“ The Control Revolution” Presentation by Mindy McAdams Week 13.1 MMC 2265
Increased and continuing  digitization  of information
Blurs any distinction between  communication  and  processing
Blurs differences between  machine  and  human  communication
Increased and continuing  digitization  of information blurs any distinction between  communication  and  processing , as ...
Does this result in more  control or less  control?
Technology out of control:   A threat to all humanity? (1954)
(1951)
During World War II, improving target accuracy was a top priority
A military need for control <ul><li>Weapons technology improved, and targets also became harder to hit (faster planes, for...
Bureaucracy <ul><li>Separate from the origin of electronic computers,  civilization  and  governments  were also becoming ...
Max Weber (1864 – 1920) <ul><li>Bureaucratization as one of the leading features of the modern world </li></ul><ul><li>A l...
Adding new technology <ul><li>Modern bureaucracies developed from the  1800s  onward </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II,...
One thing leads to another <ul><li>Progress toward development of electronic computers was  preceded  by: </li></ul><ul><u...
Control and communication <ul><li>Control:  “Any purposive influence on behavior,  however slight  ” </li></ul><ul><li>Inf...
Example: The Stock Market <ul><li>An investor checks the current stock price </li></ul><ul><li>Is it moving up or down? </...
Information Theory (1948)
Information Theory
Information Theory
“ A society’s ability  to  maintain control   will be directly proportional  to the development  of its  information techn...
Information Theory Reloaded
Computer technology  owes much  to the  textile  industry
Punch cards: 1804 <ul><li>A revolution in  weaving  (yes, textiles) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Marie Jacquard, a French weav...
 
Herman Hollerith (1860 – 1929)  <ul><li>An engineer, he worked on the  1880  U.S. Census (it took 7 years to complete) </l...
The 1890 U.S. Census <ul><li>The results of a tabulation were displayed on 40 clock-like dials </li></ul><ul><li>Each comp...
Herman Hollerith (1860 – 1929)  <ul><li>Reduced a 10-year job to  3 months  (different sources  disagree : range from 6 we...
The IBM 29  card punch  machine was announced in October 1964. This was a  new version  of the device first developed 74 y...
<ul><li>Winner: Most Outstanding Book in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1986 (Association of American Publishers) </l...
“ The Control Revolution” Presentation by Mindy McAdams University of Florida
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  • Control Revolution

    1. 1. “ The Control Revolution” Presentation by Mindy McAdams Week 13.1 MMC 2265
    2. 2. Increased and continuing digitization of information
    3. 3. Blurs any distinction between communication and processing
    4. 4. Blurs differences between machine and human communication
    5. 5. Increased and continuing digitization of information blurs any distinction between communication and processing , as well as differences between machine and human communication
    6. 6. Does this result in more control or less control?
    7. 7. Technology out of control: A threat to all humanity? (1954)
    8. 8. (1951)
    9. 9. During World War II, improving target accuracy was a top priority
    10. 10. A military need for control <ul><li>Weapons technology improved, and targets also became harder to hit (faster planes, for example) </li></ul><ul><li>Complex calculations were needed to “program” the operation of the military guns </li></ul><ul><li>An engineer (John Mauchly) suggested that an electronic calculator could be constructed to do this </li></ul>
    11. 11. Bureaucracy <ul><li>Separate from the origin of electronic computers, civilization and governments were also becoming more complex </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Romans with their roads and written law </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Sumerians with their need for more efficient records of accounting </li></ul>
    12. 12. Max Weber (1864 – 1920) <ul><li>Bureaucratization as one of the leading features of the modern world </li></ul><ul><li>A leader needs a staff (the bureaucracy ) to help him/her maintain control a keep order </li></ul><ul><li>The rise of the professional politician (neither king nor general) </li></ul><ul><li>Beniger calls bureaucracy a technology of control </li></ul>
    13. 13. Adding new technology <ul><li>Modern bureaucracies developed from the 1800s onward </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, computers began to play a larger and larger role in bureaucracy </li></ul><ul><li>Beniger’s point: The need for control in modern societies existed before the computers came along </li></ul>
    14. 14. One thing leads to another <ul><li>Progress toward development of electronic computers was preceded by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telegraph (1830s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typewriter (invented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the 1860s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Television (1920s) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Control and communication <ul><li>Control: “Any purposive influence on behavior, however slight ” </li></ul><ul><li>Information processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s going on? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me what happened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I will act on that information </li></ul></ul>Book jacket illustration: Caught Short: A Saga of Wailing in Wall Street, 1929.
    16. 16. Example: The Stock Market <ul><li>An investor checks the current stock price </li></ul><ul><li>Is it moving up or down? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the investor sell ? Or buy more? </li></ul><ul><li>The investor’s decision in turn affects the price of the stock </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way flow </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback loop </li></ul>
    17. 17. Information Theory (1948)
    18. 18. Information Theory
    19. 19. Information Theory
    20. 20. “ A society’s ability to maintain control will be directly proportional to the development of its information technologies .” – James R. Beniger
    21. 21. Information Theory Reloaded
    22. 22. Computer technology owes much to the textile industry
    23. 23. Punch cards: 1804 <ul><li>A revolution in weaving (yes, textiles) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Marie Jacquard, a French weaver </li></ul><ul><li>He combined two other inventors’ ideas with a common treadle loom </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest use of punched cards programmed to control a manufacturing process </li></ul><ul><li>Process first used in U.S. about 1826 </li></ul>http:// www.sscnet.ucla.edu/geog/gessler/topics/jacquard.htm
    24. 25. Herman Hollerith (1860 – 1929) <ul><li>An engineer, he worked on the 1880 U.S. Census (it took 7 years to complete) </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to improve the process of tabulating the Census data </li></ul><ul><li>After trials using paper tape, he was inspired by the Jacquard loom to try punched cards instead </li></ul><ul><li>His designs won the competition for the 1890 U.S. Census (so he got the contract ) </li></ul>
    25. 26. The 1890 U.S. Census <ul><li>The results of a tabulation were displayed on 40 clock-like dials </li></ul><ul><li>Each completed circuit caused an electromagnet to advance a counting dial by one (+1) </li></ul>Source: Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator
    26. 27. Herman Hollerith (1860 – 1929) <ul><li>Reduced a 10-year job to 3 months (different sources disagree : range from 6 weeks to 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Saved the 1890 taxpayers $5 million </li></ul><ul><li>1896: He founded the Tabulating Machine Co. (leased equipment and sold punch cards to many countries for their census, and also to insurance companies) </li></ul><ul><li>1911: Merged with two other firms to form the Computing Tabulating Recording Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>1924: Renamed – IBM </li></ul>
    27. 28. The IBM 29 card punch machine was announced in October 1964. This was a new version of the device first developed 74 years earlier. Along with the “IBM 59 card verifier,” the card punch was used to record and check information in punched cards. These cards were read and processed by a computer or an accounting machine. Source: IBM
    28. 29. <ul><li>Winner: Most Outstanding Book in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1986 (Association of American Publishers) </li></ul><ul><li>A New York Times Notable Paperback of the Year (1989) </li></ul>
    29. 30. “ The Control Revolution” Presentation by Mindy McAdams University of Florida

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