Conditional sentences


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Conditional sentences

  1. 1. Conditional Sentences
  2. 2. Conditional Sentences <ul><li>Composed by 2 clauses </li></ul><ul><li>one that expresses the condition: introduced by the word “ if ”, commonly known as “if clause”. </li></ul><ul><li>one that expresses the consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: If you work hard, you will succeed. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>There are 3 main types of conditional sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Type A : probable condition </li></ul><ul><li>Type B : improbable condition </li></ul><ul><li>Type C : impossible condition </li></ul>Conditional Sentences
  4. 4. Type A : Probable Condition <ul><li>Used for actions which are true or likely to happen </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If it rains tomorrow, we shall cancel the picnic. </li></ul><ul><li>You will be tired if you do a lot of exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>Note on pattern A: </li></ul><ul><li>If + present tense, future tense </li></ul>
  5. 5. Type B : Improbable Condition <ul><li>Used for present or future activities which are improbable or unlikely to happen </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If it rained tomorrow, we should stay at home. </li></ul><ul><li>You could start dinner if it were ready. </li></ul><ul><li>Note on Pattern B: </li></ul><ul><li>if + past tense, would/should/might + infinitive </li></ul>
  6. 6. Type C : Impossible Condition <ul><li>Used for impossible activities which could NOT be true or performed </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>If it had rained yesterday, I would have stayed at home. </li></ul><ul><li>What would you have done if you had been attacked by a monster? </li></ul><ul><li>Note on Pattern C: </li></ul><ul><li>if + past perfect, would/should/might + perfect infinitive </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exercise <ul><li>Try to distinguish the following sentences (type A, B or C). </li></ul><ul><li>1. If you take a taxi, you can get there in time for the play. </li></ul><ul><li>Type A Type B Type C </li></ul><ul><li>2. If I had known your arrival, I should have met you. </li></ul><ul><li> Type A Type B Type C </li></ul><ul><li>3. If I dropped this bomb, it would explode . </li></ul><ul><li> Type A Type B Type C </li></ul>
  8. 8. Variations <ul><li>Mixed conditional sentences . We can form mixed conditionals, if the context permits it, by combining an if-clause from one type with a main clause from another. </li></ul><ul><li>IF-CLAUSE (type 2) + MAIN CLAUSE (type 1) : If she got back late last night, she won’t come to work today. </li></ul><ul><li>IF-CLAUSE (type 2) + MAIN CLAUSE (type 3) : If you were more sensible, you wouldn’t have spoken to your boss like that. </li></ul><ul><li>IF-CLAUSE (type 3) + MAIN CLAUSE (type 2) : If she hadn’t missed the bus, she would be here now. </li></ul><ul><li>Substitute words . We can form conditionals by using words/expressions such as unless, so/as long as, provided/providing, suppose/supposing: Unless you arrive on time you will miss the train; provided/as long as you arrive on time you won’t miss the train. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Summary <ul><li>Conditional sentences are composed by 2 clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one that expresses the condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one that expresses the consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 main types of conditional sentences. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A : Probable Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B : Improbable Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type C : Impossible Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><li>- Mixed conditionals </li></ul><ul><li>- Substitute words: unless, so/as long as, provided/providing, suppose/supposing. </li></ul>The End