a descriptive explanation of the processes operative in a domain (e.g. in education: descriptive progression of learning or growth) , and◦ technological or design knowledge about how to create and implement the tools-both measurement instruments and the treatment control technologies.Are attempts to discover◦ new artifact- and intervention-related principles◦ or to improve the effectiveness of existing artifacts or intervention plans.Take place in live settings, and are iterative, cyclical applicationsof a process of principled design, implementation, evaluation,and redesign.Often aid in exploring a domain and possible treatments, andthus may be largely qualitative producing narrative accounts ofintense, iterative, often ideographic observations over each cycle.
  13. 13. Nigel Cross phenomenon of study appropriate methods valuessciences the natural world controlled experiment, objectivity, rationality, classification, analysis neutrality, and a concern for ‘truth’humanities human experience analogy, metaphor, subjectivity, imagination, evaluation commitment, and a concern for ‘justice’design the artificial world modeling, pattern- practicality, ingenuity, formation, synthesis empathy, and a concern for appropriateness Technology involves a synthesis of knowledge and skills from both the sciences and the humanities, in the pursuit of practical tasks; it is not simply applied science, but the application of scientific and other organised knowledge to practical tasks ... (Cross, et al., 1981).
  14. 14. Nigel CrossProblem Ill-defined, ill-structured, or wicked (Rittel and Webber, 1973). Not problems for which all the necessary information is, or ever can be, available to the problem-solver. Not susceptible to exhaustive analysis, and there can never be a guarantee that correct solutions can be found for them.Solution A solution-focused strategy is clearly preferable to a problem- focused one: it will always be possible to go on analyzing the problem, but the designers task is to produce the solution. It is only in terms of a conjectured solution that the problem can be contained within manageable bounds (Hillier and Leaman; 1974): ◦ What designers tend to do, therefore, is to seek, or impose a primary generator (Darke, 1979) which both defines the limits of the problem and suggests the nature of its possible solution.
  15. 15. Nigel CrossThe scientific method is a pattern of problem-solvingbehaviour employed in finding out the nature of whatexists, whereas the design method is a pattern of behaviouremployed in inventing things of value which do not yetexist. Science is analytic; design is constructive. (Gregory,1966)The natural sciences are concerned with how things are ...Design, on the other hand, is concerned with how thingsought to be. (Simon, 1969)To base design theory on inappropriate paradigms of logicand science is to make a bad mistake. Logic has interests inabstract forms. Science investigates extant forms. Designinitiates novel forms. (March, 1976)
  16. 16. Nigel CrossDonald Schön challenged the positivist doctrine underlyingmuch of the “design science” movement, and offered insteada constructivist paradigm.He criticized Simon’s view of a “science of design” for beingbased on approaches to solving well-formed problems,whereas professional practice throughout design andtechnology and elsewhere has to face and deal with “messy,problematic situations.”Schön proposed, instead, to search for “an epistemology ofpractice implicit in the artistic, intuitive processes which somepractitioners do bring to situations of uncertainty, instability,uniqueness, and value conflict,” and which he characterizedas “reflective practice.”
  17. 17. Nigel CrossDespite the positivist, technical-rationality basis of TheSciences of the Artificial, Simon did propose that “thescience of design” could form a fundamental, commonground of intellectual endeavor and communication acrossthe arts, sciences, and technology.Design as a discipline, therefore, can mean design studiedon its own terms, and within its own rigorous culture. It canmean a science of design based on the reflective practice ofdesign: design as a discipline, but not design as a science.This discipline seeks to develop domain-independentapproaches to theory and research in design.
  18. 18. Theory building is a must! (diSessa, Cobb, 2004)◦ We must develop theoretical constructs that empower us to see order, pattern, and regularity in the complex settings in which we conduct DE.Theory building is integral to the work of advancing knowledge building within a domain(Palincsar, 2005)DBR is an important methodology for understanding how, when, and why educationalinnovations work in practiceDBR is a lens or set of analytical techniques that balances the positivist and interpretivistparadigms and attempts to bridge theory and practice in educationDBR is a blend of empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learningenvironmentsDBR methods aim to uncover the relationships between educational theory, designed artifact,and practice (Brown 1992; Collins, 1992; DBR Collective) The primary aim of DBR is to develop DOMAIN-SPECIFIC THEORIES in order to understand thelearning process (Mor, 2006)
  19. 19. What is theory?◦ A set of related propositions that attempts to explain, and sometimes predict a set of events (Hoover 1992, p. 66 In Richey, 1997)◦ Explanations of phenomena or events that help us understand and deal with the world (Seels, 1997)Role of theory◦ Providing patterns for the interpretation of data◦ Linking one study with another◦ Supplying frameworks◦ Allowing us to interpret the larger meaning of findings (Hoover 1992 In Seels 1997)Criteria (Richey, 1997)- accuracy- validity- utility
  20. 20. Theories have always displayed a principal part of the power andelegance of science.They embody generalization, bringing order to a vast array ofseemingly disparate phenomena that come to be seen as specialcases of some theory.They enable us to discriminate between relations that arenecessary and those that are contingent.They delineate classes of phenomena that are worthy of inquiryand specify how to look and what to see in order to understandthem.“Teaching us how to see”—is particularly evident in the type oftheory in DBR
  21. 21. Formal systems of laws and propositions (builtaround suggested relationships among variables)Narrative explanations and predictionsModels (verbal, visual or mathematical)Set of lawsForm of an organization and summary of existingknowledgeForm of hypothesisDescribe and often predict events
  22. 22. Domain theories- describe learning situations involvingstudents, teachers, learning environments and theirinteractions.Design framework- is a “design solution” that provides a setof “design guidelines for a particular class of designchallenge”Design methodologies- are prescriptive in nature, serving asguidelines for how to implement a set of designs, what kindof expertise is required and who should provide theexpertise. As a result of the iterative design process,researchers also continuously refine design interventions tomake them more applicable to practice
  23. 23. Domain theories Design framework Design methodologies (RR, 2008 ? ) (IS, 2008 ? ) (MM, 2008 ? )Generalization of some Generalized design General design procedure.portion of a problem solution. Describe the Provides guidelines for the process rather thananalysis. This theory characteristics that a the product. Describes:might be about learners design artifact must have a. A process for achieving a class of designsand how they learn, to achieve a particular setteachers how they teach, of goals in a context b. Forms of expertise requireslearning environ. and how c. Roles to be played by the individualsthey influence teaching representing those forms of expertiseand learningDescriptive Prescriptive Prescriptive
  24. 24. DBR: Méthodologie?◦ Design-based research (DBR) is a research paradigm that intertwines research with practice and fits well with the purposes of education (Bell, 2004)DBR et autres méthodologies◦ Development Research◦ Design Experiment◦ Design Research◦ Formative ResearchCycles et étapes
  25. 25. DBR is:◦ an emerging method (Kelly, 2004)◦ a methodology (Wang, Hannafin, 2005)◦ a framework (diSessa, 2007)Method- is a procedure, a process, a set of steps to follow. A way of doingsomething, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logicalarrangement (usually in steps)Methodology- what, who,when a given activity should be preformed? It is astructure geared toward a goal. The way in which information is found orsomething is done. The methodology includes the methods, procedures,and techniques used to collect and analyze.Framework- model: a hypothetical description of a complex entity orprocess; "the computer program was based on a model of the circulatoryand respiratory ... the underlying structure; "restoring the framework of thebombed building"; "it is part of the fabric of society" . A structuresupporting or containing something
  26. 26. 1 2 3 4 Développer des Réfléchir à la Effectuer des théories, des solutions production de théories, Analyser des cycles itératifs sur la base des de principes deproblèmes pratiques de tests et de principes de conception conception en collaboration raffinement existants et mettre en évidence entre praticiens des théories, et des solutions et chercheurs des solutions des innovations d’implémentation en pratique technologiques Raffinement de théories, de problèmes, de solutions et de principes de conception 5 (Adaptée de Reeves, 2006)
  27. 27. Corroboration (Popper)Une proposition sfx = réfutable, n’est pas vérifiable par l’expérience, on ne peut pas affirmer qu’elle ne sera jamais réfutée… C’est vrai jusqu’à preuve du contraire!La théorie (étape 2 DBR) précède l’observation (étape 3 et 4 DBR).Une théorie (ou proposition théorique) est scientifique si ellese divise en deux sous-classes dénoncés de base : 1) la classe des énoncés qui la contredisent, appelés falsifieurs potentiels (si ces énoncés sont vrais la théorie est fausse); 2) la classe des énoncés avec lesquels elle saccorde (si ces énoncés sont vrais, ils la corroborent).
  28. 28. « Methodological alignment » = s’assurer que les méthodes de recherche quenous utilisons testent bien ce que nous pensons qu’elles testent.La notion d’alignement est essentielle à notre compréhension de la validité de larecherche.La validité d’une recherche = notre interprétation des résultats corrobore lathéorie et les hypothèses examinées:◦ “2 autres types de validité en recherche dont nous devons nous soucier”: 1) La validité de traitement – les traitements que nous créons sont bien alignés avec les théories qu’ils représentent. 2) La validité systémique— l’ensemble de la recherche doit créer 1) un test juste pour les théories mais aussi 2) une façon de communiquer ces théories qui respecte les inférences utilisées pour les prouver.Pour atteindre une vraie validité systémique◦ Nos recherches doivent informer nos théories, - Qui doivent informer la pratique
  29. 29. La conception des théories, des solutionsDans le DBR, l’implication des mêmes acteurs dans: 1) la formulation de la théorie, 2) l’implémentation des interventions, et 3) la “mesure” des produitsfavorise un meilleur alignment méthodologique.DBR est, en fait, une tentative de combinaisondu design intentionnel des l’exploration empirique de notreenvironnements d’apprentissage compréhension de ces environnementsavec et de leur façon d’interagir avec les individus.
  30. 30. DBR se base sur l’idée que l’universalité est raredans les phénomènes étudiés en éducation.Et parce que la méthode entame les étapesexpérimentales en examinant des contextesindividuels,les chercheurs DB généralisent leurs constatationsseulement provisoirementen en faisant une science locale
  31. 31. Les chercheurs en DBR doivent documenter:◦ leur perspective ou point de départ MAIS AUSSI◦ toutes stratégies d’intervention pertinentes utilisées par les participants observés ET par le chercheur lui-même En documentant les pratiques de planification de l’apprentissage du point de vue de ceux qui ont pour but de favoriser l’apprentissage, nous allons peut- être établir le cadre d’une forme de recherche plus utilisable et plus valide
  32. 32. “When one foregoes experimental controls, how can onegeneralize to other settings regardless of how rich arethe local descriptions?” (Kelly, 2004, p.120).DBR’s goal is to design something that not onlydevelops theory, but also is valuable to others. Thiscriterion not only requires the deep understanding ofone particular context, but DBR must also showrelevance to other contexts. This type of generalizationhas been referred to as a petite generalization (Stake,1995)A Humble Theory rather than Grand Theories grain size,different scales (diSessa):
  33. 33. DBR:◦ trying to understand the world by trying to change it◦ creating and testing theories in complex situations◦ building theoretical empirical propositions about learning with technologyUne innovation? Prendre Design Science commesource d’inspiration au lieu de la sociologie oula psychologieReconnaissance :◦ AERA, JLS (NSF?)◦ ICLS2008? ….que dit le conférencier d’ouverture?
  34. 34. From Design Experiments to FormativeInterventionsHuman learning takes place in increasingly complex,continuously changing activity settings which makestraditional well controlled experiments difficult and rendertheir ecological validity questionable. On the other hand,various modes of action research typically lack inmethodological and theoretical rigor. Design experiments arean increasingly popular attempt to resolve this dilemma.However, I will show that the notion of design experimentsreproduces crucial limitations of traditional research designand fails to address the foundational issue of agency of theresearch subjects
  35. 35. Bibliographie◦ Brown, A. , Design Experiments, Journal of the Learning Sciences(2), 141-178, 1992◦ Collins, A. (1992). Toward a Design Science of Education. In E. Scanlon and T. OShea. New Directions in Educational Technology◦ DBR Collective, Educational Researcher, 2003◦ A.Collins; D.Joseph & K. Bielaczyc, Design Research: Theoretical and Methodological Issues Journal of the Learning Sciences (13, 1) 15-42, 2004◦ Gibbons◦ Ross, S. et al, Research Designs, in Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology◦ Van den Akker, J., Gravemeijer,K., McKenney, S. & Nieveen, N., Educational Design Research.◦ Anthony Cocciolo’s Lit. Review:◦ Terry Anderson’s biblio:◦ Simon, H. The science of the artificial, (1969), MIT Press (Design Science)Webographie◦ The DBR Collective,◦ A PEER Tutorial on DBR, Georgia U. PhD students:◦
  36. 36. Séminaire le 18 juin Y. Mor,-Institute of Education, U. of London-Chercheur à London Knowledge Lab Article: Design Approaches in Technology- Enhanced Learning (TEL)
  37. 37. • Exhibit all aspects of a design study, except that, in seeking explanatory and design theories, reliance on narrative methods is supplemented with invariant measurement of the growth or change constructs spanning the domain.• The measurement instruments evolve over the cycles of design; they implement, evaluate, redesign, and come to embody an increasingly adequate descriptive theory of the processes operative in the domain.• In addition, the technological devices designed to introduce and control the treatment effects are forthrightly described using the emerging layers and languages of technology in that domain.