AMITY INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TABLET COMPUTERS Project made by:-Name-ALOK TIWARI Name-Sagar SoniCourse- B.Sc(IT) Course-B.Sc(IT)Roll no-36 roll no-36Semester-1ST semester-1ST
CONTENTS1. WHAT IS A TABLET PC2. HISTORY OF TABLET PC.3. LAUNCHED TABLET PCs OF LAST 6 YEARS.4. TABLET COMPUTER & TABLET PCs.5. TOUCH USER INTERFACE.6. FORM FACTOR..7. OPERATING SYSTEM OF TRADITONAL TABLET Pcs.8. FEATURES OF ATABLET COMPUTER..9. POST PC OPEARTING SYSTEM.10. COMPARISION WITH LAPTOP COMPUTERS.11. TOP 10 TABLET PCs.
A HP TABLET PC WHAT IS A TABLET COMPUTER? A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a complete mobile computer, larger than a mobile phone or personal digital assistant, integrated into a flat touch screen and primarily operated by touching the screen. It often uses an onscreen virtual keyboard, a passive stylus pen, or a digital pen , rather than a physical keyboard.
HISTORY OF TABLET COMPUTERSThe tablet computer and the associated specialoperating software is an example of pen computingtechnology, and thus the development of tablets hasdeep historical roots.The depth of these roots can be quite surprising topeople who are only familiar with current commercialproducts. For example, the first patent for anelectronic tablet used for handwriting was granted in1888. The first patent for a system that recognizedhandwritten characters by analyzing the handwritingmotion was granted in 1915. The first publicly-demonstrated system using a tablet and handwritingtext recognition instead of a keyboard for workingwith a modern digital computer dates to 1956.In addition to many academic and research systems,there were several companies with commercialproducts in the 1980s: Pencept, CommunicationsIntelligence Corporation, and LinuX were among thebest known of a crowded field. Later, GO Corp.brought out the PenPoint OS operating system for atablet computer product: one of the patents from GOcorporation was the subject of recent infringementlawsuit concerning the Tablet PC operating system.
In 1987 Apple Computer started its tablet project,which considered release of devices of three sizes,with the one eventually released in 1993, AppleNewton, being the smallest (yet it was quitesubstantial device with 6" screen and 800 grams ofweight).One early implementation of a Linux tablet was theProGear by FrontPath. The ProGear used a Transmetachip and a resistive digitizer. The ProGear initiallycame with a version of Slackware Linux, but couldlater be bought with Windows 98.TABLET PCS LAUNCHED IN LAST 6YEARS ARE:NOKIA INTERNET TABLET LAUNCHEDIN 2005.
SAMSUNG UMPC LAUNCHED IN 2006.ARCHOS 605-WIFI LAUNCHED IN2007.
APPLE LAUNCHED ITS TABLETCOMPTER IN 2010(KNOWN AS Ipad).BLACKBERRY PLAYBOOK(LEFT) &SAMSUNG GALAXY TAB(RIGHT)LAUCHDED IN 2011.Tablet computer & tablet pcs.As of 2010, two distinctly different types of tabletcomputing devices exist, whose operating systems are ofdifferent origin.Traditional tablets based on IBM-PCarchitecture.
A tablet personal computer (tablet PC) is aportable personal computer equipped with atouchscreen as a primary input device, and running a(modified) classic desktop OS. Designed to beoperated and owned by an individual. The term wasmade popular as a concept presented by Microsoft in2000 and 2001 but tablet PCs now refer to any tablet-sized personal computer regardless of the (desktop)operating systemTablet personal computers are mainly x86 based andare fully functional personal computers employing aslightly modified personal computer OS (such asWindows or Ubuntu Linux) supporting their touch-screen, instead of a traditional display, mouse andkeyboard. A typical tablet personal computer needsto be stylus driven, because operating the typicaldesktop based OS requires a high precision to selectGUI widgets, such as the close window button.Post-PC tablets not based on the traditional PCarchitecture.Since mid-2010, new tablet computers have beenintroduced with mobile operating systems that forgothe Wintel paradigm, have a different interface
instead of the traditional desktop OS, and represent anew type of computing device. These "post-PC"mobile OS tablet computer devices are normallyfinger driven and most frequently use capacitivetouch screens with multi-touch capabilities instead ofthe simple resistive touchscreens of typical stylusdriven systems.The most successful of these was the Apple iPad usingthe iOS operating system. Samsungs Galaxy Tab andothers followed, continuing the now common trendstowards multi-touch and other natural user interfacefeatures, as well as flash memory solid-state storagedrives and "instant on" warm-boot times; in addition,standard external USB and Bluetooth keyboards canoften be used. Most frequently the operating systemrunning a tablet computer thats not based on thetraditional PC architecture is based on a Unix-like OS,such as Darwin, Linux or QNX. Some have 3G mobiletelephony capabilities.In forgoing the x86 precondition (a requisite ofWindows compatibility), most tablet computersreleased since mid-2010 use a version of an ARMarchitecture processor for longer battery life versusbattery weight, heretofore used in portableequipment such as MP3 players and cell phones.Especially with the introduction of the ARM Cortexfamily, this architecture is now powerful enough for
tasks such as internet browsing, light production workand gaming.A significant trait of tablet computers not based onthe traditional PC architecture is that the main sourceof 3rd party software for these devices tends to bethrough online distribution, rather than moretraditional methods of boxed software or direct salesfrom software vendors. These sources, known as "appstores," provide centralized catalogues of softwarefrom both 1st and 3rd parties and allow simple "oneclick" on-device software purchasing, installation, andupdates.Touch user interface.A key and common component among tabletcomputers is touch input. This allows the user tonavigate easily and intuitively and type with a virtualkeyboard on the screen.A tablet presents a more natural user interface to theuser than a command line interface or the traditionalmouse driven WIMP interface. The event processing
of the operating system must respond to touchesrather than clicks of a keyboard or mouse, whichallows integrated hand-eye operation, a natural partof the somatosensory system. Although the deviceimplementation differs from more traditional PCs orlaptops, tablets are disrupting the current vendorsales by weakening traditional laptop PC sales in favorof the current tablet computers. This is even moretrue of the "finger driven multi-touch" interface ofthe more recent tablet computers, which oftenemulate the way actual objects behave. handwriting recognition.Because tablet personal computers normally use astylus, they quite often implement handwritingrecognition, while other tablet computers with fingerdriven screens do not. Finger driven screens howeverare potentially better suited for inputting "variablewidth stroke based" characters, likeChinese/Japanese/Korean writing, due to their builtin capability of "pressure sensing". However at the
moment not much of this potential is already used,and as a result even on tablet computers Chineseusers often use a (virtual) keyboard for input. Touchscreen hardware.Touchscreens are usually one of two forms; Resistive: Resistive touchscreens are passive and can respond to any kind of pressure on the screen. They allow a high level of precision (which may be needed, when the touch screen tries to emulate a mouse for precision pointing, which in Tablet personal computers is common) but may require calibration to be accurate. Because of the high resolution of detection, a stylus or fingernail is often used for resistive screens. Although some possibility exist for implementing multi-touch on a resistive touch-screen, the possibilities are quite limited. As modern tablet computers tend to heavily lean on the use of multi-touch, this technology has faded out on high-end devices where it has been replaced by capacitive touchscreens.
Capacitive: Capacitive touchscreens tend to be less accurate, but more responsive than resistive screens. Because they require a conductive material, such as a finger tip, for input, they are not common among (stylus using) Tablet PCs but are more prominent on the smaller scale "tablet computer" devices for ease of use, which generally do not use a stylus, and need multi- touch capabilities. Other touch technology used in tablets include: Palm recognition. It prevents inadvertent palms or other contacts from disrupting the pens input. Multi-touch capabilities, which can recognize multiple simultaneous finger touches, allowing for enhanced manipulation of on-screen objects. Some professional-grade Tablet PCs use pressure sensitive films that additionally allows pressure sensitivity such as those on graphics tablets. Concurrently capacitive touch-screens, which use finger tip detection can often detect the size of the touched area, and can make some conclusions to the pressure force used, for a similar result.
System software OF TRADITIONAL TABLET PCS. MICROSOFT:-Following Windows for Pen Computing, Microsoft hasbeen developing support for tablets runningsWindows under the Microsoft Tablet PC name.According to a 2001 Microsoft definition of the term,"Microsoft Tablet PCs" are pen-based, fully functionalx86 PCs with handwriting and voice recognitionfunctionality. Tablet PCs use the same hardware asnormal laptops but add support for pen input. Forspecialized support for pen input, Microsoft releasedWindows XP Tablet PC Edition. Today there is notablet specific version of Windows but insteadsupport is built in to both Home and Business versionsof Windows Vista and Windows 7. Tablets runningWindows get the added functionality of using thetouchscreen for mouse input, hand writingrecognition, and gesture support. Following Tablet PC,Microsoft announced the UMPC initiative in 2006
which brought Windows tablets to a smaller, touch-centric form factor. This was relaunched in 2010 asSlate PC, to promote tablets running Windows 7,ahead of Apples iPad launch. Slate PCs are expectedto benefit from mobile hardware advances derivedfrom the success of the netbooks.Microsoft has since announced Windows 8 which willhave features designed for touch input, while runningon both PCs and ARM architecture.While many tablet manufacturers are moving to theARM architecture with lighter operating systems,Microsoft has stood firm to Windows. ThoughMicrosoft has Windows CE for ARM support it haskept its target market for the smartphone industrywith Windows Mobile and the new Windows CE 6based Windows Phone 7. Some manufacturers,however, still have shown prototypes of Windows CE-based tablets running a custom shell. To date, the fullWindows 7 does not yet support ARM architecture.INTEL AND NOKIA:-Nokia entered the tablet space with the Nokia 770running Maemo, a Debian-based Linux distributioncustom-made for their Internet tablet line. The
product line continued with the N900 which is thefirst to add phone capabilities.Intel, following the launch of the UMPC, started theMobile Internet Device initiative, which took thesame hardware and combined it with a Linuxoperating system custom-built for portable tablets.Intel co-developed the lightweight Moblin operatingsystem following the successful launch of the AtomCPU series on netbooks. Intel is also setting tabletgoals for Atom, going forward from 2010.LINUX:-One early implementation of a Linux tablet was theProGear by FrontPath. The ProGear used a Transmetachip and a resistive digitizer. The ProGear initiallycame with a version of Slackware Linux, but couldlater be bought with Windows 98. Because thesecomputers are general purpose IBM PC compatiblemachines, they can run many different operatingsystems. However, the device is no longer for sale andFrontPath has ceased operations. It is important tonote that many touch screen sub-notebook
computers can run any of several Linux distributionswith little customization.X.org now supports screen rotation and tablet inputthrough Wacom drivers, and handwriting recognitionsoftware from both the Qt-based Qtopia and GTK+-based Internet Tablet OS provide promising free andopen source systems for future development.Open source note taking software in Linux includesapplications such as Xournal (which supports PDF fileannotation), Gournal (a Gnome based note takingapplication), and the Java-based Jarnal (whichsupports handwriting recognition as a built-infunction). Before the advent of the aforementionedsoftware, many users had to rely on on-screenkeyboards and alternative text input methods likeDasher. There is a stand alone handwritingrecognition program available, CellWriter, whichrequires users to write letters separately in a grid.A number of Linux based OS projects are dedicated totablet PCs. Since all these are open source, they arefreely available and can be run or ported to devicesthat conform to the tablet PC design. Maemo(rebranded MeeGo in 2010), a Debian Linux basedgraphical user environment, was developed for theNokia Internet Tablet devices (770, N800, N810 &N900). It is currently in generation 5, and has a vast
array of applications available in both official and usersupported repositories. The Ubuntu Netbook Remixedition, as well as the Intel sponsored Moblin project,both have touchscreen support integrated into theiruser interfaces. Canonical has hinted at bettersupporting tablets with the Unity UI for Ubuntu 10.10.TabletKiosk currently offers a hybrid digitizer / touchdevice running openSUSE Linux. It is the first devicewith this feature to support Linux.FEATURES OF A TABLET COMPUTER. Accelerometer:An accelerometer is a unit that detects the physicalmovements of the tablet. This allows greaterflexibility of use since tablets do not necessarily havea fixed direction of use. The accelerometer can alsobe used to detect the orientation of the tablet relativeto the center of the earth, but can also detectmovement of the tablet, both of which can be used asan alternative control interface for a tabletssoftware. Ambient light and proximity sensors are
additional "senses", that can provide controlling inputfor the tablet. Storage drive:Large tablets use storage drives similar to laptops,while smaller ones tend to use drives similar to MP3Players or have on-board flash memory. They alsooften have ports for removable storage such asSecure Digital cards. Due to the nature of the use oftablets, solid-state memory is often preferable due toits better resistance to damage during movement. Wireless:Because tablets by design are mobile computers,wireless connections are less restrictive to motionthan wired connections. Wi-Fi connectivity hasbecome ubiquitous among tablets. Bluetooth iscommonly used for connecting peripherals andcommunicating with local devices in place of a wiredUSB connection. 3D:Following mobile phone, there are also 3D slate tabletwith dual lens at the back of the tablet and alsoprovided with blue-red glasses.
FORM FACTORS.Slate:-Slate computers, which resemble writing slates, aretablet computers without a dedicated keyboard. Fortext input, users rely on handwriting recognition viaan active digitizer, touching an on-screen keyboardusing fingertips or a stylus, or using an externalkeyboard that can usually be attached via a wirelessor USB connection.Slate computers typically incorporate small (8.4–14.1inches/21–36 centimetres) LCD screens and havebeen popular in vertical markets such as health care,education, hospitality, aviation (pilot documentation
and maps),and field work. Applications for field workoften require a tablet computer that has ruggedspecifications that ensure long life by resisting heat,humidity, and drop/vibration damage. This addedfocus on mobility and/or ruggedness often leads toelimination of moving parts that could hinder thesequalities.Hybrid:-Hybrids, a term coined by users of the HP/Co mpaq TC1000 and TC1100 series,share the features of the slate and convertible byusing a detachable keyboard that operates in a similarfashion to a convertible when attached. Hybrids arenot to be confused with slate models with detachablekeyboards; detachable keyboards for pure slatemodels do not rotate to allow the tablet to rest on itlike a convertible.
Booklet:-Booklet computers are dual-touchscreen tabletcomputers that fold like a book. Typical bookletcomputers are equipped with multi-touch screens andpen writing recognition capabilities. They are designedto be used as digital day planners, Internet surfingdevices, project planners, music players, and displaysfor video, live TV, and e-reading.POST - PC OPERATINGSYSTEM.Tablets not following the personal computer (PC)tradition use operating systems in the style of thosedeveloped for PDAs and smartphones.
IPad:-The iPad runs a version of iOS which was first createdfor the iPhone and iPod Touch. Although built on thesame underlying Unix implementation as MacOS, theoperating system differs radically at the graphical userinterface level. iOS is designed for finger based useand has none of the tiny features which required astylus on earlier tablets. Apple introduced responsivemulti touch gestures, like moving two fingers apart tozoom in. iOS is built for the ARM architecture whichuses less power, and so gives better battery life, thanIntel devices required by Windows tablets. Previousto the iPads launch, there were long standing rumorsof an Apple tablet, though they were often about aproduct running Mac OS X and being in line withApples Macintosh computers.This became partiallytrue when a 3rd party offered customized Macbookswith pen input, known as the Modbook.Previous to Apples commercialization of the iPad,Axiotron introduced at Macworld in 2007 anaftermarket, heavily modified Apple MacBook calledModbook, a Mac OS X-based tablet personal
computer. The Modbook uses Apples Inkwell forhandwriting and gesture recognition, and usedigitization hardware from Wacom. To get Mac OS Xto talk to the digitizer on the integrated tablet, theModbook is supplied with a third-party driver calledTabletMagic; Wacom does not provide driver supportfor this device.BLACKBERRY:-The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet computerannounced in September 2010 which runs theBlackBerry Tablet OS. The OS is based on the QNXsystem that Research in Motion acquired in early2010. Delivery to developers and enterprisecustomers is expected in October 2010. TheBlackBerry PlayBook was officially released to US andCanadian consumers on April 19, 2011.ANDROID:-
Googles linux-based Android operating system hasbeen targeted by manufacturers for the tablet spacefollowing its success on smartphones due to its opennature and support for low-cost ARM systems muchlike Apples iOS. In 2010, there have been numerousannouncements of such tablets. However, much ofAndroids tablet initiative comes from manufacturersas Google primarily focuses its development onsmartphones and restricts the App Market from non-phone devices. There is, moreover, talk of tabletsupport from Google coming to its web-centricChrome OS.Some vendors such as Motorola[andLenovo are delaying deployment of their tabletcomputers until 2011, after Android is reworked toinclude more tablet features.COMPARISION WITH LAPTOP COMPUTERSThe advantages and disadvantages of tabletcomputers are highly subjective measures. Whatappeals to one user may be exactly what disappointsanother. The following are commonly cited opinionsof tablet computers versus laptops: ADVANTAGES
Usage in environments not conducive to akeyboard and mouse such as lying in bed,standing, or handling with a single hand.Lighter weight, lower power models can functionsimilarly to dedicated reading devices like theAmazon Kindle.Touch environment makes navigation easier thanconventional use of keyboard and mouse ortouch pad in certain contexts such as imagemanipulation, musical, or mouse oriented games.Digital painting and image editing are moreprecise and intuitive than painting or sketchingwith a mouse.The ability for easier or faster entry of diagrams,mathematical notations, and symbols.Allows, with the proper software, universal input,independent from different keyboardlocalizations.Some users find it more direct and pleasant touse a stylus, pen or finger to point and tap onobjects, rather than use a mouse or touchpad,which are not directly connected to the pointeron screen. DISADVANTAGES
Higher price – convertible tablet computers cancost significantly more than non-tablet portablePCs although this premium has been predicted tofall.Input speed – handwriting or typing on a virtualkeyboard can be significantly slower than typingspeed on a conventional keyboard, the latter ofwhich can be as high as 50–150 WPM; however,Slideit, Swype and other technologies are offeredin an effort to narrow the gap.Ergonomics – a tablet computer, or a folded slatePC, does not provide room for a wrist rest. Inaddition, the user will need to move his or herarm constantly while writing.Weaker video capabilities – Most tabletcomputers are equipped with embedded graphicsprocessors instead of discrete graphics cards. InJuly 2010, the only tablet PC with a discretegraphics card was the HP TouchSmart tm2t,which has the ATI Mobility Radeon HD5450 as anoptional extra.Business-oriented tablet personal computershave been slow sellers from 2001 to dataScreen risk – Tablet computers are handled morethan conventional laptops, yet many are built onsimilar frames; in addition, since their screensalso serve as input devices, they run a higher riskof screen damage from impacts and misuse.
Hinge risk – A convertible tablet computersscreen hinge is often required to rotate aroundtwo axes, unlike a normal laptop screen,subsequently increasing the number of possiblemechanical and electrical (digitizer and videocables, embedded WiFi antennas, etc.) failurepoint.Smaller display and lack of keyboard. TOP 10 TABLET PCS.
APPLE IPADSPECS: 1GHz dual-core Apple A5 custom-designed, high-performance, low-power system-on-a-chipBack camera: Video recording, HD (720p) up to 30 frames per second with audio; stillcamera with 5x digital zoomFront camera: Video recording, VGA up to 30 frames per second with audio; VGA-quality still cameraTap to control exposure for video or stillsPhoto and video geotagging over Wi-FiOS:-IOS 5.0