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  • Intel Microprocessors By:- Vivek Kathayat Bharat Razdan
  • 1971: 4004 Microprocessor
    • The 4004 was Intel's first microprocessor.
    • This breakthrough invention powered the Busicom calculator and paved the way for embedding intelligence in inanimate objects as well as the personal computer.
  • 1972: 8008 Microprocessor
    • The 8008 was twice as powerful as the 4004. and is the first 8-bit microprocessor .
    • According to the magazine Radio Electronics , Don Lancaster, a dedicated computer hobbyist, used the 8008 to create a predecessor to the first personal computer, a device Radio Electronics dubbed a "TV typewriter." It was used as a dumb terminal.
  • 1974: 8080 Microprocessor
    • The 8080 became the brains of the first personal computer--the Altair.
    • Within months, it sold tens of thousands, creating the first PC back orders in history.
    • It is the 8-bit CPU and running at 2 MHz(at up to 500,000 instructions per second ).
  • 1978: 8086-8088 Microprocessor
    • The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip. It supports x86 architecture. Intel 8088 , released in 1979.
    • The sale of the 8088 to IBM's new personal computer division made it the brains of IBM's new hit product--the IBM PC.
    • The 8088's success propelled Intel into the ranks of the Fortune 500 , and Fortune magazine named the company one of the "Business Triumphs of the Seventies."
  • Intel 8086/8088 features
    • Intel 8086 feature :-
    • Clock speed :
    • 5 MHz with 0.33 MIPS
    • Number of transistors 29,000 at µm.
    • Used in portable computing .
    • Intel 8088 features:-
    • Clock Speed :
    • 5 MHz with 0.33 MIPS
    • Internal structure 16 bits
    • Number of transistors 29.000 at 3 µm
  • 1982: 286 Microprocessor
    • The 286, introduced on February 1, 1982 (originally named 80286), was the first Intel processor that could run all the software written for its predecessor.
    • This software compatibility remains a hallmark of Intel's family of microprocessors.
    • Within 6 years of it release, there were an estimated 15 million 286-based personal computers installed around the world.
  • Features of 80286 processor
    • 80286 processor had a speed of about 0.21 instructions per clock .
    • Having a 24-bit address bus (bit is the smallest unit )
    • The 286 was able to address up to 16MB of RAM, in contrast to 1MB that the 8086 could directly work with.
    • The 286 was designed to run multitasking applications , including communications, real time process control and multiuser systems.
  • 1985: Intel 386(TM) Microprocessor
    • The Intel 386 TM microprocessor featured 275,000 transistors--more than 100times as many as the original 4004.
    • It was a 32-bit chip and was "multi tasking," meaning it could run multiple programs at the same time.
  • 1989: Intel 486(TM) DX CPU
    • The 486 TM generation really allowed the shift from command-level computing into point-and-click computing.
    • The Intel 486 TM processor was the first to offer a built-in math coprocessor, which speeds up computing because it offers complex math functions from the central processor.
  • 1993: Pentium® Processor
    • The Pentium® processor allowed computers to more easily incorporate "real world" data such as speech, sound, handwriting and photographic images.
    • The name Pentium®, mentioned in the comics and on television talk shows, became a household word soon after introduction.
  • 1995: Pentium® Pro Processor
    • Released in the fall of 1995 the Pentium® Pro processor is designed to fuel 32-bit server and workstation-level applications, enabling fast computer-aided design, mechanical engineering and scientific computation.
    • Each Pentium® Pro processor is packaged together with a second speed-enhancing cache memory chip.
    • The powerful Pentium® Pro processor boasts 5.5 million transistors.
  • 1997: Pentium® II Processor
    • The 7.5 million-transistor Pentium® II processor incorporates Intel MMX TM technology, which is designed specifically to process video, audio and graphics data efficiently.
    • It is packaged along with a high-speed cache memory chip in an innovative Single Edge Contact (S.E.C.) cartridge that connects to a motherboard via a single edge connector, as opposed to multiple pins.
    • With this chip, PC users can capture, edit and share digital photos with friends and family via the Internet; edit and add text, music or between-scene transitions to home movies; and, with a video phone, send video over standard phone lines and the Internet.
  • Where to from here?
  • Moore's Law
    • Gordon Moore once observed that the speed and power of microprocessors seems to double every 12 to 18 months. This trend has held true for the past 20 years and is showing no sign of slowing down.
    • What does this mean for the future of computing? What other technologies can you think of which get faster and more powerful every year, and yet also get cheaper and more affordable!