Elements of Effective Discipline                                      with Black Male Students                           U...
Elements	  of	  Effective	  Discipline	  with	  Black	  Male	  Students	          Critical	  Race	  framing	  of	  teacher...
Beliefs	  Informing	  Practice	   Responding	  to	  Institutional	  Racism	  toward	  black	  male	  students	  at	  the	 ...
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Critical Race Theory: Elements of effective discipline in schools


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This framework of effective elements represents key findings from research done in 2012 and outlines effective features of middle school discipline policy practiced by effective middle school teachers in Oakland CA

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Critical Race Theory: Elements of effective discipline in schools

  1. 1. Elements of Effective Discipline with Black Male Students Using the CRT lens to view how teachers effectively address disproportionality of suspension of black males at the classroom levelEXPANSIVE VIEW EMOTIONAL BELIEFS“If they fail, I failed.” FLEXIBILITY INFORMING “I’m not mad. I’m the PRACTICELearning Focused: adult.” “Our job is to“You can talk as long as it’sabout the work!” override oppression.” EmotionalAcademic engagement is Attunement: Backgroundprioritized over rule “I’m going to give you a littlecompliance. space before you tear up this Beliefs: place.” “When I learned about inequity and the achievement In Class Responding to emotional gap, I couldn’t ignore race.” Flexibility: behavior of students, not just verbal & physical behavior. Personal experience and“I can’t go home so you’re understanding of institutionalnot going home either!” racism and oppression of Channel Anger: black male students.Discipline strategies that use “If you was poor and black,multiple in class strategies you’d be angry too!”with opportunities for Personal Charge:atonement. Accepting and channeling “I love my students!” student anger & frustration into effective resistance. Commitment to and love ofStudent Centered students and teaching.Discipline Policy: Struggle with“If they fail, I failed.” Practice: Override “They do better when I get Oppression:Policies that focus on building better.” “And our job is to overridestudent capacity to follow oppression.”them. Teacher struggles with their own developing practice & Conscious effort to address experiences negative emotion institutional racism toward as a temporary loss of black males. perspective.
  2. 2. Elements  of  Effective  Discipline  with  Black  Male  Students   Critical  Race  framing  of  teacher  practice  that  keeps  black  males  in  the  classroom.   Effective  Element   Description  of  Element  1.  ‘Expansive  View’  discipline  strategy   Equity  for  black  males  in  discipline  as  an   outcome,  not  a  process  (Crenshaw,   1995).  2.  Emotional  flexibility   Able  to  respond  to  negative  black  male   student  emotions  without  taking  offense.  3.  Beliefs  informing  practice     Responding  to  institutional  racism   toward  black  males  at  the  classroom   level.  Social  justice  belief  framework.    ‘Expansive  View’  Discipline  Practices:  “If  they  fail,  I  failed”   Equity  for  black  males  in  discipline  as  an  outcome,  not  a  process.   Effective  Practices   Ineffective  Practices  1.  Learning  Focused:  Academic   1.  Compliance  Focused:  Following  rules  &  engagement  is  prioritized  over  rule   teacher  direction  creates  power  struggles  compliance.     where  learning  gets  lost.    2.  In  Class  Flexibility:  Discipline   2.  ‘Out  the  door’  Policies:  Discipline  that  strategies  that  use  multiple  in  class   relies  heavily  on  threats  and  ‘cumulative  strategies  with  opportunities  for   intolerance’  of  ‘frequent  flyers’    atonement.  3.  Student  Centered  Discipline  Policy:   3.  ‘Set  Up  To  Fail’  Discipline  Policy:  Rigid,  Policies  that  focus  on  building  student   one-­‐way  discipline  policies  that  set  capacity  to  follow  them.       students  up  to  fail.   Emotional  Flexibility   Able  to  respond  to  negative  black  male  student  emotions  without  taking  offense.   Effective  Practice   Ineffective  Practice  1.  Emotional  Attunement:  Responding   1.  Emotionally  Tone  Deaf:  Teacher  to  emotional  behavior  of  students,  not   misreads  or  is  unresponsive  to  student  just  verbal  &  physical  behavior.   emotional  cues.    2.  Channel  Anger:  Accepting  and   2.  Punish  Anger:  Teacher  sees  student  channeling  student  anger  &  frustration   expression  of  anger  &  frustration  as  into  learning  as  an  effective  form  of   disrespect  and  punishes  it.  resistance  (Akom).  3.  Emotionally  Struggle  with  Practice:   3.  Blame  Students:  Teacher  sees  student  Teacher  struggles  with  their  own   behavior  patterns  as  the  source  of  their  developing  practice  &  experiences   negative  emotions  and  thus  out  of  their  negative  emotion  as  a  temporary  loss  of   own  control.  perspective  (“Remember,  it’s  not  about  me.”).  
  3. 3. Beliefs  Informing  Practice   Responding  to  Institutional  Racism  toward  black  male  students  at  the  classroom  level.   Effective  Practice   Prior  Research  Reference  1.  Background  Beliefs:  Teacher  has   1.  Addresses  Teacher  Bias:  Teacher  personal  experience  and  understanding   rejects  colorblind  myth  and  accepts  the  of  institutional  racism  and  oppression  of   reality  of  race  based  inequity  for  black  black  male  students.   males  in  education.  2.  Personal  Charge:  commitment  to  and   2.  Addresses  Cultural  Mismatch:  love  of  students  and  teaching.     Teacher  loves  and  appreciates  the   cultural  and  racial  identity  of  students  as   important  and  is  personally  committed  to   making  the  educational  setting  culturally   compatible  to  them.  3.  Override  Oppression:  Explicit   3.  Addresses  Institutional  Racism:  mission  of  addressing  institutional  racism   Teacher  educates  for  a  higher  purpose  of  toward  black  males.   supporting  black  male  students  to   overcome  institutional  racism.     The  catch  22  about  referrals   When  you  need  to  send  a  student  out,  it  is  urgent   and  typically  emotionally  charged.  This  is  not  the   ideal  circumstance  to  write  a  detailed  referral  that   gives  the  principal  adequate  background,  context   and  sequence  of  facts  that  any  reasonable  parent   would  require  the  principal  to  provide  if  called   and  notified  that  their  child  was  coming  home.     So  what  usually  happens  is  a  student  is  sent   without  a  referral  but  a  promise  of  one  at  a  later   time  and  the  student  is  expected  to  simply  remain   in  the  office  until  that  time,  creating  a  “cue”  for  the   principal.     But  even  if  the  teacher  manages  to  scrawl  some   “highlights”  and  send  the  student,  the  student  is   able  to  “spin”  the  whole  situation.  This  is  where   the  student  can  offer  information  about  the   teachers  chief  weaknesses  that  the  student  may   knowingly  or  unknowingly  feed  into  the  principals   existing  concerns  about  that  teacher,  no  matter   how  small  they  are.