1. APPLIED CRITICAL RACE THEORYKEY TENETS TO RESEARCH APPLYING CRT IN CRT REVIEW THE CLASSROOM Primary Lenses: Race-based- Black malesCentrality of students are disenfranchized by default and unless theWhiteness White Teacher Bias Hidden teacher explicitly examinesideology, values, and stereotypes compel the issue of equity.interests are at the center adults to have differentof all aspects of Reframing expectations and hold Responsibility- Focusingdominant culture & Black students to a on the teacher as the trainedpolicy different standard. professional with significant influence on the child’sThe Challenge to Institutional Bias- behavior.dominant ideology Inequality is reproduced Effective Discipline-Countering the claims regardless of individuals Relentless effectivethat the legal system of in the institution or academic engagement is thejustice and all post- assumed institutional best discipline strategy.modern American intolerance of racism Relationship- Strengthsinstitutions, namely based approach to allpublic education is Cultural Mismatch- students.colorblind, race-neutral Black students culture isand provides equal pathologized and viewedopportunity (Brown v as incompatible with theBoard) educational setting
2. APPLIED CRITICAL RACE THEORY KEY TENET OF CRT KEY TENET OF CRTCentrality of Whiteness Unconscious The Challenge to dominant ideologyhegemonic ideology that places white Countering claims that the legal system ofvalues and interests at the center of all justice and public institutions, namelyaspects of dominant culture & policy, public education is colorblind, race-perpetuating white supremacy (Ladson- neutral and provides equal opportunityBillings, 1998; Picower, 2009). (Solorzano, 1997; Yosso, 2005).PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE PRIMARY EXPLANATIONS IN THE RESEARCH RESEARCH RESEARCHCultural Mismatch- Black students’ Teacher Bias- Hidden stereotypes lead Institutional Bias- Inequality isculture is pathologized and viewed as teachers to view Black students negatively holding them to a different set of standards, reproduced through racially biasedincompatible with the educational overusing disruption, defiance and disrespect as policies such as zero tolerancesetting (Monroe, 2005). a reason for out of class referrals (Skiba, 2002). (Skiba, 2000). APPLYING CRT IN THE CLASSROOM APPLYING CRT IN THE CLASSROOM APPLYING CRT IN THE INSTITUTIONCulturally Responsive Classroom Authentic Caring- Holding high Race-based interventions- Individuals expectations as well as providing a caring is not enough. The institution mustManagement- Centering function in a race responsive way towardinstruction around the cultural high level of care, concern & support equity with strategies similar to affirmativeneeds & learning styles of each to all students who need it action & Oakland’s African American malestudent (Gay, 2000). (Valenzuela, 1999). achievement office.
3. APPLIED CRITICAL RACE THEORY MODEL FOR EDUCATIONIdeological Basis Institutional Basis Narrative Applying CRT Importance of CRTAccording to CRT the Major institutions in this CRT uses narrative in Effective interventions should CRT is interdisciplinary andideological foundation of this country implicitly function to research to substantiate the address equity problems using compliments many othercountry is implicitly biased keep white privilege in place. problem as well a in CRT tenets for the purpose of frameworks but serves aagainst all non-whites interventions that address eliminating inequitable critically unique function in inequity in education outcomes equity analysis in educationWhiteness as Property- Institutional Racism- Counter Narrative- Race-based Naming the Oppressor-Possession of rights that Inequitable outcomes for countering institutional Intervention- Addressing Proper diagnosis,are respected by laws nonwhite groups bias of empirical process the root cause, not the Recasting the “blaming ofdefault to whiteness consistently, for decades, of inquiry & research effect, being race specific, the victim” not “blaming all over the country not race neutral the oppressor”Centrality of Whiteness- Implicit Bias- Inequality Traditional Narrative- Parallel process- The Demystifying Racism-White ideology, values, is reproduced regardless Affirming validity of necessity of both site- Ceasing to view theand interests are at the of individuals in the humanity through story based interventions as effects of racism from thecenter of all aspects of institution or assumed and narrative from the well as broader restrictive view. (no hood,dominant culture & policy institutional intolerance of Subject, not interpretation institutional change on a no foul) racism from the observer fundamental level and over the long termWhite Supremacy- All Restrictive vs. Decentralizing It’s the Adults stupid!- Addressing the causenonwhites are naturally Expansive view- The Whiteness- Reframing Relentless focus on adults not the effect- Refocusinginferior, (post-modern legal burden of the victim and recasting the not children as the target attention on whiteform- nonwhites are to prove racist intent of perspective from the for change with the supremacy, not those itpermanently policy instead of proving experience of the Subject indicators in the student impacts (going upstream)disadvantaged) race-based impact through narrative. outcomes (explicit vs. implicitly racist) Interest Convergence- Institutional Nurturing- Picks the right target- Power is shared when Individuals caring is not Not confusing race-based there is a mutual benefit. enough. The institution impact with other If there is a conflict in must function in a race overlapping forms of interest, all change, no responsive way toward oppression like poverty, matter how noble, will be equity. (ex. transformative class, geography, etc. resisted by the power leadership) group (Brown v. Board)
4. APPLIED CRITICAL RACE THEORYIdeological Basis Institutional The use of Applying CRT in to CRT Basis to CRT Narrative in the field of CRT EducationWhiteness as Institutional Racism-property Possession Inequitable outcomes Race-basedof rights that are for nonwhite groups Counter Intervention-respected by laws consistently, for decades, Narrative- Addressing the rootdefaults to whiteness all over the country countering cause, not the effect,first Implicit Bias- institutional bias being race specific, not race-neutral Inequality is reproduced of inquiry &Centrality of regardless of individualsWhiteness White in the institution or research Parallel process- Theideology, values, and assumed institutional necessity of both site- intolerance of racism Traditional based interventions asinterests are at the well as broadercenter of all aspects Restrictive vs. Narrative- institutional change onof dominant culture Expansive view- The Affirming validity a fundamental level and& policy legal burden of the of humanity over the long term victim to prove racistWhite supremacy intent of policy instead through story and It’s the AdultsScientific & religious of proving race-based narrative stupid!- Relentlessframeworks of white impact (explicit vs. focus on adults not implicitly racist) children as the targetmoral, physical, Decentralizingintellectual for change with the Interest Convergence- Whiteness- indicators in thesuperiority: natural Power is shared when Reframing and student outcomesselection & manifest there is a mutual benefit.destiny. (post- If there is a conflict in recasting from the experience of the Institutionalmodern form: interest, all change, no Nurturing- Individualsnonwhites are matter how noble, will oppressed through caring is not enough. be resisted by the powerpermanently group (Brown v. Board) narrative The institution mustdisadvantaged) function in a race responsive way toward equity