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Gangs & turf

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  • 1. Gangs & Turfs in School Culture of violence or culture of resistance? Macheo Payne Lincoln Child Center 2011 Lincoln Professional Training
  • 2. Training Goals 1. Discuss aspects of gang and turf culture in schools 2. Clarify beliefs of staff; ideologies and paradigms 3. Set staff priorities for working with the situation Lincoln Professional Training
  • 3. Oakland’s Landscape Historical: Irish gangs built political power (fire & police) Black Panther (political) Party, LA Crips & Bloods connection And now… Nortenos, Surrenos & Border Brothers: The Big 3 North side Oakland (NSO) Bushrod Cold Gunnaz, Gaskill Maniacs, The 6 West Oakland (WSO) Acorn, Ghost Town East Oakland (ESO) Lincoln Professional Training Lincoln Professional Training
  • 4.
    • Who Are They?
    • Critical Resistance in Identity or Naïve?
    • If you see, act, treat and respond to them as gang members, they will see themselves, behave, respond as gang members.
    • Don’t over or under estimate your influence. Your influence is limited but carries higher leverage than you think.
    • Do NOT operate within the gang consciousness in order to be “up on it” or “aware” of gang culture. Don’t think like a cop (containment, enforcement, external material management, etc.)
    • Common mistakes of schools is to adopt a No Gang Culture (no hoodies, rags, colors, roseries, tags, symbols, etc.) and not provide any intervention to address the culture of gangs in the school with students and families.
    Lincoln Professional Training
  • 5. Issues Community: Gangs & Turfs School: Collision of the Block vs. the Class Interpersonal: Fonkin’ & Frontin’ Internal: Identity development Lincoln Professional Training
  • 6. Educational Ideology People can work hard and achieve success. Education is the goal? Or the ‘weapon’ to be used skillfully in the battle for social justice? Math for what? Proper english for what? If you don’t succeed, it’s your fault. Lincoln Professional Training
  • 7. Working With Black Boys Why are they targeted for discipline? In collaboration with the OUSD African-American Male Achievement Office 2011 Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 8.
    • 3. Magic wand question: What is the one thing you would change about your work?
    Reflection 1. What is most important in your work? Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training 2. Is there a student that you wish you never had to work with? (trick question) 4. What do you absolutely love about your work?
  • 9.
    • Training Goals
    • 1. Explore critical beliefs
    • 2. Review culturally responsive relationship building
    • 3. Review Applied Behavioral Analysis Strategies
    • Address Site Specific Goals:
      • 1. Building relationships with students
      • 2. Culturally responsive strategies for engaging students in the learning process
      • 3. Dealing with misbehavior
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 10.
    • Visioning Activity
    • Imagine ALL of your clients performing academically at an optimal level.
    • Imagine them completing ALL behavioral goals and having full mastery of the material.
    • Envision
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 11. Lincoln Monthly Training Alignment Rigorous Academic Learning Environment Prioritizing Behavioral Health Needs Effective teaching Learning how to learn Caring about learning Academic success Social development Sustainable, Adaptable, Behavior patterns
  • 12.
    • Paired Share
    • Talk about your client and share your reflections:
        • Who this client is
        • Why they impacted you
        • How you responded (what was the impact)
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 13.
    • The Gaps
    • The Achievement Gap (test scores, dropout rates, higher ed)
    • The Discipline Gap (suspension and expulsion)
    • The Wealth Gap (net worth, income, rates of poverty)
    • The Health (mortality) Gap (life expectancy, excess death)
    • The Prison Gap (incarceration rates, sentencing, profiling)
    • The Employment Gap (unemployment and underemployment rate)
    • Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVmPKvhsNVk
    Lincoln Monthly Training
    • Attribution of Disparities
    • Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples”
      • Defective culture (Bill Cosby, President Obama, & Co.)
      • Individual faults (Bootstraps, agency, free will & choice)
      • Personal racism (isolated incidents, generally equal)
    • Overlooks policies and arrangements: “diseased tree”
      • Structures (Competition rewards advantage. Privilege bestows advantage, social reproduction)
      • Institutions (White supremacy, Brown v. Board, School to Prison) -Paul Hirshfield, Preparing for Prison: The Criminalization of School Discipline in the USA
      • Cumulative causation (multisystemic inequity, doll test)
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 14. Building Relationships
    • Address your fear/distain of students
    • Look at your judgement of parents and family structure & community
    • Look at your personal biases, prejudices, dislikes and pet peeves
    • Examine your motivations for being here
    • Commit or Quit
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 15. Building Relationships
    • Authentic Caring vs. Aesthetic Caring --Angela Valenzuela, Subtractive Schooling
    • Know their parents & caregivers first and last name: community centered -Gloria Ladson-Billings, Dreamkeepers
    • Disclose mistakes or errors and apologize quickly
    • State your motivations for your actions, give real reasons. Do you believe? (Warriors) – Howard Zinn, A Peoples History of American Empire
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 16. Culturally Responsive Strategies 1. Be clear about who you are: (race, class, gender, etc.) because it speaks more than what you say –Sharroky Hollie, Culturally Responsive 2. Be Student Centered: Their class or your class, their assignment or your assignment, their education or your education? Are you facilitator or Director of learning? 3. Cultural Consultation: Consult someone who is in the business of addressing a particular group Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 17. Common Explanations for Misbehavior
    • He just wants attention (essential for survival)
    • He just wants his own way (as he should)
    • He’s manipulating us (not exactly)
    • He’s making bad choices (developmentally appropriate)
    • His parents don’t provide enough structure (neither do rich parents)
    • He has a bad attitude (unmet need)
    • His brother was the same way (we have no control over our genes)
    • He’s testing limits (that’s necessary for growth)
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 18. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • “ It’s the (environment) stupid.”
    • The children are in constant interaction with their environment: The physical environment, the people, their thoughts, emotions, patterns habits, and physiological needs
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 19. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • What is ABA?
    • “ A scientific approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and for developing a technology of behavior change that takes practical advantage of those discoveries.”
    • Levels of understanding: description – prediction – control
    • Exs. Criminal profiling, Disneyland, NASA, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, animal training, kids w/ autism.
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 20. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • What is ABA’s perspective on behavior?
    •  
    • All behavior has meaning – It is functional for the person. Our job is to understand what the function is.
    • All behavior meets a need - Kids engage in negative behavior because it’s meeting a need of some kind for them – whether attention, escape etc.
    • See behavior as communication – Teach kids how to communicate and get needs met more appropriately.
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 21. Applied Behavior Analysis ABA works to change what? Influence the persons behavior by controlling the environment. What’s in your environment is everything from your thoughts to physical stimuli. Change to train and shape behavior – make it more likely positive behavior will occur and less likely negative behavior will occur. Includes self-management of your environment. Physical setting, curriculum, schedule, how we teach, type and delivery of rewards and punishers. “ Behavior analysis is the design of environments that promote appropriate behavior.” Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 22. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • ABA attempts to make problem behaviors what? 
    • IRRELEVANT : Organize the environments to reduce likelihood that those conditions are encountered.
    • INEFFICIENT : Efficiency is the result of the combined effects of:
    • (a)    Physical effort required for person to perform the behavior
    • (b)    # of times person must perform the behavior before he/she is reinforced (schedule of reinforcement)
    • (c)    Time delay between the first problem behavior and reinforcement.
    • INEFFECTIVE : Problem behaviors should be ineffective ways of accessing reinforcers. You utilize this principle when putting a behavior “on extinction.”
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 23. Applied Behavior Analysis What is a “positive behavior intervention” I can use today?   Amazing power of positive reinforcement. The matching law – what you reinforce most will occur most frequently. Ways to make it more powerful – handout. Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 24. Applied Behavior Analysis Why is it so important to emphasize positive interventions – isn’t punishment effective?   Side effects of punishment: - disrupted relationship - lack of skill building - models punishment which is not an intervention student will be able to use - can make it more difficult to gain compliance the next time - may create power struggle Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 25. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • What are the different types of behavior?
    • Physical movement: sitting still, tapping, looking, making noises
    • Mental activity: engagement, focus, thinking, following along, etc.
    • Emotional activity: annoyed, frustrated, upset, humorous, pleasant, flat affect, disengaged, etc.
    • OR
    • Internalized behaviors vs. Externalized behaviors
    • Internalized: Quiet, disengaged, nonresponsive, depressed mood, head down, etc.
    • Externalized: Talking, moving, engaging with others, actively communicating
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 26. Applied Behavior Analysis
    • What do you want to reinforce?
    • Sitting down in chair
    • Having materials
    • Asking appropriate clarifying questions
    • Appropriate participation in class
    • Supporting classmates
    • Getting refocused
    • Staying focused during a disruption
    • Etc.
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 27. ABA: Reinforcement Rules
    • Timing: Reinforce desired behaviors immediately AND later
    • Frequency: Reinforce desired behaviors constantly
    • Enthusiasm: Be genuinely appreciative of the incremental steps
    • Eye Contact: Show your undivided attention when you reinforce
    • Describe: Name the desired behavior and why it is important
    • Anticipation: Hype up the reinforcers but don’t use as threat
    • Variety: Switch it up and tailor the reinforcer to the student
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 28. ABA: Reinforcement Rules
    • Give students a moment to comply (saving face)
    • Let them have the last word if they are complying (saving face)
    • Harass and hound them for their best academic effort
    • Discipline without punishment
    • CREATIVE REDIRECTION OF IMPULSE BEHAVIOR IS THE MOTHER OF ALL BEHAVIOR INTERVENTIONS
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 29. Collaborative Problem Solving
    • Mutually beneficial
    • Plan A is adult will
    • Plan B is collaborative
    • -Ross Greene, The Explosive Child
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 30. Expectations 1. No quick fix 2. Cumulative: It took a long time to get this way, it will take a while to change 3. Give the strategy time Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 31.
    • Empathy Activity
    • You should not present yourself to students everyday unless you can do the following.
    • Imagine the following:
    • Your teacher being afraid of you and as a result unable to comfort you appropriately
    • Never feeling safe when you see the police even when they are there to “help”
    • Any enthusiasm that you express being interpreted as aggressive or even violent
    • Passion or excitement that you express being cast as sexually deviant
    • People not getting on the elevator with you or getting off as soon as you get on OR moving to the corner, grabbing purse and avoiding eye contact at all costs
    • People treat you as if you are going to steal something
    • Not being allowed to be angry without being viewed as dangerous
    Lincoln/ AAMA Office Training
  • 32. Keeping Your Cool 1. Cognitive reframing: This is NORMAL adolescent behavior. It’s only a problem because of the setting. 2. WE (the adults) are responsible for the culture, climate, and success of the institution. 3. Knowing that you are safe and secure 4. “Drop the rope” 5. “Be Prepared”: Rehearse your response to being offended, disrespected, insulted, escalated, attacked Lincoln Professional Training
  • 33. Keeping Your Cool 6. When in doubt: Do what’s right for student healing and learning first and always 7. Use the Principles of Care and Lincoln Values in EVERY situation 8. You are an Adult, you are an Adult, you are an Adult, you are an Adult 9. Meditate, deep breathing, slow it down, back it up, reassess. - In order to deescalate, you have to control your physical response - in order to increase your cognitive capacity (move away fro fight or flight impulse, low to no cognitive functioning) - and THINK your way out of the cardboard box. Lincoln Professional Training