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Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
Rule Classical era Last part
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Rule Classical era Last part


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Lecture for the last half of the Classical era.

Lecture for the last half of the Classical era.

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  • 1. Forms
  • 2. Chapter 5: Minuet and Trio Ternary form based upon stately court dance of the baroque Each ternary part is itself ternary: Return of the minuet is usually marked on the music as da capo Minuet Trio Minuet ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || A B A Chapter 5
  • 3. Listening Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, K. 525 (1787) ( A Little Night Music ) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Third Movement Listening Outline: p. 169 Brief Set, CD 2:38 Listen for: Minuet and trio form Minuet Trio Minuet A B A ||: a :||: b a’ :| |: c :||: d c’ :| | a b a’ || Chapter 5
  • 4. Chapter 4: Theme and Variations Single part form—no large contrasting “B” section Basic idea presented, then repeated over and over
      • Each repeat alters (varies) the musical idea
      • ( A A’ A” A”’…)
      • Variations may alter melody, harmony, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, or all of these
      • Each variation is about the same length as the original idea
    Chapter 4
  • 5. Listening Symphony No. 94 in G Major, 1791 ( Surprise Symphony ) Franz Joseph Haydn Second Movement Listening Outline: p. 166 Brief Set, CD 2:32 Listen for: Theme and variations form “ Surprise” chord near beginning Chapter 4
  • 6. Chapter 6: Rondo Features a main theme that keeps coming back Main theme section alternates with other contrasting sections
      • Note the similarity to modern pop-music form
    Common rondo patterns:
      • A B A C A (small rondo)
      • 7. A B A C A B A (large rondo)
    Sometimes combined with sonata form to create the hybrid sonata-rondo form
      • Sonata-rondo is a rondo with a development section
    Chapter 6
  • 8. Listening String Quartet in C Minor , Op. 18, No. 4 (1798-1800) Ludwig van Beethoven Fourth movement: Rondo (Allegro) Listening Outline: p. 171 Brief Set, CD 2:41 Listen for: Rondo form (large rondo) A B A C A B A Chapter 6
  • 9. Chapter 3: Sonata Form Opening movements frequently use sonata form Also called sonata-allegro form
      • Sonata form refers to a single movement
      • 10. A sonata is an entire multi-movement work
    One of, if not the , most common classical forms
      • Form continues up to, and including, the 20 th century
      • Common in symphony, sonata, and string quartet
    This form also common in second and fourth movements Chapter 3
  • 11.
      • Exposition (A)
    Sonata form is ternary (A B A)—3 main sections
      • Development (B)
      • Recapitulation (A)
      • Often concludes with a “tag” or tail—coda
        • Initial statement of first and second themes
        • 12. Entire section usually repeated
        • Tension-building section
        • 13. Themes broken into fragments— motives
        • Resolution of tension
        • 14. Re-statement of first and second themes
    Chapter 3
  • 15. Listening Symphony No. 40 in G Minor , K. 550 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart First movement Listening Outline: p. 164 Brief Set, CD 2:23 Listen for: Sonata Form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Chapter 3
  • 16. “Sonata” – THREE uses
    • “Sonata Format”
      • 4 movement set
      • 17. Fast – Slow – Dancelike – Fast
    • Sonata FORM
      • Exposition – Development – Recapitulation
      • 18. A single Movement
    • Sonata GENRE
      • Piece for solo instrument, with piano accompaniment
      • 19. Generally 4 movement set
  • 20. A Piano Sonata usually follows the Sonata format . The 1st & 4th movements are often Sonata form .
  • 21. Genres
  • 22. Chapter 9: Classical Chamber Music Intended performance in a room, not a concert hall
      • One player to a part
      • 23. Often intended for amateur performers
    Small group of four to nine instrumentalists
      • Sonata for violin and piano
    Most important setting is string quartet
      • Two violins, viola, cello
    Other popular settings:
        • Usually: Fast—Slow—Dance—Fast
      • Piano trio (violin, cello, and piano)
      • 24. String quintet (two violins, two violas, cello)
      • Four movements
    Chapter 9
  • 25. Opera
    • VERY popular, especially Mozart
    • 26. New features
      • Ensemble Arias
      • 27. More fluid between aria and recitative
      • 28. COMIC opera!
  • 29. Chapter 8: The Classical Concerto Work for instrumental soloist and orchestra lasting 20-45 minutes Usually three movements:
      • Fast—Slow—Fast (no minuet movement)
    Contrasts soloist’s abilities with power and timbres of orchestra Chapter 8
  • 30. Opens in sonata form with a double exposition Break near end of first and sometimes last movement called cadenza
      • Solo break where orchestra stops and waits
      • Originally improvised, classical composers seldom notated cadenzas
      • Orchestra plays first exposition, soloist the second
    Chapter 8
  • 31. Chapter 7: The Classical Symphony Extended, ambitious work lasting for 20-45 minutes Multi-movement instrumental work
      • First movement: Fast, frequently sonata form
    Themes in one movement rarely appear in another movement
      • Second movement: Slow, often sonata form, sometimes theme and variations
      • Third movement: Dance, usually minuet and trio or scherzo (a fast dance-like) form
      • Fourth movement: Fast, frequently sonata or rondo form
    Chapter 7