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Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia
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Social and Environmental Debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia

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  • Se aprecian grandes diferencias de opinión entre sectores de población (sociedad urbana y periurbana, sociedad rural, sociedad forestal) sobre la importancia de los usos del monte (productivo, social, medio ambiental). Si bien, la sociedad gallega en general, valora en primer lugar la trascendencia ecológica del monte, después la función económica y en tercer lugar los usos sociales. Los agentes frontera destacan la función económica del monte como fundamental para garantizar la sostenibilidad y la compatibilidad con los usos medio ambientales y sociales (más del 75% de los agentes señalan el uso económico por encima del uso medio ambiental y social). El colectivo ecologista tiene una visión del monte exclusivamente centrada en usos medio ambientales, concediendo especial importancia a la biodiversidad, infravalorando los usos productivos y su incidencia sobre el cuidado y mantenimiento de los recursos forestales en general.
  • Se aprecian grandes diferencias de opinión entre sectores de población (sociedad urbana y periurbana, sociedad rural, sociedad forestal) sobre la importancia de los usos del monte (productivo, social, medio ambiental). Si bien, la sociedad gallega en general, valora en primer lugar la trascendencia ecológica del monte, después la función económica y en tercer lugar los usos sociales. Los agentes frontera destacan la función económica del monte como fundamental para garantizar la sostenibilidad y la compatibilidad con los usos medio ambientales y sociales (más del 75% de los agentes señalan el uso económico por encima del uso medio ambiental y social). El colectivo ecologista tiene una visión del monte exclusivamente centrada en usos medio ambientales, concediendo especial importancia a la biodiversidad, infravalorando los usos productivos y su incidencia sobre el cuidado y mantenimiento de los recursos forestales en general.
  • Se aprecian grandes diferencias de opinión entre sectores de población (sociedad urbana y periurbana, sociedad rural, sociedad forestal) sobre la importancia de los usos del monte (productivo, social, medio ambiental). Si bien, la sociedad gallega en general, valora en primer lugar la trascendencia ecológica del monte, después la función económica y en tercer lugar los usos sociales. Los agentes frontera destacan la función económica del monte como fundamental para garantizar la sostenibilidad y la compatibilidad con los usos medio ambientales y sociales (más del 75% de los agentes señalan el uso económico por encima del uso medio ambiental y social). El colectivo ecologista tiene una visión del monte exclusivamente centrada en usos medio ambientales, concediendo especial importancia a la biodiversidad, infravalorando los usos productivos y su incidencia sobre el cuidado y mantenimiento de los recursos forestales en general.
  • Se aprecian grandes diferencias de opinión entre sectores de población (sociedad urbana y periurbana, sociedad rural, sociedad forestal) sobre la importancia de los usos del monte (productivo, social, medio ambiental). Si bien, la sociedad gallega en general, valora en primer lugar la trascendencia ecológica del monte, después la función económica y en tercer lugar los usos sociales. Los agentes frontera destacan la función económica del monte como fundamental para garantizar la sostenibilidad y la compatibilidad con los usos medio ambientales y sociales (más del 75% de los agentes señalan el uso económico por encima del uso medio ambiental y social). El colectivo ecologista tiene una visión del monte exclusivamente centrada en usos medio ambientales, concediendo especial importancia a la biodiversidad, infravalorando los usos productivos y su incidencia sobre el cuidado y mantenimiento de los recursos forestales en general.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social and environmental debate about Eucalyptus in Galicia <ul><li>Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . </li></ul><ul><li>15th -17th September 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. </li></ul>Miguel Ángel Cogolludo Agustín ENCE Pontevedra Pulp Mill Wood Supply Responsable
    • 2. <ul><li>Rainy green corner of Spain: Eucalyptus tree belt of Galicia </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning of plantations in Galicia and first reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Quite different perceptions about Forest & Eucalyptus </li></ul><ul><li>Social Acceptability in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>CONTENS contents Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 3. Galicia: 10% of Spain tree cover yields 50% of its total roundwood output <ul><li>rainy green corner of Spain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galicia has ideal conditions for eucalyptus roundwood production . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual growth is of 12 millions of m3 (total species) </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest approx. 7 millions of m3 wb per year (58%) </li></ul><ul><li>It supplies an industry that is 6,5% of the GDP of Galicia </li></ul>Total Area: 2,9 mill ha Forest Area: 2 mill ha (68%) Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 4. High productive Eucalyptus tree belt of Galicia <ul><li>The Eucalyptus tree belt of Galicia , covering less than 13% of the acreage, yields 50% of its annual timber output. </li></ul>Forest Area: 2 millions ha Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 5.  
    • 6. <ul><li>672.000 forest owners (in a 2,9 mill population) </li></ul><ul><li>Average size of property: 1.78 ha. in several separate parcels </li></ul><ul><li>Apróx 80% of the parcels are less than 0.5 ha </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3% of the owners are associated </li></ul><ul><li>Public forests represents only 1% of the Galician forests. </li></ul><ul><li>Industries manage less than 12.000 ha </li></ul>Less than 2 ha per owner, separated in 2 or 3 parcels However, Local Administration manages 20% of the acreage through agreements with private owners (mostly communal) . Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 7. Minimal size of land properties <ul><li>Mixed agriculture and forest landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal size of land properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Though the owner could allow give up forest production, the society cannot. </li></ul>Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 8.  
    • 9. Uses of land in Barciademera (Covelo, Pontevedra). Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 10. Uses of land in Barciademera (Covelo, Pontevedra). Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 11. 1 ha
    • 12. <ul><li>In despite of this… </li></ul>
    • 13. In 2008 a historic record achieved: 8.000.000 m3 <ul><li>Between 35,000 and 40,000 cuttings are done annually in Galicia </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 aprox. 8 millions of m3 were harvested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>almost as much wood as in the United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or such as in Italy and Belgium combined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>45% of it is Eucalyptus </li></ul><ul><li>If you stacked all that harvested wood during year 2008 over 1 hectare, you could build a pile at least as high as the Burj Dubai , the tallest building in the world.  </li></ul>Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 14.  
    • 15. Forestry generates a highly distributed wealth <ul><li>In most rural counties, the forest industry is among the top three industrial activities by employment generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Employment exceeds 22,000 direct jobs and almost reached the 50,000 indirect jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Galician have in timber savings equivalent to 11% of bank deposits of financial institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>During the last cultivation cycle, Eucalyptus cultivated forests have generated 1.651 Million € for Galician tree growers. More than all subsidies to agriculture from public funds (E.U. and national) from 2007 to 2013 ( Rural Development Programme 2007-2013 ) </li></ul>Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18.  
    • 19.  
    • 20.  
    • 21. <ul><li>A tree country, we could say… </li></ul>
    • 22. Women pulling a fishing net . Ézaro, La Coruña. November 6, 1924.
    • 23. …nowadays
    • 24. Pontevedra 1914
    • 25. Pontevedra 2004
    • 26. Introduction of Eucalyptus in Spain Eucalyptus platypodos Cav. described by A.J. Cavanilles in 1797. Currently accepted synonym Eucalyptus botryoides Sm. also described in 1797. Cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Madrid and in Barcelona Farm, referred flowering in 1865. Probably from seeds brought from Paris by A.J. Cavanilles. Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 27. Introduction of Eucalyptus in Galicia Erroneously attributed to Fray Rosendo Salvado (Bishop of New Norcia) Eucalyptus marginata Send a seed packet to its family of Tui (Pontevedra) in 1863. Areses writes in 1953. “… very hard and incorruptible wood”
    • 28. Introduction of Eucalyptus in Galicia PORTUGAL. Vilanova de Gaia (Oporto). -Carlos Butler, 1829. -Barón de Massarelos, Quinta da Formiga en 1852. -Serviços Hidráulicos de Mondego and Figueira da Foz, 1866 to 1870. Plantation of 35.000 trees near Coimbra. Redondela (Pontevedra, Galicia), 1926 Most likely first entrance from the north of Portugal to Pontevedra between 1850-1860. Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 29. Oldest Eucalyptus in Galicia Eucalyptus of Reimunde’s house. Reiriz, Foz (Lugo). Eucalyptus globulus Probably the oldest eucalyptus of Galicia. Alone and with large buttresses at its base. Was planted between 1860 and 1870 . Height : 49 m Perimeter : 15,5 m Paderne (Betanzos, A Coruña), 1925 Referred as planted in 1885 Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 30. Oldest Eucalyptus in Galicia O Souto da Retorta. Chavín (Lugo). Eucalyptus globulus. -Jaime Basols, between 1884 and 1886. -Diego Valiña Montenegro, Doctor Durán Vallarnovo 1895 -Family Barro Rebellón in 1912 O Avó (The Granpa) Height: 67 m Perimeter: 10,5 m Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 31. This natural monument are living history www.eucaliptosingular.blogspot.com
    • 32. <ul><li>Ornamental for its exotic character. </li></ul><ul><li>Drying of flooded or marshy areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Household biomass, firewood. </li></ul><ul><li>Nurseries and vineyards posts. </li></ul><ul><li>Railway sleepers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mine props for those in Asturias or León. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Road alignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction wood and Sawmills . </li></ul><ul><li>Mussel farming (“bateas”). </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration of degraded soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Honey production. </li></ul><ul><li>Home making tool handles. </li></ul>Earlier and present applications and uses in Galicia Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 33.  
    • 34. Earlier applications and uses in Galicia Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 35.  
    • 36.  
    • 37.  
    • 38. Restoration of degradeted soil with eucalyptus plantation. Touro Mines, Bama 2.004. Eucalyptus globulus , clonal.
    • 39.  
    • 40.  
    • 41. <ul><li>The landscape was deforested in Galicia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1910 began the Reforestation Plan in Pontevedra, Eucalyptus only 4% total public afforestation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many peasant protests, burned afforestation and broke fences. </li></ul>Beginning of plantations in Galicia Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 42. <ul><li>The Forest Plan in Pontevedra (Areses) was prior to the National Plan of Reforestation. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong opposition from local communities </li></ul>First plantations in Galicia Objectives: Jobs and wealth creation in rural areas and attracting industrial investment Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Daniel de la Sota Rafael Areses
    • 43. <ul><li>Forest owners planted Eucalyptus faster than Local Administrations. </li></ul><ul><li>322.143 ha planted by private forest owners. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 80% of plantations in Galicia are in private lands. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s: First industrial projects started in Galicia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TAFISA 1958 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENCE 1963 (Eucalyptus in 1969) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CEASA 1971 </li></ul></ul>1941-1971 Private initiative: owners like grow trees Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 44.  
    • 45. Pontevedra 1914 Pontevedra 2004 Coruña 1924 Coruña 2006
    • 46. <ul><li>How has this evolution occurred? </li></ul>
    • 47. <ul><li>Quite different perceptions of forest functions between different sectors of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial and contradictory opinions about Eucalyptus. </li></ul>Quite different perceptions about Forest & Eucalyptus Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 48. Whereas balanced functions… Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Social Ecologic Economic
    • 49. …general public opinion Ecologic Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Plan Forestal de Galicia, 1992.
    • 50. …environmental activist Ecologic Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Plan Forestal de Galicia, 1992.
    • 51. …border agent * * border agent: forest owners and other rural stakeholders Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Glez. Gurriarán, 2005.
    • 52. Quite different perceptions about Eucalyptus general public opinion Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Plan Forestal de Galicia, 1992.
    • 53. Quite different perceptions about Eucalyptus teachers Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Plan Forestal de Galicia, 1992.
    • 54. Quite different perceptions about Eucalyptus border agents Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Glez. Gurriarán, 2005.
    • 55.  
    • 56. <ul><li>Results from a judgement process by which individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compare perceived reality with known alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decide whether real condition is similar to alternative condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiate behaviour towards a more favourable alternative </li></ul>Social Acceptability in rural areas Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 57. <ul><li>Perceptions are influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual history </li></ul></ul></ul>Social Acceptability in rural areas Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 58. <ul><li>Perceptions are influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>values </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>individual history </li></ul></ul></ul>Social Acceptability in rural areas Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Where can we influence?
    • 59. Conclusion <ul><li>Industry urgently needs to gain the public’s trust </li></ul><ul><li>Long term solutions to public perception is education </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>science </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul>Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    • 60. Eucalyptus management, history, status and trends in Ethiopia . EIAR, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia. Download documents and more info http://www.hmbendeavour.blogspot.es http:// www.ence.es /es/ sostenibilidad_valores_ence.html
    • 61. <ul><li>Are you bored? </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet Yes </li></ul>Let’s play… what country are we?
    • 62. Ethiopia
    • 63. Galicia
    • 64. Ethiopia
    • 65. Galicia
    • 66. ok, ok, very close to Galicia
    • 67. Galicia
    • 68. Ethiopia
    • 69. Galicia/Asturias
    • 70. Galicia
    • 71. Ethiopia
    • 72. Galicia
    • 73. Galicia
    • 74. Ethiopia
    • 75. WE TAKE CARE OF NATURE Thanks' for your attention!

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