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85ec7 session2 c++

85ec7 session2 c++






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    85ec7 session2 c++ 85ec7 session2 c++ Presentation Transcript

    • Session – 2 Module-2Prepared by - Neetu Gupta
    • Contents• Control Statements – break, continue, switch, goto• Functions - arguments - return type• Scope – global & local scope• Scope operator• Storage classes – auto, register, extern, static
    • Contents• Inline functions• Default arguments• Enumerations• Runtime stack• Command line arguments• Recursion
    • break statement• Using break we can leave a loop even if the condition for its end is not fulfilled.• It can be used to end an infinite loop, or to force it to end before its natural end.• The format is break;
    • break statement - Example// break loop example#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main () { int n; for (n=10; n>0; n--) { cout << n << ", "; if (n==3) { break; } } return 0;}
    • • In this example, we are going to stop the count down before its natural end. The loop should executes till n is 0. But we are using break when n is 3. That means loop will not executes further when n becomes 3.Hence the output is 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3Please note that 2,1 is not printed as the loop is break when n = 3.
    • continue statement• The continue statement causes the program to skip the rest of the loop in the current iteration as if the end of the statement block had been reached, causing it to jump to the start of the following iteration. The format is simple as continue;
    • continue statement - Example// continue loop example#include <iostream>using namespace std; int main () { for (int n=10; n>0; n--) { if (n==5) continue; cout << n << ", "; } return 0; }
    • continue statement - Example• Output is 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1In the example, a for loop is used to print values from 10 to 1. But here we check if n==5, then we use continue. hence, the control goes back to start of for loop and statement the prints n is skipped.So the value 5 is not printed in the output above.
    • goto statement• The goto allows to make an absolute jump to another point in the program.• You should use this feature with caution since its execution causes an unconditional jump ignoring any type of nesting limitations.• The destination point is identified by a label, which is then used as an argument for the goto statement. goto label;
    • goto statement// goto loop example#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main () { int n=10; loop: cout << n << ", "; n--; if (n>0) goto loop; // loop is label here return 0;}
    • goto statement• Output is 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1Here, the loop is created using goto statement.We check the value of n. If it is > 0, we executes statement goto loop, this makes the control is transferred to statement labeled as loop
    • switch statement• Its objective is to check several possible constant values for an expression. Syntax is as: switch (expression) { case constant1: group of statements 1; break; case constant1: group of statements 1; break; ... default: default group of statements }
    • switch statement• It works in the following way:• switch evaluates expression and• checks if it is equivalent to constant1, if it is, it executes group of statements 1 until it finds the break statement. When it finds this break statement the program jumps to the end of the switch.• If expression was not equal to constant1 it will be checked against constant2. If it is equal to this, it will execute group of statements 2 until a break keyword is found, and then will jump to the end of the switch.• Finally, if the value of expression did not match any of the previously specified constants , the program will execute the statements included after the default: label, if it exists (since it is optional).
    • switch statement - Example// goto loop example#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main () { int x cout << “ Enter the value of X: "; cin >> X; switch (x) { case 1: cout << "x is 1"; break; case 2: cout << "x is 2"; break; default: cout << "value of x unknown";}
    • switch statement - Example• In the example, the value of X is read. Switch checks the value of X with every case. If the value of X is 1, then case 1 is executed. If the value of X is 2 case 2 is executed. Otherwise the default case is executed.• Output is Enter the value of X: 2 X is 2
    • Function• Function is a self contained block of statements that perform a coherent task of some kind.• Functions make the programs more modular and easy to read and manage.• All C++ programs must contain atleast one function i.e., main( ), from which the execution of a program starts• Functions separate the concept (what is done) from the implementation (how it is done).• Functions make programs easier to understand.
    • Function definition• Before we use a function in main() function of a program, the function must be properly defined.• A function definition consists of two parts: 1. function prototype and 2. function body• Once define a function can be called several times in the same program, allowing the code to be reused.
    • Function prototype• The prototype specifies how a function can be used/called. It basically tells the signature of a function• A function prototype consists of three parts:• name : This is simply a unique identifier.• parameters : This is a set of zero or more typed identifiers used for passing values to and from the function.• return type: This specifies the type of value the function returns. A function which returns nothing should have the return type void.
    • Function body• The body of a function contains the computational steps (statements) that comprise the function i.e. the code of the function that will get executed when a function is called.• The body of the function is return after its prototype between the curly braces {}.• The last line in a function body is usually a return statement.
    • A simple function - Example// add two numbers - EXAMPLEint addition (int a , int b) { int sum; sum = a + b; return sum;}Here, addition is a function that adds two integer nos.:• int addition (int a , int b) – function prototype, which tells 1. function name is – addition 2. parameters are two int values – a & b here 3. return type is an int value – sum here
    • A simple function – Example contd..• Function body : the code between {} is the body of the function { int sum; sum = a + b; return sum; }• Here, the code uses the parameters a and b. It adds the value of a & b using + operator and saves the result into int variable sum.• The value of int type variable sum is returned.
    • Using a function• After definition a function should be called in a program to use it.• A function call consists of the function name followed by the call operator brackets ‘()’, inside which zero or more comma-separated arguments appear.• The values passed between (), are called arguments which are passed to parameters mentioned in function prototype.
    • • The following code depicts that how the addition function can be called in main()// function call - example#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main () { int x, y; x = 10; y = 45; // Call the function addition with arguments x and y. int add = addition (x , y); cout << “Sum of two nos” << x <<“and” << y <<“is” << add; return 0;}Here,• x and y are arguments which are used to pass the value into parameters a and b• The variable add saves the return value from the function addition.
    • Types Of Function• In C++, we can basically use/call two types of functions:2. Standard Library Functions • These are also called inbuilt functions that are already defined in various header files we #include in our program. • The code of these functions is in .lib files of C++ • For e.g.- getch() is defined in file <conio.h>3. User Defined Functions • These are the functions which a user defines and provide code. • Like a function addition that we define in our previous example.
    • User Defined FunctionThese are of Four type• No Arguments No return• No Arguments but Return• Arguments but No return• Arguments with Return
    • No Arguments No Return• Neither the main function pass any value nor the called function return any value// Example - No Arguments No Return function#include<conio.h>void fact(); function prototypevoid main(){ fact(); function calling)void fact(){ int i,n,fact=1; cout<<“Enter Number”; cin>>n; for(i=n;i>0;i--) fact=fact*i; cout<<fact; getch();}
    • No Arguments But Return• A main function doesn’t pass any value to a called function but called function must return a value to main function.// Example - No Arguments But Returnint fact(); function prototypevoid main(){ int f; f=fact(); function calling no arguments but it will gat a returned value cout<<f;}int fact(){ int i,fact=1,n; cout<<“Enter Number”; cin>>n;for(i=n;i>0;i--) fact=fact*i; return fact;}
    • Arguments But No Return• A main function will send arguments to the called function and called function doesnt return any value to main ().// Example - Arguments But no ReturnVoid fact ( int ); function prototypeVoid main(){ int n; cout<<“Enter Number”; cin>>n; fact(n); function calling with a single argument}Void fact(int x) a copy of actual argument copies into formal argument x{ int fact=1,I; for(i=x;i>0;i--) fact=fact*I Function Definition cout<<fact;}
    • Arguments With Return• The main function send values to a calling function and called function must return value to main function back.// Example - Arguments with Returnvoid fact(int); function prototypevoid main(){ int n,f; cout<<“Enter Number”; cin>>n; f=fact(n); function calling with a single argument cout<<f;}void fact(int x) a copy of actual argument copies into formal argument x{ int fact=1,i; for(i=x;i>0;i--) fact=fact*I Function Definition return fact;}
    • Scope• All the variables that we intend to use in a program must have been declared with its type specifier in an earlier point in the code, like we did in the previous code at the beginning of the body of the function main when we declared that a, b, and result were of type int.• The scope of a variable tells that where a particular identifier can be used with in a program and where it can not be used.• Mainly two types Global Scope Local Scope
    • Global Scope• Everything defined at the program scope level (i.e., outside any functions and classes) is said to have a global scope.• A global variable is a variable declared in the main body of the source code, outside all functions.• Global variables can be referred from anywhere in the code, even inside functions, whenever it is after its declaration.
    • Global Scope - Example• Variables may also be defined at the global scope. Below, year is a global variable which can be used in max() function and main() function int year = 1994; // global variable int max (int, int); // global function int main (void) // global function { //... } int max (int, int) { // body of function Max ….. …. }
    • Local Scope• A local variable is one declared within the body of a function or a block• The scope of local variables is limited to the block enclosed in braces ({}) where they are declared.• A local variable can not be accessed outside its block.• A local scope overrides the global scope i.e. having a local variable with the same name as a global variable makes the latter inaccessible to the local scope.
    • Local Scope• Each block in a program defines a local scope. Thus the body of a function represents a local scope. The parameters of a function have the same scope as the function body.int xyz; // This xyz is globalvoid Foo (int xyz) // This xyz is local to the body of Foo{ if (xyz > 0) { double xyz; // This xyz is local to this block //... }}
    • • A complete program could be something like as below :
    • Scope Operator• A local scope overrides the global scope, having a local variable with the same name as a global variable makes the latter inaccessible to the local scope. For example, int error = 10; void Error (int error) { error = 15; cout << error; // This will always print 15 }• Here, the global variable error is inaccessible inside Error function , because it is overridden by the local error parameter.• cout in function Error will always print value 15 not 10.
    • Scope Operator• What if at places in a program, we wish to refer to the variable error which is defined outside not the variable error which is defined inside function.• This problem is overcome using the unary scope operator• A scope operator is written as ::• It takes a global entity as argument.
    • Scope Operator - Example// Use of Scope operator ::int error = 10;void Error (int error){ error = 15; cout << “Local error is:” << error; // Local - will always print 15 cout << “ Global error is:” << ::error; // Global - This will print 10}Output will be Local error is:15 Global error is:10
    • Storage Classes• The "storage class" of a variable determines The determines the part of member storage is allocated for an object and how long the storage allocation continues to exit. It tells a.Where the variable is stored. b.Initial value of the variable. c.Scope of the variable. Scope specifies the part of the program which a variable is accessed global or local scope d.Life of the variable.
    • • There are four types of storage classes in C+ + which it inherits from C: 1. Automatic storage class 2. Register storage class 3. Static storage class 4. External storage class
    • Auto Variable• The lifetime of a local variable is limited and is determined automatically, these variables are also called automatic. • In this automatic storage class, variable is stored in memory. • Default value is garbage value • Scope is local to the block • Life is, with in the block in which the variable is defined • Variable is defined using keyword auto auto int I;
    • // auto variable – Example#include <iostream>using namespace std;main(){ auto int i; auto int j = 100; cout >> “j is:” >> i cout >> “j is:” >> j}Output: I is: 2000 J is: 10• Here I is not initialized any value so it print say value like 2000 here, whereas j has the value 10 as initialized
    • Register Variable• The storage class specifier register may be used to indicate to the compiler that the variable should be stored in a register if possible. • Variable is stored in CPU registers. • Default value is garbage value. • Scope is local to the block. • Life is, with in the block in which the variable is defined. • We can not use register storage class for all types of variables. • These are used for fast retrieval. • Variable is defined using keyword register register int I;
    • // register variable – Example#include <iostream>using namespace std;main(){ for (register int i = 0; i < n; ++i) sum += i;}• Here, each time round the loop, i is used three times: once when it is compared to n, once when it is added to sum, and once when it is incremented. Therefore it makes sense to keep i in a register for the duration of the loop.
    • Static Variable• Defining a variable simply means that once the variable has been initialized, it remains in memory until the end of the program. • Variable is stored in memory. • Default value is zero. • Scope is local to the block. • Life is, value of the variable persists between different function calls. • Variable is defined using keyword static static int I;
    • // STATIC variable – Example#include <iostream>using namespace std;main(){ add(); add();}// Function definitionadd(){ static int i=10; // i static variable defined cout << “ I is ::” << I; i+=1;}Output: I is :: 10 I is :: 11• Here, in function add() I is initialized to 10. so first time 10 is printed. In the second call to add() function in main(), the value of I is preserved as it is defined as static. So the value printed I is 11 not 10.
    • Extern Variables• A global variable may be defined in one file and referred to in other files, some means of telling the compiler that the variable is defined elsewhere may be needed. This is facilitated by an extern declaration. • Variable is stored in memory. • Default value is zero. • Scope is local to the block. • Life is, as long as the program execution doesn’t come to an end. • Declared using keyword extern as extern int size; // variable declaration This informs the compiler that size is actually defined somewhere (may be later in this file or in another file)..
    • • // extern class – ExampleFile 1: main.cint count=5;main() { write_extern();}File 2: write.cvoid write_extern(void);extern int count;void write_extern(void) { cout >> "count is n“ >> count;}Here extern keyword is being used to declare count in another file.
    • Enumerations• An enumeration consists of a set of named integer constants.• An enumeration type declaration gives the name of the (optional) enumeration tag and defines the set of named integer identifiers (called the "enumeration set," "enumerator constants”).• A variable with enumeration type stores one of the values of the enumeration set defined by that type.• Variables of enum type can be used in indexing expressions and as operands of all arithmetic and relational operators.
    • Enumerations - Use• Syntax to declare an enum is enum identifier { enumerator-list } ;// Defines an enumeration type named as DAY enum DAY { saturday, sunday = 0, monday, wednesday thursday, friday };• The first value starts with 0 by default so value 0 is associated with saturday by default.• The identifier sunday is explicitly set to 0. The remaining identifiers are given the values 1 through 5 by default in sequence.
    • • A variable today of type DAY can be declared and initialized as enum DAY today = wednesday;In this example, a value from the set DAY is assigned to the variable today.• To explicitly assign an integer value to a variable of an enumerated data type, use a type cast: enum DAY workday = ( enum DAY ) ( day_value - 1 );
    • // Enum example#include <stdio.h>int main(){ // declare a enum Days enum Days {Sunday, Monday,Tuesday, Wednesday,Thursday, Friday,Saturday }; Days TheDay; // a variable of type Days int j = 0; cout >> “Please enter the day of the week (0 to 6)n"; cin << theDay; TheDay = Days(j); if(TheDay == Sunday || TheDay == Saturday) printf("Hurray it is the weekendn"); else printf("Curses still at workn"); return 0;}
    • Recursion• A function which calls itself is said to be a recursive function and the process is called recursion.• It is useful for many tasks, like sorting or calculate the factorial of numbers• There should always be an exit condition to end the recursion otherwise the call to function might go in as a infinite loop. (Important !!)
    • Recursion - Example• A function that calculates the factorial of a number n - the mathematical formula is n! = n * (n-1) * (n-2) * (n-3) ... * 1 like if n = 5 5! = 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1 = 120• The task to be done for this is recursive in nature , hence we can apply recursion as
    • // factorial calculator - Example#include <iostream>using namespace std;long factorial (long a) { if (a > 1) // exit condition tested return (a * factorial (a-1));else return (1);}int main () { long number, fact; cout << "Please type a number: "; cin >> number; facto = factorial (number); cout << “n” << number << "! = " << fact; return 0;}Output is Please type a number: 5 5! = 120• Notice how in function factorial we included a call to itself, but only if the argument passed was greater than 1, since otherwise the function would perform an infinite recursive loop in which once it arrived to 0 it would continue multiplying by all the negative numbers.
    • • For n set to 3, this table provides a trace of the calls to Factorial. The stack frames for these calls appear sequentially on the runtime stack, one after the other. Call n n==0 n*factorial(n-1) Return First 3 0 3*factorial(2) 6 Second 2 0 2*factorial(1) 2 third 1 0 1*factorial(0) 1 Fourth 0 1 1• A recursive function must have at least one termination condition which can be satisfied. Otherwise, the function will call itself indefinitely until the runtime stack overflows.
    • Default arguments• When declaring a function we can specify a default value for each of the last parameters.• Default argument is a programming convenience which removes the burden of having to specify argument values for all of a function’s parameters.• If a value for that parameter is not passed when the function is called, the default value is used, but if a value is specified this default value is ignored and the passed value is used instead.
    • // default values in functions#include <iostream>using namespace std;// In function divide, the default value of b is 2int divide (int a, int b=2) { int r; r=a/b; return (r);}int main () { cout << divide (12) << “n”; cout << divide (20,4); return 0;}Output is 65
    • • As we can see in the body of the program there are two calls to function divide.In the first one: divide (12) we have only specified one argument, but the function divide allows up to two. So the function divide has assumed that the second parameter is 2 since that is what we have specified to happen if this parameter was not passed (notice the function declaration, which finishes with int b=2, not just int b). Therefore the result of this function call is 6 (12/2).In the second call: divide (20,4) There are two parameters, so the default value for b (int b=2) is ignored and b takes the value passed as argument, that is 4, making the result returned equal to 5 (20/4).
    • Command Line Arguments• Command-line arguments are given after the name of a program in command-line operating systems like DOS or Linux, and are passed in to the program from the operating system.• In C it is possible to accept command line arguments by a program which is being passed to main() function by operating system.• For this we must first understand the full declaration of the main() function
    • • The full declaration of main looks like this: int main ( int argc, char *argv[] )Two parameters are passed into function main()• argc : An integer type parameter• It is the argument count. It is the number of arguments passed into the program from the command line, including the name of the program.• argv : The array of character pointers• It is the listing of all the arguments. argv[0] is the name of the program, or an empty string if the name is not available. After that, every element number less than argc is a command line argument. You can use each argv element just like a string, or use argv as a two dimensional array. argv[argc] is a null pointer.
    • Command Line Arguments – How to use them?• Almost any program that wants its parameters to be set when it is executed would use this.• One common use is to write a function that takes the name of a file and outputs the entire text of it onto the screen. Suppose the program is saved with name myfile.cpp• To pass arguments to main() of this program, we will execute the program as myfile <<name of the file>>
    • // Use of command line arguments – Example#include <stdio.h>int main ( int argc, char *argv[] ) { if ( argc != 2 ) /* argc should be 2 for correct execution */ { /* We print argv[0] assuming it is the program name */ printf( "usage: %s filename", argv[0] ); } else { // We assume argv[1] is a filename to open FILE *file = fopen( argv[1], "r" ); /* fopen returns 0, the NULL pointer, on failure */ if ( file == 0 ) { cout >> "Could not open filen" ; } else { int x; /* read one character at a time from file, stopping at EOF, which indicates the end of the file. Note that the idiom of "assign to a variable, check the value" used below works because the assignment statement evaluates to the value assigned. */
    • while ( ( x = fgetc( file ) ) != EOF ) { printf( "%c", x ); } fclose( file ); } }}Explanation:• It first checks to ensure the user added the second argument, theoretically a file name. The program then checks to see if the file is valid by trying to open it. This is a standard operation, and if it results in the file being opened, then the return value of fopen will be a valid FILE*; otherwise, it will be 0, the NULL pointer. After that, we just execute a loop to print out one character at a time from the file.
    • Inline functions• The point of making a function inline is to hint to the compiler that it is worth making some form of extra effort to call the function faster than it would otherwise - generally by substituting the code of the function into its caller.• This does not change the behavior of a function itself, but is used to suggest to the compiler that the code generated by the function body is inserted at each point the function is called, instead of being inserted only once and perform a regular call to it, which generally involves some additional overhead in running time.
    • • FormatThe format for its declaration is: inline type name ( arguments ... ) { instructions ... }The function prototype is simply prefixed by keyword inline• Call to an inline function name() Call is just like the call to any other function. You do not have to include the inline keyword when calling the function
    • Motivation for inline functions• Inline expansion is used to eliminate the time overhead when a function is called.• It is typically used for functions that execute frequently. It also has a space benefit for very small functions, and is an enabling transformation for other optimizations.• Without inline functions, however, the compiler decides which functions to inline.• The programmer has little or no control over which functions are inlined and which are not.• Giving this degree of control to the programmer allows for the use of application-specific knowledge in choosing which functions to inline.
    • Macros V/S inlineTraditionally, in languages such as C, inline expansion was accomplished at the source level using parameterized macros.• Macro invocations do not perform type checking, or even check that arguments are well-formed, whereas function calls usually do.• In C, a macro cannot use the return keyword with the same meaning as a function would do (it would make the function that asked the expansion terminate, rather than the macro). In other words, you cannot make the macro return something which is not the result of the last expression invoked inside it.• Since C macros use mere textual substitution, this may result in unintended side-effects and inefficiency due to re-evaluation of arguments and order of operations.
    • Macros V/S inline• Compiler errors within macros are often difficult to understand, because they refer to the expanded code, rather than the code the programmer typed.• Many constructs are awkward or impossible to express using macros, or use a significantly different syntax. Inline functions use the same syntax as ordinary functions, and can be inlined and un-inlined at will with ease.• Debugging information for inlined code is usually more helpful than that of macro-expanded code.
    • Run time Stack• Like many other modern programming languages, C+ + function call execution is based on a runtime stack.• When a function is called, memory space is allocated on this stack for the function parameters, return value, and local variables, as well as a local stack area for expression evaluation.• The allocated space is called a stack frame. When a function returns, the allocated stack frame is released so that it can be reused.
    • • Program execution begins at the start of the main function, of course.• The main function in this program has variables Length, Width, Area, and Perim.• Space is saved for these variables in an area of main memory called the run-time stack.• Section of the run-time stack for the main function is shown below.
    • • Note that there is more room available at the top end of this stack should we need it. Since the main function begins by assigning values to variables Length and Width, these values are shown in the drawing of the run-time stack.Next, the main function calls the FindArea function as follows: FindArea(Length, Width, Area);• The variables Length, Width, and Area inside these parentheses are the actual parameters. They correspond in order from left to right to the three formal parameters found in the code for the function, shown below.void FindArea(float Length, float Width, float & Area){ Area = Length * Width;}• When a function call is reached, a stack frame is placed on the run-time stack.
    • • We will use a simplified picture of a stack frame that ignores some of the technical details.• In our picture, the first item in the stack frame is the return address, that is, the location in the code to return to when the called function has completed.• In our example, program execution should continue on the line following the function call. Since this return address is a number indicating a location in the compiled machine code, no attempt is made to show the number itself, as it will vary from computer to computer and may even vary from one run to another on the same computer.• The next items put into the stack frame are the parameters. The last items would be local variables, but our example has none
    • • The first two formal parameters are non-reference (call-by-copy) parameters. Thus, in the picture of the run-time stack below, you see that the 3.4 and 1.2 have been copied into these formal parameters. The third formal parameter, Area, is a reference parameter. No value is stored in a reference parameter. Rather, it contains a pointer to the corresponding actual parameter. In our example the formal parameter Area contains a pointer to the variable also called Area in the main function section of the stack. The pointer is essentially the main memory address of the item pointed to, but is more conveniently drawn as an arrow instead of a number.