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Black males and the opportunity gaps closing the divide


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  • 1. Black Males and theOpportunity GapsClosing The DivideMacheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW2013Closing The Divide
  • 2. Introduction/Check-inWhat opportunities have you beenafforded?What opportunities have you beendenied?What has been the result ofopportunities afforded you vs. deniedto you?Closing The Divide
  • 3. Training Goals1. Frame the Opportunity Gaps forBlack boys and discuss solutions.2. Develop a shared understanding ofwhat impacts our work with Black boys3. Build critical questions that caninform our continued work with BlackboysClosing The Divide
  • 4. What Happens & Why?1. Discipline Gap (disproportionality & bias)2. Achievement Gap (the inequity curve, zero sum)3. Experience & Training Gap (newest teachers)4. Hard & Soft Resource Gap (Infrastructure, PTA, BasicAid, etc.)5. Curriculum Gap (Arizona, etc.)6. Innovation vs. Stability Gap (Nola Charters vs. BAU)Closing The Divide
  • 5. What Happens & Why?Question: Why do students get sent out of class?1. Disproportionality in out of class referrals &suspension of Black boys2. Research shows 3 main reasons:1. Cultural Mismatch (3 D’s: defiance, disrespect,disruption)2. Teacher Bias (stereotype threat)3. Institutional Bias (zero tolerance, parentcompliance)Closing The Divide
  • 6. The Back of the BookQuestion: What are Best Practices that you know about and have used?1. Health- Integration of attention to mind, body, personal in all pursuits of thespirit. (Positive psychology, happiness & hope scales)2. Racial Esteem–Village Nation, OFS, Camp Akili3. Education- Equitable Reform/Transformation4. Housing- Identify SWOT’s of environment to make high leverageimprovements5. Art & Culture- Epistemological integration into foundation of society .Values, beliefs and systems of civilization.6. Employment- Balanced pursuit of sustainable, purposeful careerdevelopment and integration into future economy.Closing The Divide
  • 7. The Back of the BookQuestion: What are Best Practices that you know about and have used?1. Authentic Caring –Angela Valenzuela2. Control the Environment: Environment controlsbehavior. -ABA (classroom management: arrangement,procedures, structure, engagement, etc.)3. Culturally Responsive (student centered) –SharrokyHollie4. Strengths Based: All behavior is strength or hiddenstrength5. Be Explicit: Openly challenging negative stereotypes &biases in, through, with your class6. Measure it: Keep track of your out of class referrals forobjective offenses. (the 3 D’s)Closing The Divide
  • 8. Why My Bootstraps Broke OffI understand there’s a common fraternity creed here at Morehouse: “Excusesare tools of the incompetent used to build bridges to nowhere andmonuments of nothingness.” Well, we’ve got no time for excuses. Notbecause the bitter legacy of slavery and segregation have vanishedentirely; they have not. Not because racism and discrimination no longerexist; we know those are still out there. It’s just that in today’shyperconnected, hypercompetitive world, with millions of young peoplefrom China and India and Brazil — many of whom started with a wholelot less than all of you did — all of them entering the global workforcealongside you, nobody is going to give you anything that you have notearned.Closing The Divide
  • 9. Why My Bootstraps Broke Off“The boot of racism is still on your neck… but that’s no excuse for passingout.” or“You better earn every penny… unless you are white America.” (6 – 8 min.)President Barack ObamaDr. King: earned what we are still being denied hundreds of times over.Closing The Divide
  • 10. How are they targeted?Question: What are the problems impacting our students?Safety Health EducationHomicidePrisonEnvironmentalhazardsProfilingDiseaseIllnessLow quality of lifeDiscrimination ispsychologicalwarfareSuspension/ExpulsionDrop outLow graduationSpecial Ed/ADHDRemedial/TrackingClosing The Divide
  • 11. The Gaps•The Achievement Gap (test scores, dropout rates, higher ed)•The Discipline Gap(suspension and expulsion)•The Wealth Gap(net worth, income, rates of poverty)•The Health (mortality) Gap(life expectancy, excess death)•The Prison Gap(incarceration rates, sentencing, profiling)•The Employment Gap(unemployment and underemploymentrate)Clip: Monthly TrainingAttribution of DisparitiesQuestion: Why are students unsuccessful?Dominant public paradigms explaining disparities: “bad apples”Defective culture (Bill Cosby, President Obama, & Co.)Individual faults (Bootstraps, agency, free will & choice)Personal racism (isolated incidents, generally equal)Overlooks policies and arrangements: “diseased tree”Structures (Competition rewards advantage. Privilege bestows advantage, social reproduction)Institutions (White supremacy, Brown v. Board, School to Prison)-Paul Hirshfield, Preparing for Prison: The Criminalization of School Discipline in the USACumulative causation (multisystemic inequity, doll test)Closing The Divide
  • 12. The Opportunity Gaps•The Achievement Gap (test scores, dropout rates)•The Discipline Gap (suspension and expulsion)•The Wealth Gap (net worth, income, rates of poverty)•The Health Gap (life expectancy, excess death)•The Prison Gap (incarceration rates, sentencing, profiling)•The Perception Gap (stereotype threat, post race rhetoric,reverse racism)Closing The Divide
  • 13. The Intersection•The Achievement Gap (education)•The Discipline Gap (education)•The Wealth Gap (education & employment)•The Health Gap (education & environment)•The Prison Gap (health, environment & education)(75% & 19% are illiterate & mental health issue)•The Perception Gap (education & exposure)Closing The Divide
  • 14. Who is the Oppressor?Question: What impacts our students the most?• Primary Oppressors• Ways of thinking (ideologicaloppression)– White supremacy (white privilege)– Any thoughts of superiority overothers• Institutions (institutional oppression)– Police brutality– “ism’s”• People (interpersonal oppression)– Act of bigotry– “ism’s”• Overt domination and exploitation ofpeople, resources, and thought• Secondary Oppressors orsub-oppressors• Internalized oppression– Inability to name source ofoppression– Black on black crime– Negative self image– Inability to identify the existence ofbeing oppressed– Acceptance of negative stereotypesand labels into self concept– Inability to actively resist structuraloppressionClosing The Divide
  • 15. What does oppression look like?Question: What does this oppression look like in our schools?• Negative presupposition• Escalation• Ultimatums• Leverage power and authority• Threats of consequences• Deny them a ‘choice or a voice’• Forget they are children• Refuse to apologize• Treat them like adults• Intimidate them• Fail to hold them accountable• Black boys are limited culturally,in what they can express andhow they can express it• Care, concern, fear, hurt,sadness, shame, embarrassment,• Most of our students are acutelyaware of their positioning in U.S.society (social reproduction)which is the bottom.Closing The Divide
  • 16. Risk vs. Protective FactorsQuestion: What are the push pull factors in their environment?• Risk Factors• Low SES (poverty or working class)• Environment (liquor store, shots fired)• Race (“old and black”)• Poverty• Community violence• Trauma• Neglect• Poor schools• Lack of nutrition• Protective Factors• SES status (middle & upper middle class)• Education• Access to resources• Supportive caring relationships with adults• Positive engagement, healthy self-esteem• Tangible Skills and Prosocial skills• Internal motivation, drive, determination,talent• ResilienceClosing The Divide
  • 17. Strength-BasedSeek to see all behaviors as strengths or hidden strengths• Name some of the hidden strengthsthat Black boys exhibit (harmful behaviors)?– Flashy < Creative & expressive– Persistent < Resilient– Bold < Courageous– Outspoken < Honest & transparent– Moody < Passionate & compassionateClosing The Divide
  • 18. Strength-Based"Men are whipped oftenist who are whipped easiest.“• “The strength of someonewho has endured thegreatest hardship is bestequipped for creating greatsocial change.”• Fredrick Douglass was borninto slavery. A ‘foster’ child,dropped off at 6 by hisgrandmother who disappeared.• At 16, he fought back,struggling for 2 hours.• Douglass escaped slavery androse to become an advisor toPresident Lincoln during civilwar.•Miss. Sen. Blanche Bruce, former slaveAla. Rep. Jeremiah Haralson, formerslave21 elected to House, 10 former slaves2 elected to Senate, 1 former slaveMississippi, Alabama, Virginia, Florida,North & South Carolina, LouisianaFrom 1870 - 1901Booker TWashington foundedTuskeegee in 1881 &met with T. Rooseveltin 1901WEB DuBois earneda Ph.D. from Harvard1895Closing The Divide
  • 19. America’s ResponseMinstrel, Jim Crow 1876, Birth of a Nation 1915 & Lynchingsmostly targeting urban Black malesSlide 13Closing The Divide
  • 20. Nothing New?Lincoln Monthly TrainingNegative StereotypesNothing New?demonized/criminalized aspects of cultureBig, Black, Dangerous, Savage, Animal, Vicious, Beast,Immoral, Lazy, Ignorant, Careless, Indiscriminate, Oversexed,Crazed, Deranged, Lowly, Simple, Stupid, Inferior, SubhumanClosing The Divide
  • 21. Modern Criminalization/DehumanizationThe myth of the juvenile Superpredator:-John Dilulio, Princeton 1990’s“Crack baby myth, immoral and beastly violent”“Tough on crime” laws target urban Black Males3- strikes, juveniles as adults, crack laws, gang laws-Mike Males, The Scapegoat Generation: America’s War On AdolescentsClosing The Divide
  • 22. Staff GoalsQuestion: What are your goals as a team?1. Building relationships with students2. Culturally responsive strategies for engagingstudents in the learning process3. Dealing with misbehavior:What are some behaviors?Closing The Divide
  • 23. Building RelationshipsQuestion: What are the best ways to build appropriate relationships?1. Address your fear of your students2. Look at your judgement of parents and familystructure & community3. Look at your personal biases, prejudices, dislikesand pet peeves4. Examine your motivations for being here5. Challenge negative hidden assumptions &beliefsClosing The Divide
  • 24. Building RelationshipsQuestion: What are best practices for building relationships?1. Authentic Caring vs. Aesthetic Caring–Angela Valenzuela, Subtractive Schooling2. Know their parents & caregivers first andlast name: community centered-Gloria Ladson-Billings, Dreamkeepers3. Disclose mistakes or errors and apologizequickly4. State your motivations for your actions,give real reasons–Howard Zinn, A Peoples History of American EmpireClosing The Divide
  • 25. Culturally Responsive StrategiesQuestion: What does culturally responsive mean to you?1. Be clear about who you are: (race, class,gender, etc.) because it speaks more than whatyou say –Sharroky Hollie, Culturally Responsive2. Be Student Centered: Their class or yourclass, their assignment or your assignment,their education or your education? Are youfacilitator or Director of learning?3. Cultural Consultation: Consult someonewho is in the business of addressing aparticular groupClosing The Divide
  • 26. Common Explanations for MisbehaviorQuestion: Why do students act out?1. He just wants attention (essential for survival)2. He just wants his own way (as he should)3. He’s manipulating us (not exactly)4. He’s making bad choices (developmentally appropriate)5. His parents don’t provide enough structure (neither do rich parents)6. He has a bad attitude (unmet need)7. His brother was the same way (we have no control over our genes)8. He’s testing limits (that’s necessary for growth)Closing The Divide
  • 27. Applied Behavior AnalysisQuestion: How can you analyze their behavior?1. Create an optimal environment (culture) BIP’s2. Whatever behavior is reinforced the most, will occur the most3. Behaviors are reinforced by Adult energy & attention4. Setting events (2-6 hours) and Antecedents (30 seconds)Behavior and Consequences (natural are preferred to imposed)5. Analyze when disruptions occur6. Distinguish the type & kind of disrespectful outburst7. Sharing Approximations: Clapping exerciseClosing The Divide
  • 28. Crisis Management and The Crisis CycleQuestion: What happens in a crisis?1. Baseline2. Escalation phase and the reverse cognition effect3. Crisis mode4. Heightened baseline5. Cortisol6. Shift thinking from escalation to maintaining baseline7. Adult escalation cycle out of sync with students’ cycleClosing The Divide
  • 29. Collaborative Problem Solving-Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildKids Do Well If They CanThis is the most important theme of CollaborativeProblem Solving: the belief that if kids could do wellthey would do well. In other words, if the kid had theskills to exhibit adaptive behavior, he wouldn’t beexhibiting challenging behavior. That’s because doingwell is always preferable to not doing well.Closing The Divide
  • 30. Collaborative Problem Solving-Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildWhats Your Explanation?Your explanation for a kids is challenging behaviorhas major implications for how youll try to help. Ifyou believe a kid is challenging because of laggingskills and unsolved problems, then rewarding andpunishing may not be the ideal approach. Solvingthose problems and teaching those skills would makeperfect sense.Closing The Divide
  • 31. Collaborative Problem Solving-Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildBeing ResponsiveThe definition of good parenting, good teaching, andgood treatment is being responsive to the hand you’vebeen dealt. Notice, the definition isn’t “treating everykid exactly the same”.Closing The Divide
  • 32. Collaborative Problem Solving-Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildCheck Your LensesChallenging behavior occurs when the demands of theenvironment exceed a kid’s capacity to respondadaptively. In other words, it takes two to tango. Butmany popular explanations for challenging behaviorplace blame on the kid or his parents. NotCollaborative Problem Solving.Closing The Divide
  • 33. Collaborative Problem Solving-Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildThree Options for Solving ProblemsThere are three ways in which adults try to solveproblems with kids: Plan A (which is unilateralproblem solving), Plan C (dropping the problemcompletely), and Plan B (thats the one you want to getreally good at).Closing The Divide
  • 34. Dealing With MisbehaviorQuestion: What’s the difference between student behavior and adult/staff behavior?Putting the most energy where you have the most control1. Manage your own reaction: You always have moreoptions than they do2. Gather information about the environment (thesetting they encountered) and disposition (what theybrought to school) in that order!3. Consider more than 2 ways to look at what happenedto be as objective (accurate & non-biased) as possible4. Use Plan B! Mutually beneficial –Ross Greene, The Explosive ChildClosing The Divide
  • 35. AlignmentQuestion: Where do you meet the students?SchoolNeeds/GoalsStudentNeeds/GoalsThis iswhere thework shouldbeClosing The Divide
  • 36. The ServiceQuestion: What are the pitfalls? How do you know if it’s “right”?1. Too hard on them, negative assumptions2. Too easy on them, low expectations, feelsorry for them3. Afraid of them, reinforcing stereotypesService must be Firm and CaringClosing The Divide
  • 37. Vaccum/Silo ApproachQuestion: What definitely doesn’t work?Not effective•Work harder, longer•Increase focus on punishments•Punish their parents•Get stricter, doing more of whatdoesn’t work•Consult with no one•Retreat to one’s authority and powerClosing The Divide
  • 38. Organic ApproachQuestion: What works best?most effective1. Gather as much info as possible.• Get the facts• Ask questions• Listen, listen, listen2. Be upfront, transparent & explicit3. Work with & in partnership• Constantly check in• Offer options or even choices• Evaluate, evaluate, evaluate• Value the process as much as the goal4. Seek cultural consultation5. ReflectClosing The Divide
  • 39. Strengths Based PracticeQuestion: How can we raise OUR bar?1. What do you do well with Black boys?2. Where can you improve?3. How can you strengthen your work withBlack boys?Closing The Divide
  • 40. Strategic ApproachMore effective1. Be deliberate about method & approach2. Evaluate effectiveness3. Prioritize strategically4. Firm caring5. Be responsible6. Stop what’s not working or makingheadway7. Work smarter, work differentlyClosing The Divide
  • 41. Empathy ActivityYou should not present yourself to students everyday unless you can do thefollowing.Imagine the following:• Your teacher being afraid of you and as a result unable to comfort youappropriately• Never feeling safe when you see the police even when they are there to“help”• Any enthusiasm that you express being interpreted as aggressive or evenviolent• Passion or excitement that you express being cast as sexually deviant• People not getting on the elevator with you or getting off as soon as youget on OR moving to the corner, grabbing purse and avoiding eyecontact at all costs• People treat you as if you are going to steal something• Not being allowed to be angry without being viewed as dangerousClosing The Divide
  • 42. The Culture (of black male success)The Agencies that support BlackMales-Youth UpRising-Leadership Excellence (Camp Akili,Freedom Schools)-Mentoring Center-100 Black Men (Man Up!)-OUSD, Office of African AmericanAchievementThe Research that feeds BlackMale policy-Urban Strategies Council-Policy Link-Alameda County-Black male scholars-US CensusClosing The Divide
  • 43. Empathy ActivityYou should not present yourself to students everyday unless you can do thefollowing.Imagine the following:• Your teacher being afraid of you and as a result unable to comfort youappropriately• Never feeling safe when you see the police even when they are there to“help”• Any enthusiasm that you express being interpreted as aggressive or evenviolent• Passion or excitement that you express being cast as sexually deviant• People not getting on the elevator with you or getting off as soon as youget on• People treat you as if you are going to steal something• Not being allowed to be angry without being viewed as dangerousLincoln Monthly TrainingCulturalConsultationJust a few individuals to consult about Black males in OaklandShawn Ginwright, Ph.D. Professor SFSUDarrick Smith, M.A. Director, June Jordan School for EquityTacuma King, Artistic Director, Malonga CenterHodari Davis, M.A. National Director Youth SpeaksArnold Perkins, Retired Health Director, ACAfriye Quamina, Ed.D. Equity InstituteChris Chatmon, AAMAO, OUSDBaayan Bakari, FilmmakerJeff Duncan-Andrade, Ph.D. Professor SFSU, OUSD teacherJason Seals, M.A. Professor Merritt CollegeWade Nobles, Ph.D. Professor SFSU, Black Family & Life InstituteSaleem Shakir, Executive Director, Leadership ExcellenceRonald Muhammad, FOIDavid Muhammad, AC Probation ChiefMichael Gibson, AC EMSJerome Gourdine, Principal Frick MiddleGreg Hodge, Former School Board MemberOrganizationsLeadership ExcellenceMentoring CenterYouth Uprising100 Black Men of East BayUrban Strategies CenterPolicy LinkChildren’s Defense Fund, OaklandAlameda County, Health Dept.ACLU Bay Area chapterNAACP, Oakland ChapterUrban League, Northern CaliforniaClosing The Divide
  • 44. Thank You• Questions?• Comments?• Reflections?• Feedback?• For a copy of the powerpoint email•