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Global Journalism
Global Journalism
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Global Journalism

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Global journalism encompasses 3 different perspectives on the practice of journalism: (1) the globalized approach to reporting elaborated by scholar Peter Berglez; (2) studies of how journalists …

Global journalism encompasses 3 different perspectives on the practice of journalism: (1) the globalized approach to reporting elaborated by scholar Peter Berglez; (2) studies of how journalists differ in different countries; and (3) the practice of "foreign correspondence" or international reporting. This presentation by professor Mindy McAdams explains the distinctions among the 3 approaches. This presentation was given to journalists, students and others in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, and Jakarta, West Java, in July 2012, and includes some examples specific to Indonesia. SEE ALSO http://www.slideshare.net/macloo/global-journalism-research (for a discussion of approaches to conducting research about global journalism).

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  • U.S. Embassy program, Pontianak and Jakarta ------ Mindy McAdams -----CONTACT: http://mindymcadams.com/
  • The condition of the world is different today. In the past, the fate of all humanity was not so interconnected as it is today. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • These issues involve many nations, and the people from many nations. These issues have NO geographic BORDERS.
  • We all live together in ONE WORLD. I will show 3 examples from the week of 21 May 2012.
  • Lady Gaga – an international pop superstar – born in Yonkers, New York, dropout from NYU. World tours. Controversy – protests from Muslims in Indonesia – protests from Christians in Philippines (and also in South Korea).
  • Egypt held historic elections on Wednesday and Thursday last week. This was big news everywhere in the world, even far away in Argentina (La Nacion is the most important newspaper in Argentina.). TRANSLATION: “The two most powerful institutions in Egypt, the military and the Muslim Brotherhood, fought, until a mid-June runoff election, a battle in a secular war to win the presidency of the Arab giant, if the partial results so far are confirmed from the first round of the Egyptian elections, held on last Wednesday and Thursday.“In the absence of definitive results ratified by the Board of Elections, the media ​​yesterday said that Mohammed Morsi, the candidate of the Islamist group, and Ahmed Shafiq, the last Prime Minister of Hosni Mubarak, will contest the second round of a historic presidential election, the first after the riots last year put an end to the regime of former president.”
  • EtanPatz was a 6-year-old boy who lived in New York City with his parents. In 1979 he disappeared. Until last week, the crime was not solved. Now, 33 years later, a New York man has confessed to killing Etan (in 1979). But WHY is this news in the Sydney Morning Herald, an Australian newspaper? This was the top story on the WORLD news page at the SMH website at 6:45 p.m. Sydney time (but it was NOT featured on the front page).
  • Students should think about this: Entertainment is a global industry. The government of foreign countries can have effects on your own country. But some so-called news is just sensational – spectacular crimes, stolen children, etc. The question to consider is: Does the news have an impact outside the country where it happened? (If yes, then that is global news.)
  • This is what I will talk about.
  • PART 1
  • Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858. His research: BERGLEZ FOCUSES on reporting about climate change -- from this, he began to develop a theory of global journalism. Peter Berglez
  • http://www.oru.se/English/News/The-challenge-for-media-viewing-the-world-as-one-place/
  • Lead in to next slide …
  • This research until now includes all of these topics. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858. [PAGE 846.]
  • Lead in to next slide …
  • Berglez proposes something new, a new way of doing journalism – and a way of looking at journalistic coverage of stories – that acknowledges our interconnected-ness. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • This is BERGLEZ’s definition and HIS vision. This is not a universal theory – not yet. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858. [PAGE 847]
  • Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • Go to next slide
  • “… a global news style emerges as a result of the symbiosis of science and foreign journalism, the relational condition of the world is pointed out, or more specifically, the causal relationship between our everyday consumption of palm oil (via cooking and cosmetics) and the deforestation in Sumatra …” NOTICE HOW this excerpt does not put blame on INDONESIA – but rather it makes the point that GLOBAL DEMAND for a product is causing the destruction of the rain forests in Indonesia. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • IT ALREADY EXISTS. But it’s not widespread – yet. Berglez, P. (2008). What is global journalism? Journalism Studies, 9(6), 845–858.
  • Not all journalism will be “global,” but having MORE reporting in this style (as Berglez explains it) will be helpful and can improve our world – and it can improve our individual nations too.
  • PART 2
  • Some researchers study the contents of news. Other researchers study the people who produce news content – the journalists.
  • David Weaver is one of the researchers who is well known for his research about journalists. The Global Journalist in the 21st Century: News People Around the World (Routledge, 2012) David Weaver and Lars Willnat, Eds.
  • The Global Journalist in the 21st Century: News People Around the World (Routledge, 2012) David Weaver and Lars Willnat, Eds.
  • NOTE Indonesian journalists in 2nd item!!!!! So what we can see here is that journalists do not all agree on what is acceptable or ethical behavior. http://bloomingtonpressclub.org/2011/07/01/weaver-explains-global-journalists-attitudes-practices/
  • Different countries > different laws that control the pressEach country has its own unique history > how did the press develop in that country? Journalists inherit much from the past of their own country http://bloomingtonpressclub.org/2011/07/01/weaver-explains-global-journalists-attitudes-practices/
  • http://www.dailytoreador.com/news/article_bba8caa2-8453-11e1-be1e-0019bb30f31a.html
  • http://mediaartsandsciencesatiu.blogspot.com/2012/04/david-weaver-and-lars-willnat-global.html
  • http://www.dailytoreador.com/news/article_bba8caa2-8453-11e1-be1e-0019bb30f31a.html
  • We can see how someone who follows Berglez’s work about global journalism might start talking about global journalists – when they mean someone who is producing global journalism. But NOTE: That is NOT what Weaver means, and it is not what Seib means, when they use the term “global journalist.” They are NOT talking about the global journalism of Berglez.
  • PART 3
  • Seib, P. (2002). The Global Journalist: News and Conscience in a World of Conflict. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.PHOTO SOURCE: http://www.flickr.com/photos/public_diplomacy/6944364339/
  • International News Reporting: Frontlines and Deadlines(Wiley-Blackwell, 2009) John Owen and Heather Purdey (Eds.)
  • Whenever a foreigner writes about your country, he or she will surely have a different perspective from a citizen of your country. The context is different. The background is different. BUT THE SAME IS TRUE for your home-grown journalists. They might be blind to some things that a foreigner will take note of.
  • http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-016-2012
  • http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-016-2012
  • http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-016-2012
  • http://www.humanrights.asia/news/press-releases/AHRC-PRL-016-2012
  • The story that ran in the Sydney Morning Herald (Australia). http://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/human-rights-still-lacking-in-papua-20120524-1z68p.html May 24, 2012
  • The story that ran in the Jakarta Post. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/05/24/a-warm-welcome-ri-rights-report-fm.html
  • http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/05/24/a-warm-welcome-ri-rights-report-fm.htmlhttp://news.smh.com.au/breaking-news-world/human-rights-still-lacking-in-papua-20120524-1z68p.html
  • A few days later, The Jakarta Post did tell a more complete story. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/05/31/government-slammed-claims-un-report.html
  • May 27, 2012 – This is the first two pages of search results.
  • HOWEVER, random stories about daily life – as well as various travel stories about places like Bali – show up in the foreign media from time to time. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/30/world/asia/taking-big-city-skills-to-indonesias-villages.html?pagewanted=all
  • http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2012/0503/Indonesia-s-Aceh-struggles-to-integrate-former-rebels-fairly
  • http://www.eco-business.com/features/indonesia-needs-more-incentives-to-seize-the-power-of-solar/
  • The freelance journalist writes a blog about her life and work. It probably helps news organizations to find her, for assignments. http://sschonhardt.com/blog/
  • Uangsuap: BRIBES.
  • Global journalism NOT same as global journalists!
  • Global citizen journalism: in English …http://globalvoicesonline.org/-/world/east-asia/indonesia/
  • http://id.globalvoicesonline.org/
  • U.S. Embassy program, Pontianak and Jakarta ------ Mindy McAdams -----CONTACT: http://mindymcadams.com/
  • Transcript

    • 1. Three Perspectives
    • 2. An idea of ―global‖journalism World: More connected People: More mobile National economy: Tied to global markets News moves faster Internet: No national borders
    • 3. Global issues in the news Climate change & global warming Economy and trade Disease outbreaks, such as bird flu (avian influenza) Nuclear disasters, such as Fukushima, Japan (2011) Terrorism Human trafficking
    • 4. A questionIn the past, newspapers used to have aseparate section called ―foreign news.‖Today, is any news really ―foreign‖?
    • 5. Global issues in the news Entertainment: Fans of Lady Gaga are interested in her, regardless of which country she visits Politics: Educated people want to know what happens in foreign elections, especially when the country is large and important (like Egypt) Crime and oddity: But what about Etan Patz? (Global importance?)
    • 6. Aspects of globaljournalism A style of reporting and analyzing news events People: Journalists around the world Reporting from other countries: Same story, different viewpoints / The foreign correspondent
    • 7. Global Journalism (1)
    • 8. A new style of news? Peter Berglez says global journalism is ―an emerging news style.‖ Berglez is a Swedish researcher in communications, and an associate professor at Örebro University, Sweden. Peter Berglez
    • 9. Journalism should:  View the world as one place  Put events into their proper contexts, using analysis and in- depth coverage  See the whole picture Peter Berglez
    • 10. Until now, researchers have onlycompared news coverageand journalism practicesby comparing different countries ...
    • 11. Research about globaljournalism The culture of journalism and mass media in different countries Journalism ethics: Similarities and differences, theory and practice Avoiding cultural stereotypes and Euro-centrism in news reports How news is reported from military conflicts in different parts of the world
    • 12. ... but Peter Berglezhas offered a new perspective.
    • 13. Global journalism is:  More than just international news reporting  Related to globalization, which involves ―ongoing relations between regions and peoples‖ Peter Berglez
    • 14. Global journalism is: An ongoing journalistic practice with an everyday routine of investigating how people and their actions, etc., in different parts of the world are interrelated (Berglez, 2007, p. 151) Peter Berglez
    • 15. Berglez gives us a definition of globaljournalism as a new kind of newsreporting, which is very well suited for theincreasing interconnectedness ofour world today.
    • 16. Berglez gives us a definition of globaljournalism as a new kind of newsreporting, which is very well suited for theincreasing interconnectedness ofour world today.Journalism (at its best) can help usunderstand the world,and our own place in the world.
    • 17. An example from Indonesia
    • 18. An example from IndonesiaForest Loss in Sumatra―Here on the island of Sumatra, about 1,200miles from the global climate talks under wayon Bali, are some of the world’s fastest-disappearing forests … Responding toglobal demand for palm oil, which is used incooking and cosmetics and, lately, in anincreasingly popular biodiesel, companieshave been claiming any land they can.‖ —nytimes.com, 6 Dec. 2007 Quoted by Berglez (2008, pp. 848–849)
    • 19. (Berglez, 2008, p. 847)
    • 20. By showing the connections betweenpeople and events …by showing how the actions in one placeproduce a result in another place …global journalismmakes people smarter andprepares them for making good decisions.
    • 21. Global Journalism (2)
    • 22. Journalism’s people Studies and surveys about reporters in many different countries Compare their work, the tasks they do Attitudes toward their work Ethics Their pay and working conditions Their education Their age, and other demographic data
    • 23. ―The Global Journalist‖ Survey: More than 30,000 journalists in 33 countries  Many similarities among journalists, regardless of their home country  Differences in ethical practices and values David Weaver
    • 24. Two of Weaver’s 11 books  The Global Journalist in the 21st Century: News People Around the World (published 2012) *  The American Journalist in the 21st Century: U.S. News People at the Dawn of a New Millennium (published 2006) David Weaver * Weaver published a similar study in 1998
    • 25. Some differences in ethics Is it acceptable to use personal documents without permission?  U.S. journalists: 40 percent say yes  All journalists: Average of 23 percent say yes Is it acceptable to pay for secret info?  U.S. journalists: Only 32 percent say yes  Indonesian journalists: 60 percent say yes Is it acceptable to claim to be someone else to get information?  All journalists: Average of 32 percent say yes Is it acceptable to harass sources?  All journalists: Average of 37 percent say yes
    • 26. Why are they different? The country’s politics and government Cultural and historical differences in the journalism profession Prediction about journalists is difficult: For example, Sweden and Demark are very similar countries, but the journalists surveyed in each had very different responses to Weaver’s survey
    • 27. Survey findings Average age of a journalist: 39  U.S. journalists average slightly older There are more women in journalism now than in the past  But women do not stay in the profession as long as men, especially in the U.S. An average of 82 percent of journalists worldwide hold university degrees  But only about 45 percent were journalism majors
    • 28. Some points of agreement Reporting quickly Reporting objectively Providing entertainment (the news should be interesting) Not revealing confidential sourcesMost journalists agree that these aregood goals, good behaviors.
    • 29. While the basic job description of ajournalist is similar everywhere,the traditions, values, and moralsof journalists around the worldare very different.(How does it affect the content of theirnews reporting?)
    • 30. Many of the differencesare related to education and training.Well-trained journalists see journalism as: A mission A service to society A way to improve the nation
    • 31. Summary: The global journalist In Weaver’s research, the ―global journalist‖ means all journalists, all around the world Weaver studies what is different (and what is the same) about journalists and how they work His research gives us a question: What are the conditions that make the journalists behave and work differently?
    • 32. Global Journalism (3)
    • 33. The Global Journalist: Newsand Conscience in a World ofConflict This 2002* book has a very different focus from Weaver’s book: International news reporting. These reporters used to be called ―foreign correspondents.‖ Philip Seib * This book is somewhat outdated now
    • 34. A better book (newer: 2009) This book has a similar focus to Seib’s book ... But here, each chapter is written by a different international news reporter.International News Reporting: Frontlines and Deadlines
    • 35. Two facts Everybody has a point of view Journalism is supposed to be ―objective‖
    • 36. A recent exampleI will show 4 screens of text taken from a press release (May 23, 2012) Then I will show two newspaper articles (from two different newspapers) on May 24, 2012 Both newspapers wrote about the same news that is in the press release
    • 37. Press ReleaseFrom the Asian Human Rights Commission May 23, 2012Today, the Indonesias human rights recordwas reviewed by the UN Human RightsCouncil in the 13th session of theUniversal Periodic Review in Geneva,Switzerland. Key issues, such as theprotection of freedom of religion orthe human rights situation in Papua, wereraised by many UN Member Statesparticipating in the review. http://www.humanrights.asia/
    • 38. Press ReleaseFrom the Asian Human Rights Commission May 23, 2012―The responses by the government ofIndonesia to the issues and human rightsviolations discussed during the reviewwere deeply disappointing, as they oftencontained only denials and showed a lackof respect for victims and their rights,‖noted Wong Kai Shing, Executive Directorof the Asian Human Rights Commission(AHRC). http://www.humanrights.asia/
    • 39. Press ReleaseFrom the Asian Human Rights Commission May 23, 2012… Many of the AHRC and ALRC’sconcerns were shared by statesconducting the review. Sweden, Germanyand Switzerland, for example, expressedconcerns regarding the persecution ofreligious minority groups in Indonesia,including Ahmadiyah, Christians, Shiitesand the Baha’i. … http://www.humanrights.asia/
    • 40. Press ReleaseFrom the Asian Human Rights Commission May 23, 2012A number of states, including France, Japanand New Zealand, raised the situation inPapua, which includes widespread violence,arbitrary arrests and detentions, as well asunlawful restrictions of freedom of expressionand assembly. France called in particular foraccess to Papua to be granted to foreignjournalists. The US and Germany raisedarticles 106 and 110 of the Penal Code whichare used abusively against activists in Papua.
    • 41. May 24, 2012
    • 42. May 24, 2012
    • 43. May 24, 2012Compare:―The United Nations Human Rights Council(UNHRC) has praised the Indonesiangovernment’s efforts to promote humanrights, Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawasaid.‖ (first paragraph: Jakarta Post)―Indonesia is facing fresh criticism over itshuman rights record following a year ofcontinued unrest and the jailing of leadingpolitical activists in Papua.‖ (first paragraph:Sydney Morning Herald)
    • 44. May 31, 2012
    • 45. Aspects of internationalnews Who is the reporter? (background, experience, language skills)  Local reporter, native speaker  Foreign reporter What is the story? (for example, Lady Gaga? Or violence in Papua?) What is the interest level in the receiving country? (near or far? Friends or enemies?)
    • 46. What kind of news about Indonesiais seen in the foreign newspapersand TV news?
    • 47. Search on Google News for ―indonesia‖ Lady Gaga Cancels Indonesian Concert After Threat (The Wall Street Journal and many others) Child addicts at heart of Indonesia anti-smoking suit (Chicago Tribune and others) Australian foreign minister denies making deal to get high-profile Indonesia inmate clemency (The Washington Post)  Indonesia says to release Australian Corby in 2017 (Agence France-Presse)  Corby must spend five years in Indonesia (Sydney Morning Herald) IOI Plans Palm Oil Refinery in Indonesia as Production Expands (Bloomberg News) Landslide kills 6 gold miners in Indonesia (Sacramento Bee and others) From May 27, 2012
    • 48. Most news about foreign countriesconcerns wars, elections, andnatural disasters.
    • 49. April 27, 2012
    • 50. May 3, 2012 The same freelance journalist, Sara Schonhardt, wrote about Aceh and also the previous story, about the Indonesia Mengajar program in Gobang, West Java.
    • 51. May 1, 2012 The same journalist, Sara Schonhardt, also wrote about a solar power workshop, held in Jakarta. (Who chooses how your country is viewed, outside your country?)
    • 52. http://sschonhardt.com/blog/
    • 53. Facts to consider Most of the news in any country will be news about that country The news about other countries will be very limited Big foreign countries (China, United States) will get more coverage Neighbor countries (Singapore, Malaysia) will get more coverage
    • 54. In an interconnected world, is it enoughto get such limited informationabout all the other countries?
    • 55. If you see news about another country onTV, ask yourself: Who made this news report? What country does the reporter come from? Why did the TV news decide to include this report?
    • 56. Indonesia’s global issues Loss of rainforests  Palm oil plantations (perkebunan kelapa sawit)  Orang-utan habitats Migrant workers (workers from Indonesia, working in other countries) Human rights (especially in Papua; and also, religious freedom in all provinces)
    • 57. How would these stories be differentif the reporters interviewedthe average people who are affected?
    • 58. ―Press release journalism‖ Lazy journalism Not original, not special, not really valuable No original sources, just officials Lacks context Does not show the big picture
    • 59. ―Press release journalism‖ Lazy journalism Not original, not special, not really valuable No original sources, just officials Lacks context Does not show the big picture Is NOT global journalism
    • 60. ―Envelope journalism‖ Lazy journalism Not original, not special, not really valuable No original sources, just officials Lacks context Does not show the big picture Is NOT global journalism
    • 61. Global journalism: Review A style of reporting and analyzing news events People: Journalists around the world Reporting from other countries: Same story, different viewpoints / The foreign correspondent
    • 62. Global journalistsGlobal journalism Peter Berglez
    • 63. Global journalism: ReviewAll three perspectives encourage us tothink about the effects of journalism: What kinds of journalism can help people understand the world? How can journalism become better?
    • 64. Today, we all havechoicesMembers of the public can use the Internetto check facts and compare stories.Citizens can demand better reporting andmore global perspectives in the journalismfrom their own country.
    • 65. Global citizen journalism: in English …
    • 66. … and in local languages too
    • 67. Three PerspectivesCONTACT http:// mindymcadams.com

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