Optimizing PHEVs on the Grid

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This was a project for our environmental science class in the Bren School of Environmental Science. You miss a lot of the presentation online as the transitions really made this one slick. Try running it in Keynote.

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  • Optimizing PHEVs on the Grid

    1. 1. Optimizing PHEVs on The Grid Allison King & Aaron SobelESM 242 - Natural Resource EconomicsBren School of Environmental Science & Management
    2. 2. Research Questions
    3. 3. Research QuestionsHow many Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles can be optimally charged in California during off-peak hours?
    4. 4. Research QuestionsHow many Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles can be optimally charged in California during off-peak hours? What is the optimal charging sequence?
    5. 5. Research QuestionsHow many Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles can be optimally charged in California during off-peak hours? What is the optimal charging sequence? What are the costs and greenhouse gas emissions in this scenario compared to status quo?
    6. 6. ConsiderationsPlugin Hybrid Electric Cars (PHEV)Electrical Demand & Supply Curves Decrease GHG Emissions Maximize Grid Efficiency Minimize Costs
    7. 7. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours May 16, 200932,00028,75025,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    8. 8. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours May 16, 2009Power Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    9. 9. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours May 16, 2009Power Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    10. 10. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours May 16, 2009Power Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    11. 11. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,00028,750 Baseload Power25,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    12. 12. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,00028,750 Baseload Power25,500 Constantly Used Generation •Between 18-26MW22,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    13. 13. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,000 Peak Load28,75025,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    14. 14. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,000 Peak Load Peaking Plants Run Approximately 20% of the Day •Highest GHG Emissions28,75025,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    15. 15. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,000 Load-Following28,75025,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    16. 16. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 Hours32,000 Load-Following Power Generated In Between28,75025,50022,25019,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24
    17. 17. Source: EIA, 2008
    18. 18. Vehicle TypesGasoline Hybrid PHEV Electric
    19. 19. Vehicle TypesGasoline Hybrid PHEV Electric
    20. 20. Plugin Hybrid Electric VehiclesDesignation All-Electric Mileage PHEV-20 20 Miles PHEV-40 40 Miles PHEV-60 60 Miles
    21. 21. Plugin Hybrid Electric VehiclesDesignation All-Electric Mileage PHEV-20 20 Miles PHEV-40 40 Miles PHEV-60 60 Miles
    22. 22. Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles PHEV-20Vehicle Class Charge Time Required*Compact Sedan 5 HoursMid-Size Sedan 6 HoursMid-Size SUV 8 Hours Full-Size SUV 10 Hours *Based upon 120V / 15A Circuit Charger & 20% Full Charge
    23. 23. Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles PHEV-20Vehicle Class Charge Time Required*Compact Sedan 5 HoursMid-Size Sedan 6 HoursMid-Size SUV 8 Hours Full-Size SUV 10 Hours *Based upon 120V / 15A Circuit Charger & 20% Full Charge
    24. 24. Scenario AssumptionsPlugin Hybrid Electric VehiclesPHEV-20Compact Sedan20% Starting Charge80% of CA Vehicles RepresentedLithium-Ion Batteries Assumed
    25. 25. DEMO
    26. 26. Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions from PHEV on the Grid May 16, 2009 Gasoline* PHEV (700g CO2e/kWh) PHEV (450g CO2e/kWh)Emissions in Thousand Metric Tons CO2E Emissions by Source of Vehicle Energy *Based upon Comparison to 29 MPG Honda Civic
    27. 27. Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions from PHEV on the Grid May 16, 2009 Gasoline* PHEV (700g CO2e/kWh) PHEV (450g CO2e/kWh)Emissions in Thousand Metric Tons CO2E 90 67.5 45 22.5 0 Emissions by Source of Vehicle Energy *Based upon Comparison to 29 MPG Honda Civic
    28. 28. Cost Savings for PHEV (Based on a 26.2 Mile Commute)*Assuming a May 11, 2009 gasoline cost of $2.42 & an average retail electricity cost of $0.1248/kWh (EIA, 2010)
    29. 29. Cost Savings for PHEV (Based on a 26.2 Mile Commute) Daily Fuel Costs Per Person Gasoline PHEV-20 $2.22 $1.18*Assuming a May 11, 2009 gasoline cost of $2.42 & an average retail electricity cost of $0.1248/kWh (EIA, 2010)
    30. 30. Cost Savings for PHEV (Based on a 26.2 Mile Commute) Daily Fuel Costs Per Person Gasoline PHEV-20 $2.22 $1.18 Daily Fuel Costs For Fleet Gasoline PHEV-20 $23.5 Million $12.5 Million*Assuming a May 11, 2009 gasoline cost of $2.42 & an average retail electricity cost of $0.1248/kWh (EIA, 2010)
    31. 31. Cost Savings for PHEV (Based on a 26.2 Mile Commute) Daily Fuel Costs Per Person Gasoline PHEV-20 $2.22 $1.18 Daily Fuel Costs For Fleet $10.9 Million Gasoline PHEV-20 Savings $23.5 Million $12.5 Million*Assuming a May 11, 2009 gasoline cost of $2.42 & an average retail electricity cost of $0.1248/kWh (EIA, 2010)
    32. 32. “According to the Energy Commission forecast, maximum summer demand in2010 is forecasted to be 64,216 MW and is expected to increase an average of 1.4 percent per year for the next five years” Source: Energy Commission 2007b, Form 1.4, p.42; Energy Commission 2009b
    33. 33. PHEVs can reduce emissions here! (sort of)
    34. 34. “The batteries in plug-in hybrids and electric vehicles have the potential to aidsystem reliability by acting as a storage device for the electric grid. These batteries may be able to provide a useful sink for excess off-peak wind generation” Source: California Energy Commission 2009, CEC-700-2009-009-F
    35. 35. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 HoursPower Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    36. 36. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 HoursPower Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    37. 37. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 HoursPower Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    38. 38. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 HoursPower Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 Flattened Power Demand 25,500 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    39. 39. Hourly Electricity Generation by CA Grid over 24 HoursPower Plant Electricity Generation (in MW) 32,000 28,750 Flattened Power Demand 25,500 sweet! 22,250 19,000 1 3 6 8 10 13 15 17 19 22 24 Hour of the Day
    40. 40. Next Steps
    41. 41. Next StepsEstimate Effects on PeakingSensitivity for Multiple MPG Adjust Costs Efficiency Loses
    42. 42. Data Sources
    43. 43. Data Sources Christopher Weber, Paulina Jaramillo, Joe Marriott, andConstantine Samaras. n.d. Life Cycle Assessment and GridElectricity: What Do We Know and What Can We Know?  Jason Wynne. 2009. Department of Energy. 2010. EIA - Electricity Data, Electric Power Capacity and Fuel Use, Electric Surveys and Analysis. May 2010. http://www.eia.doe.gov/ fuelelectric.html. Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Californias Electricity Grid. Nicholas School, Duke University, May 2009. Joe Marriott, and Scott Matthews. 2005. Environmental Effects of Interstate Power Trading on Electricity Consumption Mixes. Environmental Science and Technology 39.Ryan McCarthy, and Christopher Yang. 2009. Determining marginal electricity for near-term plug-in and fuel cell vehicle demands in California: Impacts on vehiclegreenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Power Sources 195 (October). 
    44. 44. Optimizing PHEVs on The Grid
    45. 45. Optimizing PHEVs on The Grid sweet!

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