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Lecture for the last half of the Classical era.

Lecture for the last half of the Classical era.

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Rule Classical era Last part Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Forms
  • 2. Chapter 5: Minuet and Trio Ternary form based upon stately court dance of the baroque Each ternary part is itself ternary: Return of the minuet is usually marked on the music as da capo Minuet Trio Minuet ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || A B A Chapter 5
  • 3. Listening Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525 (1787) ( A Little Night Music ) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Third Movement Listening Outline: p. 169 Brief Set, CD 2:38 Listen for: Minuet and trio form Minuet Trio Minuet A B A ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || Chapter 5
  • 4. Chapter 4: Theme and Variations Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section Basic idea presented, then repeated over and over
      • Each repeat alters (varies) the musical idea
      • ( A A’ A” A”’…)
      • Variations may alter melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, or all of these
      • Each variation is about the same length as the original idea
    Chapter 4
  • 5. Listening Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 1791 ( Surprise Symphony ) Franz Joseph Haydn Second Movement Listening Outline: p. 166 Brief Set, CD 2:32 Listen for: Theme and variations form “ Surprise” chord near beginning Chapter 4
  • 6. Chapter 6: Rondo Features a main theme that keeps coming back Main theme section alternates with other contrasting sections
      • Note the similarity to modern pop-music form
    Common rondo patterns:
      • A B A C A (small rondo)
      • 7. A B A C A B A (large rondo)
    Sometimes combined with sonata form to create the hybrid sonata-rondo form
      • Sonata-rondo is a rondo with a development section
    Chapter 6
  • 8. Listening String Quartet in C Minor , Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800) Ludwig van Beethoven Fourth movement: Rondo (Allegro) Listening Outline: p. 171 Brief Set, CD 2:41 Listen for: Rondo form (large rondo) A B A C A B A Chapter 6
  • 9. Chapter 3: Sonata Form Opening movements frequently use sonata form Also called sonata-allegro form
      • Sonata form refers to a single movement
      • 10. A sonata is an entire multi-movement work
    One of, if not the , most common classical forms
      • Form continues up to, and including, the 20 th century
      • Common in symphony, sonata, and string quartet
    This form also common in second and fourth movements Chapter 3
  • 11.
      • Exposition (A)
    Sonata form is ternary (A B A)—3 main sections
      • Development (B)
      • Recapitulation (A)
      • Often concludes with a “tag” or tail—coda
        • Initial statement of first and second themes
        • 12. Entire section usually repeated
        • Tension-building section
        • 13. Themes broken into fragments— motives
        • Resolution of tension
        • 14. Re-statement of first and second themes
    Chapter 3
  • 15. Listening Symphony No. 40 in G Minor , K. 550 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart First movement Listening Outline: p. 164 Brief Set, CD 2:23 Listen for: Sonata Form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Chapter 3
  • 16. “Sonata” – THREE uses
    • “Sonata Format”
      • 4 movement set
      • 17. Fast – Slow – Dancelike – Fast
    • Sonata FORM
      • Exposition – Development – Recapitulation
      • 18. A single Movement
    • Sonata GENRE
      • Piece for solo instrument, with piano accompaniment
      • 19. Generally 4 movement set
  • 20. A Piano Sonata usually follows the Sonata format . The 1st & 4th movements are often Sonata form .
  • 21. Genres
  • 22. Chapter 9: Classical Chamber Music Intended performance in a room, not a concert hall
      • One player to a part
      • 23. Often intended for amateur performers
    Small group of four to nine instrumentalists
      • Sonata for violin and piano
    Most important setting is string quartet
      • Two violins, viola, cello
    Other popular settings:
        • Usually: Fast—Slow—Dance—Fast
      • Piano trio (violin, cello, and piano)
      • 24. String quintet (two violins, two violas, cello)
      • Four movements
    Chapter 9
  • 25. Opera
    • VERY popular, especially Mozart
    • 26. New features
      • Ensemble Arias
      • 27. More fluid between aria and recitative
      • 28. COMIC opera!
  • 29. Chapter 8: The Classical Concerto Work for instrumental soloist and orchestra lasting 20-45 minutes Usually three movements:
      • Fast—Slow—Fast (no minuet movement)
    Contrasts soloist’s abilities with power and timbres of orchestra Chapter 8
  • 30. Opens in sonata form with a double exposition Break near end of first and sometimes last movement called cadenza
      • Solo break where orchestra stops and waits
      • Originally improvised, classical composers seldom notated cadenzas
      • Orchestra plays first exposition, soloist the second
    Chapter 8
  • 31. Chapter 7: The Classical Symphony Extended, ambitious work lasting for 20-45 minutes Multi-movement instrumental work
      • First movement: Fast, frequently sonata form
    Themes in one movement rarely appear in another movement
      • Second movement: Slow, often sonata form, sometimes theme and variations
      • Third movement: Dance, usually minuet and trio or scherzo (a fast dance-like) form
      • Fourth movement: Fast, frequently sonata or rondo form
    Chapter 7