Auditory/Oral – These programs teach children to make maximum use of their residual hearing through amplification (hearing aids or cochlear implants) to augment their residual hearing with speech (lip) reading and to speak. This approach excludes the use of sign language.Cued Speech/Language – This is a visual communication system combining eight hand shapes (cues) that represent different sounds of speech. These cues are used simultaneously with speaking. The hand shapes help the child distinguish sounds that look the same on the lips (e.g. “P” and “B”). The cues significantly enhance lip reading ability.Total Communication – This approach uses a combination of methods to teach a child, including a form of sign language, finger spelling, speech (lip) reading, speak, and amplification. The sign language used in total communication is not a language in and of itself, like American Sign Language, but an invented artificially constructed system following English grammatical structure.American Sign Language – In this bilingual and bicultural approach, American Sign Language is taught as the child’s primary language, and English as the second language. ASL is recognized as a true language in its own right and does not follow the grammatical structure of English. This method is used extensively within the deaf community, a group that views itself as having a separate culture and identity from mainstream society.
Usually, the unit is part of a treatment center or a hospital and will incorporate the treatment goals of that organization, institution, or agency into its work with youth. The unit is supported by a unit committee, usually staff at the organization, or individuals in the community who are interested in Scouting and familiar with the work of the organization.
Hearing leaders must realize that a speech deficiency or a deaf boy’s inability to explain a word in the same way as a hearing Scout does not disqualify a boy from Scouting. Leaders must not allow Scouts who are deaf to bog down on the more difficult verbal aspects. If a boy knows that a Scouts does not lie or cheat or steal, he doesn’t need to stumble over the word “trustworthy.” This requirement may also be difficult for hearing boys.
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ReferenceA Guide to Working with Boy Scouts with DisABILITIES, No. 33056C Form “Parent or Guardian Informed Consent,” which gives specific leaders permission for one-on-one with a Scout for physical health care purposes.
Scouting for Youth With Disabilities Part IX F-IUnderstanding Categories of Disabilities and Best Methods Presentation prepared by Lindsay Foster Doctoral Dissertation Candidate 2011 Longhorn Council, Boy Scouts of America
OverviewThe Boy Scouts of America wants to include youth who haveemotional and behavior disorders. Many units have welcomedyouth who have emotional difficulties. Scouting units havealso been organized at treatment centers and hospitals andhave become meaningful parts of the treatment program.Many young people with emotional difficulties have benefittedfrom Scouting.
The “Unseen” DisabilityEmotional disorders are thought by some to be “unseen”disabilities. They cannot readily be seen as canblindness, mental illness, or a physical disability. So, sincesometimes there is no warning of a behavioral episode, adultscan be startled by the actions of a child who finds it hard tocope with his inner feelings.
Why? For theseBehavior youth, misbehavior isproblems an outwardcan stem expression of an from: Conflicting Learning Emotions Difficulties inward emotional problem. Learned Improper Life Patterns Behaviors Coping Skills from Home
ReactionsYoung people have their own ways of overcoming barriersand having their needs met: Some withdraw and say they do not care. Some daydream or fail to pay attention. Some give up since they see no point in continuing to strive when needs are never met.
Additional Reactions Violent behaviors such as: • Reckless property damage • Physical attacks on others • Malicious mischief Non-violent behaviors such as: • Lying • Stealing • Setting fires • Refusing to learn • Overeating
Language of BehaviorThe way a child is treated determines in part how he seeslife and how he regards himself. The world can be viewedas safe and nurturing, or it can be seen as dangerous andfrightening. If a child is cared for, loved, and accepted, hecan see himself as worthwhile and loveable. If a child can accomplish and achieve, he can see himself as competent.
Trust Facets of Trust • Trust in the environment • Trust in people • Trust in the future • Trust in oneself Be Aware • Of making promises that may not be fulfilled • Of responsibility to follow through on promises
Why Scouting for Youth With Emotional Disabilities Youth want a sense of belonging. Youth want to achieve. Youth want to be recognized for achievement.
Planning Activities for Disability-Specific Youth WithEmotional Disabilities
Special Leadership Needs•Competitive activities should be avoided unless a memberunless a member can compete against his own pastachievement rather than the achievement or skill of others.•The leader should always remember that the level ofinterest and participation of members will vary greatly fromactivity to activity.•The Scouting leader and unit committee must be veryactive in helping to plan and evaluate the program activities.•The goals of Scouting must be understood, and theplanning process and activities adapted to fit the abilities ofthe members in the unit.•Members may need individualized help with reading orother requirements.
Special Leadership Needs Plan For Success1. Keep precise and accurate records, especially of advancement.2. Use official Scouting equipment. It is the best available. (It is especially important that members have official BSA uniforms.)3. Seek advice from leaders presently working in Scouting with youth with emotional disabilities.4. Follow the program guidelines in the Troop Program Features, Cub Scout Program Helps, and the Webelos Leader Guide.5. Develop and use the patrol method (see the Scoutmaster Handbook).6. Keep the “outing” in Scouting.
A Community Unit Many community units have members with behavioral or emotional problems. The leader’s attitude toward a child with emotional disabilities is most important. If the leader shows acceptance, if he show that he considers the child as much a participating member as any other, if se shows he expects the same participation (with some support), then the other members are likely to react similarly. Although the unit leader must set the example and be accepting of a member with a disability and be enthusiastic about helping him, he must, at the same time, fully appreciate the special demands that will be made on his patience, understanding, and skill.
Emotional / Behavioral / Social DisabilitiesWhat You Should Know About Youth with Emotional Disabilities
Scouting OpportunitiesAdvancement should be guided according to the individual ability of each boy.Scouting for emotionally disabled youth should not be watered-down Scouting.Rather than lower the standards, more leaders should be recruited to increasethe individual help each child receives as his needs require.
The Outdoor Program 2Fresh air and exercise are obviousbenefits of a good outdoor program, butother benefits are: An opportunity to take An external orientation A variety of success A method to help the Situation in which advantage of a that can provideoriented activities that Many opportunities boys feel a part of the structure can promote A cohesive program number of task- alternatives to can be chosen and program ideas for world at large, rather feelings of security in that can build feelings oriented activities to anxieties, disorderedaccording to individual “off-ground” activities than just residents of a non-institutional of self-esteem build cooperation and thinking, and feelings needs an agency setting other social skills in a of self-defeat group setting.
Physical DisabilitiesTypes of Physical Disabilities
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Cerebral Palsy Definition Characteristics Additional Information • A condition caused by • Spastic – stiff and difficult • Nearly all will have speech damage to the movement & language difficulties brain, usually occurring • Athetoid – disturbed • More complex trouble before, during, or shortly sense of balance related to injury of the following birth • Combination speech formation centers • Neither progressive nor • Characterized by an in the brain communicable inability to fully control • May also have difficulty • Not curable motor function with drooling • Not a disease • About 2/3 have visual • Ranges from mild to handicaps severe • Usually take an anticonvulsant during the day • About 2/3 have some degree of mental disability
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – ProgressiveMuscular Dystrophy Additional Definition Characteristics Information • Encompasses a • Should not be • Youth with this group of permitted to condition should not progressive become tired but take part in any muscular diseases should have some Scout activities that • Characterized by exercise result in excessive progressive • Begins between fatigue deterioration of ages of 2 and 10 skeletal (most common muscles, cause type) unknown • Progresses from lower trunk, hips and legs up the trunk
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – ProgressiveMuscularAtrophy Additional Definition Characteristics Information • Covers a number • Widespread of poorly muscle weakness understood neurological diseases • Characterized by either failure to develop or the progressive degeneration of certain cells in the spinal cord
Some Types of Physical Disabilities –Spina Bifida Definition Characteristics Additional Information • Birth defect • 1 type may only be • Urinary problems are characterized by detected by x-rays common failure of several and causes no vertebrae to develop disability and enclose the • 2 out of every 1000 spinal cord live births results in • Results in two small spina bifida minifesta spines, one on either • Skin of lower limbs is side of the midline of not sensitive to the back, rather than pain, touch, or heat one running down the center
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Heart Defects Information Form 1 Form 2 • Pumps 103, 680 • Developmental • Flaws in the times per day in defect which valves, usually the average 12 diverts the from rheumatic year old bloodstream fever • Otherwise either into wrong appears to be channels or normal creates unusual • Heart disease in resistance to children blood flow with a generally takes corresponding one of two forms: increase in the heart’s workload
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Limb Deformities Information Amputations • Birth deformities are • Caused by surgery or rare serious accident • Usually involves the • While similar to a absence or partial Scout with a birth development of one deformity, may have a or more bones of the stronger emotional limb reaction during adjustment to his disability
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Epilepsy Definition Characteristics Types What to Do • A physical condition • Blackouts or periods of • Generalized (all brain • Gently move him to a that occurs when there confused memory cells) side-lying position is a sudden, brief • Episodes of staring or • Convulsions with • Do not restrain his change in how the brain unexplained periods of complete loss of movements works unresponsiveness consciousness • Do not douse him with • Brain cells are not • Involuntary movement • Brief period of fixed water or slap him working properly of arms and legs staring • Do not place a finger or resulting in a loss of • Fainting spells with • Partial (some brain object between his consciousness, altered incontinence or cells) teeth movement or altered followed by excessive • Periods of “automatic” • Remove nearby objects action fatigue behavior and altered that might injure him if • Odd sounds, distorted consciousness he should hit them perceptions, or episodic • Grand Mal feelings of feat that • Focal cannot be explained • Petit Mal • Psychomotor
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Brain Damage Characteristics Additional Information • Outwardly appears normal, may have seizures or • May have coordination problems that limit convulsions as children with cerebral palsy do functional abilities • May be difficulty in comprehension, learning, behavior, speech, and hearing • Often is hyperactive, nervous, restless, and moves compulsively with no apparent purpose
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Down Syndrome Health Related Definition Incidence Characteristics Problems • The most common • 1 in every 800 to • Poor muscle tone • Lowered immune and readily 1000 live births in • Slanting eyes with system identifiable the U.S. folds of skin at the • Visual problems chromosomal • Occurrence is inner corners • Hearing problems condition higher in • Hyper flexibility • Speech difficulty associated with a pregnancy for • Short broad hands • Heart defects mental disability women over 35 with a single (approximately • Most common crease across the 1/3) forms do not occur palm on one or • Atalanntoaxial in a family more both hands instability than once • Broad feet with • Obesity short toes • Mental disabilitie • Flat bridge of the nose • Short, low-set ears • Small head • Small oral cavity • Short, high pitched cries in infancy
Some Types of Physical Disabilities – Diabetes Definition Types Questions to Ask • A disorder in which the • Type I • Does the Scout body fails to make • May be controlled by administer insulin proper use of diet himself? sugar, and so the sugar • Given • Will Scout adhere to accumulates in the medication, insulin, by diabetic diet, particularly blood and often passes injection on camping trips? in the urine • What is the Scout’s • Type II • May be controlled by medication schedule? diet • What should be done for insulin shock? • What are the symptoms of insulin reaction?
Scouting For a Youth in a Special Unit The fact that Scouting is Scouting is based upon Scouting is geared to the a worldwide movement the high ideals and abiding interests of gives breadth and depth purposes that are youth. to belonging to a Scout necessary to rich living in group. a social world. Scouting permits children with disabilities Scouting has a strong to work closely with other dedication in service to boys and girls toward others and to community. common goals and ideals.
Emotional Problems •Physically disabled youth do not come in a single mold, any more than other youth do. •Youth with disabilities may have more difficulty adjusting to society. •Youth with disabilities may sense feelings of pity or rejection by others, and they may respond to them by: • developing feelings of inferiority, • becoming more timid, or • overcompensating and becoming more aggressive.
The Physical Benefits of Scouting One of the Scouting movement’s principal goals is mental and physical fitness, and disabled youth derive at least as much physical benefit from Scouting as do other youth. As leaders are not physicians ortherapists, the Scout leader should plan a full agenda of Scouting activities with no regard to therapy; the physical benefits will follow.
Placing Youth in Scouting Youth with a Vernon disability Mallinson in should None Can Be Called Will the become a Deformed Scout do Scout in asserts that whatever children with better in type of unit is disabilities should, if a special available or is possible, soci unit? most alize with nondisabled appropriate. children.
Why Scouting for Youth With Physical Disabilities?“The disabled child has a right to grow up in a world whichdoes not set him apart, which looks at him not with scorn or pity or ridicule but which welcomes him, exactly as itwelcomes every child, which offers him identical privileges and identical responsibilities.”~ White House Conference on Child Health and Protection
What You Should Know About the Youth’s Disability Problems could include: •Transportation for hikes and campouts •Involving all youth in games and contests •Acceptance of the youth by the other members as just another Scout.
Will He Hold Us Back? - DISCUSSION DISCUSSION TOPIC: By definition, a physically disabled youth is one who has some disability that makes it difficult or impossible for him to do some things that Scouts normally do. Unit leaders mightoccasionally face the question of whether to hold back the otheryouth to allow the disabled youthto keep up or let him work at his own pace while the others proceed at a faster pace. What’s the right answer?
Games and Contests - DISCUSSION When an individual with physically disabilities is unable to compete on equal terms, how may he participate in active games?
The Youth in a Unit With Scouts With DisabilitiesThis is essentially the same as in anyother unit. The way the activities arecarried out may be differentdepending upon the needs of theScouts.A special unit might include:•Youth with a single disabling condition in a hospital orresidential facility•Youth with a variety of disabling conditions in a children’shospital or long-term rehabilitation facility•Youth with a variety of disabling conditions in a unit outsidean institution
Running Your Program The need to The level ofThe need to experiment, to participation by slow down find out what boys could vary activities works and what considerably doesn’t Three things to consider:
Running Your Program: DISCUSSION Discussion: Discussion: Discussion: How much and How mayWhat needs to be what types of trial participation be considered? and error should encouraged? be used? Break into small groups and discuss.
HELP! From Parents With Personal and Others Needs
Six Point Plan for Success Keep precise and Use official Scouting Seek advice from accurate equipment; it is the leaders presentlyrecords, especially best available for working with of advancement. camping and hiking. disabled Scouts. Develop and useFollow the program the patrol methodguidelines outlined Keep the “outing” in (see the in the official BSA Scouting. Scoutmaster literature. Handbook).
Hiking and CampingProbably fewer special troops and Webelos dens hike than camp, because in suchunits there is a high proportion of youth who use wheelchairs or cumbersome legbraces – traveling over rough terrain can be an ordeal for them.Experienced Scout leaders of youth with disabilities recommend:•There be an adult or nondisabled Scout for every two disabled Scouts•Hikes be relatively short (depending upon capability of the hikers)•Hikes be on fairly smooth terrain, particularly when youth are in wheelchairs•Plenty of time be allowed because of the slower pace of the hikers•Hikers do not get too far from easy access to transportation in case any of thembecome fatigued
Hiking and CampingNearly all troops of disabled Scouts are perfectly capable of overnight andlong-term camping, providing that the conditions are not too rugged.Special factors must be considered:•Presence of Sand•Presence of Rugged Terrain•Presence of Ramps•Presence of Individuals to Port Gear• Presence of First Aider
The Scouting Challenge Every Scout will excel in some areas and not in other. The same is true for blind Scouts. What is important is that they are given the opportunity to try. They are more alike other boys than they are unlike them.
Discard Old Notions •The old notion that blind boys are helpless is false. •Another incorrect notion is that a boy’s disability is more extensive than it is. •One might tend to attribute poor coordination and balance to blindness, when in fact the boy has not had the physical experience necessary to attain control. •A blind boy’s knowledge of objects may be limited. •In physical capability, finger dexterity and coordination, the blind boy’s disability may be a limitation because of lack of experience but it is not necessarily prohibitive.
Sense Compensations•Blind boys see neither smiles nor frowns (a smiling face mayhave a “frowning” voice).•Keep the Scout’s attention by recognizing him for what hehas done.•Just as often, though, a boy who is blind can be encouragedby a pat on the shoulder and the leader’s reassurance.
Other Concerns Intelligent discipline and safety Choosing the right unit Leadership demands in mixed units Special units Boy Scouting Trial and error Merit badge work Additional opportunities
Visual Impairment ACTIVITY In a small group, use the cards to separate the various activities andsuggestions into the categories listed on the slide.
Group Activities - ACTIVITY Camping Pitching a Tent Whipping Tying Knots Lashing Nature First Aid Hiking Using Maps Compass Skills Physical Fitness
Should the Term “Mental Retardation” Be Used? The American It is characterized by Association on It is important to noted significant limitations in Intellectual and that “mental intellectual functioning Developmental retardation” offers and adaptive behavior Disabilities defines special protections in as expressed in “mental retardation” is a key areas of state and conceptual, social, and disability that occurs federal policy. practical adaptive skills. before age 18.
What Is Mental Retardation?An individual is considered to have mental retardation (or more appropriately acognitive, intellectual, or developmental disability) when these three criteria aremet: Intellectual functioning level (IQ) below 70-75 Significant • Daily skills needed to live, work, and play in the limitations in two community • Communication, self-care, home living, social or more adaptive skills, leisure, health and safety, self- skill areas direction, functional academics, community use, & work Preexisting mental condition as a child (defined as age 18 or less)
Additional Concerns and Issues Activities of Common Interest Uniforming Leader Helps Faith, Hope, Understanding & Desire Scouting Spirit Immediate & Frequent Recognition Learn by Teaching Selecting a Unit