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    Lmt woms Lmt woms Presentation Transcript

    • Behavioral Health Academic success through behavior In collaboration with the OUSD African-American Male Achievement Office 2011 Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Introduction/Check-in What would you like to get? What are your challenges? What are you hopeful about? Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Training Goals
      • Provide a context in which these behaviors take place.
      • Offer conceptual frames that support strategic and effective relationship building through behavioral techniques
      • Offer tangible strategies and techniques for self regulation and behavioral management in the classroom.
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Visioning Activity
      • Close your eyes, visualize a Black male student you have worked with that made an impact on you.
      • Think about why they impacted you, positively or negatively
      • Think about how you responded to this student
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Paired Share
      • Talk about your student and share your reflections:
          • Who this student was
          • Why they impacted you
          • How you responded (what was the impact)
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • How are they targeted? Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training Suspension/ Expulsion Drop out Low graduation Special Ed/ ADHD Remedial/ Tracking Disease Illness Low quality of life Discrimination is psychological warfare Homicide Prison Environmental hazards Profiling Education Health Safety
      • The Gaps
      • The Achievement Gap (test scores, dropout rates, higher ed)
      • The Discipline Gap (suspension and expulsion)
      • The Wealth Gap (net worth, income, rates of poverty)
      • The Health (mortality) Gap (life expectancy, excess death)
      • The Prison Gap (incarceration rates, sentencing, profiling)
      • The Employment Gap (unemployment and underemployment rate)
      • Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVmPKvhsNVk
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • The Gaps
      • The Achievement Gap (test scores, dropout rates, higher ed)
      • The Discipline Gap (suspension and expulsion)
      • The Wealth Gap (net worth, income, rates of poverty)
      • The Health (mortality) Gap (life expectancy, excess death)
      • The Prison Gap (incarceration rates, sentencing, profiling)
      • The Employment Gap (unemployment and underemployment rate)
      • Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVmPKvhsNVk
      Lincoln Monthly Training
      • Attribution of Disparities
      • Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples”
        • Defective culture (Bill Cosby, President Obama, & Co.)
        • Individual faults (Bootstraps, agency, free will & choice)
        • Personal racism (isolated incidents, generally equal)
      • Overlooks policies and arrangements: “diseased tree”
        • Structures (Competition rewards advantage. Privilege bestows advantage, social reproduction)
        • Institutions (White supremacy, Brown v. Board, School to Prison) -Paul Hirshfield, Preparing for Prison: The Criminalization of School Discipline in the USA
        • Cumulative causation (multisystemic inequity, doll test)
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Primary Oppressors
      • Ways of thinking (ideological oppression)
        • White supremacy (white privilege)
        • Any thoughts of superiority over others
      • Institutions (institutional oppression)
        • Police brutality
        • “ ism’s”
      • People (interpersonal oppression)
        • Act of bigotry
        • “ ism’s”
      • Overt domination and exploitation of people, resources, and thought
      Who is the Oppressor?
      • Secondary Oppressors or sub-oppressors
      • Internalized oppression
        • Inability to name source of oppression
        • Black on black crime
        • Negative self image
        • Inability to identify the existence of being oppressed
        • Acceptance of negative stereotypes and labels into self concept
        • Inability to actively resist structural oppression
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • What does oppression look like?
      • Negative presupposition
      • Escalation
      • Ultimatums
      • Leverage power and authority
      • Threats of consequences
      • Deny them a ‘choice or a voice’
      • Forget they are children
      • Refuse to apologize
      • Treat them like adults
      • Intimidate them
      • Fail to hold them accountable
      • Black boys are limited culturally, in what they can express and how they can express it
      • Care, concern, fear, hurt, sadness, shame, embarrassment,
      • Most of our students are acutely aware of their positioning in U.S. society (social reproduction) which is the bottom.
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Risk vs. Protective Factors
      • Risk Factors
      • Low SES (poverty or working class)
      • Environment (liquor store, shots fired)
      • Race (“old and black”)
      • Poverty
      • Community violence
      • Trauma
      • Neglect
      • Poor schools
      • Lack of nutrition
      • Protective Factors
      • SES status (middle & upper middle class)
      • Education
      • Access to resources
      • Supportive caring relationships with adults
      • Positive engagement, healthy self-esteem
      • Tangible Skills and Prosocial skills
      • Internal motivation, drive, determination, talent
      • Resilience
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Strength-Based Seek to see all behaviors as strengths or hidden strengths
      • Name some of the hidden strengths that Black boys exhibit (harmful behaviors)?
        • Flashy < Creative & expressive
        • Persistent < Resilient
        • Bold < Courageous
        • Outspoken < Honest & transparent
        • Moody < Passionate & compassionate
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Strength-Based &quot;Men are whipped oftenist who are whipped easiest.“
      • “ The strength of someone who has endured the greatest hardship is best equipped for creating great social change.”
      • Fredrick Douglass was born into slavery. A ‘foster’ child, dropped off at 6 by his grandmother who disappeared.
      • At 16, he fought back, struggling for 2 hours.
      • Douglass escaped slavery and rose to become an advisor to President Lincoln during civil war.
      Miss. Sen. Blanche Bruce, former slave Ala. Rep. Jeremiah Haralson, former slave 21 elected to House, 10 former slaves 2 elected to Senate, 1 former slave Mississippi, Alabama, Virginia, Florida, North & South Carolina, Louisiana From 1870 - 1901 Booker T Washington founded Tuskeegee in 1881 & met with T. Roosevelt in 1901 WEB DuBois earned a Ph.D. from Harvard 1895 Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • America’s Response Minstrel, Jim Crow 1876, Birth of a Nation 1915 & Lynchings mostly targeting urban Black males Slide 13 Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Nothing New? Lincoln Monthly Training Negative Stereotypes Nothing New? demonized/criminalized aspects of culture Big, Black, Dangerous, Savage, Animal, Vicious, Beast, Immoral, Lazy, Ignorant, Careless, Indiscriminate, Oversexed, Crazed, Deranged, Lowly, Simple, Stupid, Inferior, Subhuman Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Modern Criminalization/Dehumanization The myth of the juvenile Superpredator: -John Dilulio, Princeton 1990’s “ Crack baby myth, immoral and beastly violent” “ Tough on crime” laws target urban Black Males 3- strikes, juveniles as adults, crack laws, gang laws -Mike Males, The Scapegoat Generation: America’s War On Adolescents Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Staff Goals
      • Building relationships with students
      • 2. Culturally responsive strategies for engaging students in the learning process
      • 3. Dealing with misbehavior:
      • What are some behaviors?
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Building Relationships
      • Address your fear of students
      • Look at your judgement of parents and family structure & community
      • Look at your personal biases, prejudices, dislikes and pet peeves
      • Examine your motivations for being here
      • What kind of student were you? Good or bad? Did you get in trouble or suspended?
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Building Relationships
      • Authentic Caring vs. Aesthetic Caring –Angela Valenzuela, Subtractive Schooling
      • Know their parents & caregivers first and last name: community centered -Gloria Ladson-Billings, Dreamkeepers
      • Disclose mistakes or errors and apologize quickly
      • State your motivations for your actions, give real reasons – Howard Zinn, A Peoples History of American Empire
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Culturally Responsive Strategies 1. Be clear about who you are: (race, class, gender, etc.) because it speaks more than what you say –Sharroky Hollie, Culturally Responsive 2. Be Student Centered: Their class or your class, their assignment or your assignment, their education or your education? Are you facilitator or Director of learning? 3. Cultural Consultation: Consult someone who is in the business of addressing a particular group Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Common Explanations for Misbehavior
      • He just wants attention (essential for survival)
      • He just wants his own way (as he should)
      • He’s manipulating us (not exactly)
      • He’s making bad choices (developmentally appropriate)
      • His parents don’t provide enough structure (neither do rich parents)
      • He has a bad attitude (unmet need)
      • His brother was the same way (we have no control over our genes)
      • He’s testing limits (that’s necessary for growth)
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Applied Behavior Analysis
      • Create an optimal environment (culture) BIP’s
      • Whatever behavior is reinforced the most, will occur the most
      • Behaviors are reinforced by Adult energy & attention
      • Setting events (2-6 hours) and Antecedents (30 seconds) Behavior and Consequences (natural are preferred to imposed)
      • Analyze when disruptions occur
      • Distinguish the type & kind of disrespectful outburst
      • Sharing Approximations: Clapping exercise
      • Works with Autistic youth and Lions, Tigers & Whales
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Crisis Management and The Crisis Cycle
      • Baseline
      • Escalation phase and the reverse cognition effect
      • Crisis mode
      • Heightened baseline
      • Cortisol
      • Shift thinking from escalation to maintaining baseline
      • Adult escalation cycle out of sync with students’ cycle
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Collaborative Problem Solving
      • Mutually beneficial
      • Plan A is adult will
      • Plan B is collaborative
      • -Ross Greene, The Explosive Child
      • LAGGING SKILLS are developmental delays in social skills, emotional regulation and impulse control. Lagging skills can be accelerated when addressed specifically and directly.
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Dealing With Misbehavior Putting the most energy where you have the most control 1. Manage your own reaction: You always have more options than they do 2. Gather information about the environment (the setting they encountered) and disposition (what they brought to school) in that order! 3. Consider more than 2 ways to look at what happened to be as objective (accurate & non-biased) as possible 4. Use Plan B! Mutually beneficial –Ross Greene, The Explosive Child Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training Alignment School Needs/ Goals Student Needs/ Goals This is where the work should be
    • Expectations 1. No quick fix 2. Cumulative: It took a long time to get this way, it will take a while to change 3. Give the strategy time Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Crisis Communication
      • Crisis communication is the reasonable response to a situation in which a threat of minor physical injury is present, with the client in close proximity, but without actual physical contact.
      • The goal is to shortcut the stress cycle or de-escalate the threat by matching our response to the level of dangerousness presented by client behavior and preserving the dignity of clients and staff during crisis communication.
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • General Principles
          • Self control enables critical thinking
          • Assessment comes before action
          • Communication keeps the door open
          • The rule of five
          • Patience pays
          • Expect the unexpected
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Emotional Self Regulation
          • + Reducing negative emotions
          • + Boosting positive emotions
          • - Amplifying negative emotions
          • - Suppressing positive emotions
          • The traumatic impact of yelling includes secondary trauma, shame, humiliation, anxiety, feeling unsafe of other students who witness this.
          • Because school is supposed to be a safe place and because an out of control adult is much more distressing than an out of control student.
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • The Stress Model
      • Phase I: The “event”
      • Phase II: Escalation
      • Phase III: Crisis
      • Phase IV: De-escalation/Recovery
      • Post-crisis depression
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Recognition and Response
      • “ The common knowledge model”
          • Fear
          • Frustration
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Fear
      • Threat of physical or emotional safety
      • When basic needs are not met or threatened to be taken away.
        • Bullied
        • Insulted
        • Threatened
      • Frustration
        • Needs not met
          • Hungry, tired
        • Temperament
          • Mood
          • Sensitivity
          • Reactive
          • Aroused
          • Unsettled
          • Not grounded
      Respondent Behavior Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
              • What does Fear look or sound like?
      • Visual Signs
        • Posture
        • Skin tone
        • Facial expression
      • Auditory Signs
        • Voice quality
        • Breathing
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Posture
      • Gestures
      • Position
      • Voice
      • Speech content
      • Eye contact
      • Physical contact
      • Don’t laugh
      • Don’t get angry or visibly frustrated
      Reducing Threat Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
              • What does Frustration look or sound like?
      • Visual Signs
        • Posture
        • Skin tone
        • Facial expression
      • Auditory Signs
        • Voice quality
        • Breathing
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Lending Control
      • Posture
      • Gestures
      • Position
      • Voice
      • Speech content
      • Eye contact
      • Physical contact
      • Reassure but don’t minimize
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
          • B.I.R.P.
      • Behavior
      • Intervention
      • Response
      • Plan
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • BEHAVIOR (strength or hidden strength) Client presented (agitated, calm, cheerful, anxious, frustrated, aggressive, passively, etc.)   Client appeared (sad, angry, frustrated, disturbed, depressed, detached, aggressive, passive, etc.)   Client interacted (with peers, with staff, verbally, nonverbally, etc.)   Client engaged (appropriately, inappropriately, with assignment, with work, with peer, with staff, etc.)   Clients demeanor was (withdrawn, defiant, respectful, engaged, absent, etc.)   Client showed (focus, frustration, annoyance, ability to focus, lack of ability to focus, ect.)   Client arrived (and showed, and began, and presented, and immediately, and slowly, etc.)   Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • INTERVENTION Staff: responded presented choices presented options reflected client behavior reality tested client encouraged client modeled appropriate response or behavior offered assistance used nonverbal cue used verbal cue redirected interpreted outlined consequences assisted client by refocused client by Reframed calmed client Reiterated Guided walked client through (figuratively walked) gave feedback processed with client Explained Began Assisted Intervened Praised offered choices Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • RESPONSE   Client: continued or stopped acknowledged or didn’t acknowledge responded or didn’t respond or ignored reflected expressed withheld or allowed withdrew or engaged reisisted or complied opened up or remained closed - processed or had difficulty processing waited or immediately began proceeded with began to appeared to or didn’t appear to requested cooperated or didn’t cooperate needed or didn’t need explained or was unable to explain had difficulty or easily was able or unable Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Plan Staff will - continue to follow up - use a different approach - explore with client - follow up with client , therapist, teacher, staff - brainstorm strategies , techniques - check in with client later in the day - check with staff for a more appropriate/effective intervention - observe client for the rest of the class - find alternative ways to engage client - remind client of the agreements - praise client for improved behavior - talk to parent/teacher/other staff about the incident - continue the conversation at a later time - be available if client wants to talk Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • More Interventions… Staff congratulated client on… Staff commended client for… Staff reminded client about… Staff continued to observe client… Staff summarized main points with client… Staff checked for understanding by asking client… Staff concluded with client.. Staff recapped with client… Staff reflected back to client what they were saying… Staff encouraged client… Staff complimented client… Staff validated client’s feelings… Staff affirmed client’s view… Staff reflected clients perspective… Staff articulated the clients viewpoint or perspective back to client… Staff refocused client on the goal… Staff remained neutral… Staff confronted client about actions… Staff reality tested by restating what happened neutrally… Staff projected a positive outcome for the client… Staff verbalized a positive goal/outcome… Staff found common ground with client… Staff offered opposing perspective of client… Staff countered clients interpretation of what happened… Staff verified clients goal in the interaction… Staff stated the goal of the interaction… Staff built a rapport with client… Staff restated what the client said… Staff repeated what the client said… Staff offered choices/options for the client… Staff reminded client of choices/options… Staff outlined consequences… Staff maintained contact with client… Staff remained in close proximity with client… Staff continued to monitor client… Staff maintained close proximity… Staff left space open for client to respond… Staff established facts… Staff delineated facts from perceptions… Staff separated facts from perceptions… Staff intervened in clients line of reasoning to… Staff restated the goal of the interaction… Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Expectations 1. No quick fix 2. Cumulative: It took a long time to get this way, it will take a while to change 3. Give the strategy time Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • The Service 1. Too hard on them, negative assumptions 2. Too easy on them, low expectations, feel sorry for them 3. Afraid of them, reinforcing stereotypes Service must be Firm and Caring Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Vaccum/Silo Approach
      • Not effective
      • Work harder, longer
      • Increase focus on punishments
      • Punish their parents
      • Get stricter, doing more of what doesn’t work
      • Consult with no one
      • Retreat to one’s authority and power
    • Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Organic Approach
      • most effective
      • Gather as much info as possible.
        • Get the facts
        • Ask questions
        • Listen, listen, listen
      • 2. Be upfront, transparent & explicit
      • 3. Work with & in partnership
        • Constantly check in
        • Offer options or even choices
        • Evaluate, evaluate, evaluate
        • Value the process as much as the goal
      • 4. Seek cultural consultation
      • 5. Reflect
    • Strengths Based Practice How can we raise OUR bar? 1. What do you do well with Black boys? 2. Where can you improve? 3. How can you strengthen your work with Black boys? Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Empathy Activity
      • You should not present yourself to students everyday unless you can do the following.
      • Imagine the following:
      • Your teacher being afraid of you and as a result unable to comfort you appropriately
      • Never feeling safe when you see the police even when they are there to “help”
      • Any enthusiasm that you express being interpreted as aggressive or even violent
      • Passion or excitement that you express being cast as sexually deviant
      • People not getting on the elevator with you or getting off as soon as you get on OR moving to the corner, grabbing purse and avoiding eye contact at all costs
      • People treat you as if you are going to steal something
      • Not being allowed to be angry without being viewed as dangerous
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • The Culture (of black male success) The Agencies that support Black Males -Youth UpRising -Leadership Excellence (Camp Akili, Freedom Schools) -Mentoring Center -100 Black Men (Man Up!) -OUSD, Office of African American Achievement The Research that feeds Black Male policy -Urban Strategies Council -Policy Link -Alameda County -Black male scholars -US Census Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Empathy Activity
      • You should not present yourself to students everyday unless you can do the following.
      • Imagine the following:
      • Your teacher being afraid of you and as a result unable to comfort you appropriately
      • Never feeling safe when you see the police even when they are there to “help”
      • Any enthusiasm that you express being interpreted as aggressive or even violent
      • Passion or excitement that you express being cast as sexually deviant
      • People not getting on the elevator with you or getting off as soon as you get on
      • People treat you as if you are going to steal something
      • Not being allowed to be angry without being viewed as dangerous
      Lincoln Monthly Training Cultural Consultation Just a few individuals to consult about Black males in Oakland Shawn Ginwright, Ph.D. Professor SFSU Darrick Smith, M.A. Director, June Jordan School for Equity Tacuma King, Artistic Director, Malonga Center Hodari Davis, M.A. National Director Youth Speaks Arnold Perkins, Retired Health Director, AC Afriye Quamina, Ed.D. Equity Institute Chris Chatmon, AAMAO, OUSD Baayan Bakari, Filmmaker Jeff Duncan-Andrade, Ph.D. Professor SFSU, OUSD teacher Jason Seals, M.A. Professor Merritt College Wade Nobles, Ph.D. Professor SFSU, Black Family & Life Institute Saleem Shakir, Executive Director, Leadership Excellence Ronald Muhammad, FOI David Muhammad, AC Probation Chief Michael Gibson, AC EMS Jerome Gourdine, Principal Frick Middle Greg Hodge, Former School Board Member Organizations Leadership Excellence Mentoring Center Youth Uprising 100 Black Men of East Bay Urban Strategies Center Policy Link Children’s Defense Fund, Oakland Alameda County, Health Dept. ACLU Bay Area chapter NAACP, Oakland Chapter Urban League, Northern California Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
      • Strategic Approach
      • More effective
      • Be deliberate about method & approach
      • Evaluate effectiveness
      • Prioritize strategically
      • Firm caring
      • Be responsible
      • Stop what’s not working or making headway
      • Work smarter, work differently
      Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
    • Thank You
      • Questions?
      • Comments?
      • Reflections?
      • Feedback?
      • For a copy of the powerpoint email
      • [email_address]