Rule Classical era Last part


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Lecture for the last half of the Classical era.

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Rule Classical era Last part

  1. 1. Forms
  2. 2. Chapter 5: Minuet and Trio Ternary form based upon stately court dance of the baroque Each ternary part is itself ternary: Return of the minuet is usually marked on the music as da capo Minuet Trio Minuet ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || A B A Chapter 5
  3. 3. Listening Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525 (1787) ( A Little Night Music ) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Third Movement Listening Outline: p. 169 Brief Set, CD 2:38 Listen for: Minuet and trio form Minuet Trio Minuet A B A ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || Chapter 5
  4. 4. Chapter 4: Theme and Variations Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section Basic idea presented, then repeated over and over <ul><ul><li>Each repeat alters (varies) the musical idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( A A’ A” A”’…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variations may alter melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, or all of these </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each variation is about the same length as the original idea </li></ul></ul>Chapter 4
  5. 5. Listening Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 1791 ( Surprise Symphony ) Franz Joseph Haydn Second Movement Listening Outline: p. 166 Brief Set, CD 2:32 Listen for: Theme and variations form “ Surprise” chord near beginning Chapter 4
  6. 6. Chapter 6: Rondo Features a main theme that keeps coming back Main theme section alternates with other contrasting sections <ul><ul><li>Note the similarity to modern pop-music form </li></ul></ul>Common rondo patterns: <ul><ul><li>A B A C A (small rondo)
  7. 7. A B A C A B A (large rondo) </li></ul></ul>Sometimes combined with sonata form to create the hybrid sonata-rondo form <ul><ul><li>Sonata-rondo is a rondo with a development section </li></ul></ul>Chapter 6
  8. 8. Listening String Quartet in C Minor , Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800) Ludwig van Beethoven Fourth movement: Rondo (Allegro) Listening Outline: p. 171 Brief Set, CD 2:41 Listen for: Rondo form (large rondo) A B A C A B A Chapter 6
  9. 9. Chapter 3: Sonata Form Opening movements frequently use sonata form Also called sonata-allegro form <ul><ul><li>Sonata form refers to a single movement
  10. 10. A sonata is an entire multi-movement work </li></ul></ul>One of, if not the , most common classical forms <ul><ul><li>Form continues up to, and including, the 20 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in symphony, sonata, and string quartet </li></ul></ul>This form also common in second and fourth movements Chapter 3
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Exposition (A) </li></ul></ul>Sonata form is ternary (A B A)—3 main sections <ul><ul><li>Development (B) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recapitulation (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often concludes with a “tag” or tail—coda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial statement of first and second themes
  12. 12. Entire section usually repeated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tension-building section
  13. 13. Themes broken into fragments— motives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution of tension
  14. 14. Re-statement of first and second themes </li></ul></ul></ul>Chapter 3
  15. 15. Listening Symphony No. 40 in G Minor , K. 550 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart First movement Listening Outline: p. 164 Brief Set, CD 2:23 Listen for: Sonata Form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Chapter 3
  16. 16. “Sonata” – THREE uses <ul><li>“Sonata Format” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 movement set
  17. 17. Fast – Slow – Dancelike – Fast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sonata FORM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposition – Development – Recapitulation
  18. 18. A single Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sonata GENRE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piece for solo instrument, with piano accompaniment
  19. 19. Generally 4 movement set </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. A Piano Sonata usually follows the Sonata format . The 1st & 4th movements are often Sonata form .
  21. 21. Genres
  22. 22. Chapter 9: Classical Chamber Music Intended performance in a room, not a concert hall <ul><ul><li>One player to a part
  23. 23. Often intended for amateur performers </li></ul></ul>Small group of four to nine instrumentalists <ul><ul><li>Sonata for violin and piano </li></ul></ul>Most important setting is string quartet <ul><ul><li>Two violins, viola, cello </li></ul></ul>Other popular settings: <ul><ul><ul><li>Usually: Fast—Slow—Dance—Fast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano trio (violin, cello, and piano)
  24. 24. String quintet (two violins, two violas, cello) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four movements </li></ul></ul>Chapter 9
  25. 25. Opera <ul><li>VERY popular, especially Mozart
  26. 26. New features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensemble Arias
  27. 27. More fluid between aria and recitative
  28. 28. COMIC opera! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Chapter 8: The Classical Concerto Work for instrumental soloist and orchestra lasting 20-45 minutes Usually three movements: <ul><ul><li>Fast—Slow—Fast (no minuet movement) </li></ul></ul>Contrasts soloist’s abilities with power and timbres of orchestra Chapter 8
  30. 30. Opens in sonata form with a double exposition Break near end of first and sometimes last movement called cadenza <ul><ul><li>Solo break where orchestra stops and waits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally improvised, classical composers seldom notated cadenzas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestra plays first exposition, soloist the second </li></ul></ul>Chapter 8
  31. 31. Chapter 7: The Classical Symphony Extended, ambitious work lasting for 20-45 minutes Multi-movement instrumental work <ul><ul><li>First movement: Fast, frequently sonata form </li></ul></ul>Themes in one movement rarely appear in another movement <ul><ul><li>Second movement: Slow, often sonata form, sometimes theme and variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third movement: Dance, usually minuet and trio or scherzo (a fast dance-like) form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth movement: Fast, frequently sonata or rondo form </li></ul></ul>Chapter 7