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Transcript

  • 1. Proteins
  • 2. Essential Amino Acids
    • Histidine
    • Isoleucine*
    • Leucine*
    • Lysine
    • Methionine
    • Phenylalanine
    • Threonine
    • Tryptophan
    • Valine*
  • 3. Dietary Protein
    • .36 gm X wt. In pounds
    • .8 X wt. In kg.
  • 4. Athletes and Protein Strength Activities
    • Appears that intake exceeding 1.35 gm/kg.wt had no additional benefit
    • Need for better designed and controlled studies
  • 5. Endurance-Type Athletes
    • Current recommendations range from .97-1.6 gm/kg.
    • Adverse performance possible on 20% intake
  • 6. Calculation
    • 1 lb. Muscle weighs 454 grams
    • 70% is water
    • 7% lipids
    • 22% protein (100gms.)
    • gm. required + gm. for gain + gm. Loss = daily need
  • 7. Briefly
    • 12% of total dietary intake= 1.5-1.7 gms /kg
    • 15% of total dietary intake= 1.9-2.1gms/kg
  • 8. Protein Intake
    • Animal products contain all essential amino acids
      • average intake for essentials: 45 gms.
    • Plant products: incomplete
      • average intake about 65 gms to meet nutritional needs
  • 9. Protein Function
    • Formation of all body tissue
    • Regulation of metabolism
    • Energy source
  • 10. What Do Amino Acids Do?
    • Form specific proteins
      • structural proteins: muscle tissue
      • functional proteins: enzymes
    • AA’s to non-protein nitrogen: creatine
    • Excess AA’s cannot be stored
  • 11.
    • By-product of AA breakdown
      • nitrogen and alpha-ketoacid
      • nitrogen to ammonia to urea
      • alpha-ketoacid (ketogenic AA)
        • recombine with other AA groups
        • liver metabolism to acetyl C o A and into the Krebs Cycle
  • 12. High Protein Low Carb Diets
    • Generally: low in fiber and high in fat
    • Not advised for persons with liver or kidney problems
    • Lack of carbs contributes to incomplete fat metabolism
      • production of acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate (ketones)
  • 13.
    • Increased ketones raise acidity levels in body fluids - acidosis/ketosis
  • 14. Possible Hazards
    • Elevated serum uric acid levels
    • Altered electrolytes: can effect cardiac rhythms
    • Aggravate kidney problems
    • Elevate blood lipids
    • deplete glycogen stores
    • dehydration
    • loss of lean tissue
  • 15. Do People Loose Weight?
    • Absolutely
    • Most gain back once they go off the diet
    • Not safe for everyone: good for those who need to correct due to carb metabolism (hypoglycemia)
    • Needs monitored and supplemented
  • 16. Ergogenic
    • Supplements: easy and convenient for getting extra
      • Specific AA’s -
      • Argenine, Lysine, Ornithine:
        • infused increases HGH to growth factor -1 (oral questionable results)
        • Most research does not support this theory
  • 17.
    • Most research does not support the use of individual AA’s to enhance performance or delay fatigue