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FRAMEWORK/THEORY EQUITY IMPLICATIONS Critical Race Theory (CRT) in education is based in legal studies, looking at how Policy institutional racism saturates the American educational system (Ladson-Billings, 1995) Demystify the role of interpersonal and institutional bias in disproportionate suspension of Black male students. Reframe the issue by examining the PROBLEM STATEMENT pathologies inherent in the institution of Black male students are suspended from American education, not Black male school at a rate 2 to 3 times more than behavior. White male students nationwide (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010). Practice ________________________________________________________________________ Discover important links between caring This contributes to low academic relationships, culturally responsive classroom achievement, low graduation rates, high CRT FLOWCHART APPLIED CRITICAL management, and the elimination of RACE THEORY dropout/pushout rates and increased risk This paper uses two tenets of disproportionate suspension by bias. of incarceration (Noguera, 2003). CRT to reframe three primary explanations of disproportionate KEY TENET OF CRT KEY TENET OF CRT Connect effective classroom strategies with eliminating disproportionate suspension Centrality of Whiteness Unconscious The Challenge to dominant ideology This trend has existed for 35 years and suspension of Black males in the hegemonic ideology that places white values and interests at the center of all Countering claims that the legal system of justice and public institutions, namely is getting worse (Skiba, Michael, Nardo & Peterson, research: cultural mismatch, aspects of dominant culture & policy, perpetuating white supremacy (Ladson- public education is colorblind, race- neutral and provides equal opportunity by bias. Billings, 1998; Picower, 2009). (Solorzano, 1997; Yosso, 2005). 2002). teacher bias, & institutional bias. These explanations are in turn PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE This is a race-based issue, an equity remedied using proposed RESEARCH Cultural Mismatch- Black students’ RESEARCH Teacher Bias- Hidden stereotypes lead RESEARCH Institutional Bias- Inequality is issue, and a civil rights issue (UCLA Civil teachers to view Black students negatively interventions in the classroom culture is pathologized and viewed as incompatible with the educational holding them to a different set of standards, overusing disruption, defiance and disrespect as reproduced through racially biased policies such as zero tolerance setting (Monroe, 2005). Rights Project, 2010). a reason for out of class referrals (Skiba, 2002). (Skiba, 2000). & institution: culturally responsive ________________________________ classroom management, authentic REFERENCES caring, & race-based institutional APPLYING CRT IN THE CLASSROOM Culturally Responsive Classroom APPLYING CRT IN THE CLASSROOM Authentic Caring- Holding high APPLYING CRT IN THE INSTITUTION Race-based interventions- Individuals caring is not enough. The institution must Cartledge, G., Tillman, L. C., & Johnson, C. T. (2001). Professional ethics within the context of student discipline and Management- Centering expectations as well as providing a interventions. function in a race responsive way toward diversity. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24(1) 25-37. instruction around the cultural high level of care, concern & support equity with strategies similar to affirmative Christle, C., Nelson, C., and Jolivette, K. (2004). School characteristics related to the use of suspension. Education & needs & learning styles of each to all students who need it action & Oakland’s African American male Treatment of Children, 27(4), 509-526. student (Gay, 2000). (Valenzuela, 1999). achievement office. Dunbar, C. and Villarruel, F. (2004). What a difference the community makes: Zero tolerance policy interpretation and implementation. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37(351-359) Fatt, R. (2009). Keeping youth connected. Focus on Oakland. Retrieved from ________________________________________________________________________ http://www.clasp.org/admin/site/publications/files/Oakland-profile.pdf Fenning, P. and Rose, J. (2007). Overrepresentation of African American students in exclusionary discipline: The role of school policy. Urban Education, 42(6), 536-559. THE GAP IN THE LITERATURE Fenning, P., Theodos, J., Benner, C., & Bohanon-Edmonson, H. (2004). Integrating proactive discipline practices into codes of conduct. Journal of School Violence, 3(1), 45-61. Foster, M. (1993). Self-portraits of Black teachers: Narratives of individual and collective struggle against racism. In D. The literature lacks studies that examine this specific problem of disproportionality in McLaughlin & W. G. Tierney (Eds.), Many silenced lives: Personal narratives on the process of educational change (pp. 155-175). New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul. suspension, using the CRT framework to look at how teachers with effective classroom Gay, G. (2006). Connections between classroom management and culturally responsive teaching. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues (pp. 343-370). Gregory, A. & Mosely, P. M. (2004). The discipline gap: Teachers view on the over-representation of African American management and caring relationships with students, impact discipline strategies with Black students in the discipline system. Equity & Excellence in Education, 37(1), 18-30. Gregory, A., Skiba, R., Noguera, P. (2010). The achievement gap and the discipline gap: Two sides of the same coin? Educational Researcher, 39(59). male students. Knaus, C. B. (2009). Shut up and listen: Applied critical race theory in the classroom. Race, Ethnicity & Education, 12(2), 133-154 Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education? Qualitative ________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-24. Martinez, S. (2009). A system gone berserk: How are zero-tolerance policies really affecting schools? Preventing School Failure, RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 53(3), 153-158. RESEARCH QUESTION Monroe, C. R. (2005). Understanding the discipline gap through a cultural lens: Implications for the education of African American students. Intercultural Education, 16, 317-330. This study requires a qualitative examination of the classroom. Picower, B. (2009). The unexamined Whiteness of teaching: how White teachers maintain and enact dominant racial ideologies. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 12(2), 197-215. How do effective teachers employ Skiba, R., Michael, R., Nardo, A., Peterson, R. (2002). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender classroom management and caring Using teacher interviews and classroom observations, this study aims to look at how disproportionality in school punishment. The Urban Review 34(4). Skiba, R., and Peterson, R. (1999). The dark side of zero-tolerance: Can punishment lead to safe schools? Phi Delta Kappa, 80, 372–376. relationships when disciplining Black effective teachers manage and discipline Black male students. Skiba, R. J. (2000). Zero-tolerance, zero evidence: An analysis of school discipline practice. Bloomington: Indiana University Education Policy Center. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~safeschl/ztze.pdf male middle school students in their It is anticipated that effective strategies will be revealed, employing Solorzano, G. (1997). Images and words that would: Critical race theory, racial stereotyping, and teacher education. Teacher Education Quarterly, 5-19. classrooms? culturally responsive classroom management and authentic caring relationships. UCLA Civil Rights Project (2010). Study finds big racial gap in suspensions of middle school students. Retrieved from http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/ Yosso, T. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education. 8(1), 69-91.POSTER TEMPLATE BY:www.PosterPresentations.com