The Ottawa Charter is a global approach organised by the World Health Organisation.
ACTION AREAS OF THE OTTAWA CHARTER
These actions were developed to improve health and create greater equality in health.
(Learn these of by heart)
- Developing personal skills
This will be achieved through, provision of information. Education for health and the enhancement of life skills. It aims to increase the individuals ability to make decisions.
These skills are developed in schools, workplaces and other community settings.
Skills are; Communication, problem solving, planning, decision making, conflict resolution, goal setting. These skills allow the individual to seek information, individual empowerment and self reliance (autonomy) They allow the individual to respond well to changes and adjustments that occur in our lives.
EMPOWERMENT: means an individual is aware of the choices they have and can make decisions without relying on others.
This area focuses on the areas where people live, work and play. It focuses on improving peoples health promoting choices in certain areas. Eg, homeless in the city. Eg by providing safe playing areas for children to exercise.
It focuses on our social and physical environments. Workplaces, support groups, health services, schools, the media and families can all help to provide supportive environments. E.g no smoking in the workplace and policing toxic waste.
The focus and delivery of health services has moved away from traditional aspects of health; diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. It now focuses on the whole person by promoting health, preventing ill health and supporting wellbeing. This requires a change in attitude from all who deal with health.
Eg The national heart foundation and the cancer council.
Eg in schools, jump rope for heart, and healthy canteen strategy.
This relates to all decisions made at all government levels. It involves the housing department, health sector, employment, finance, anything really that somehow may end up affecting health. By all sectors working together then it is easier for people to make quality decisions about their health.
E.g alcopops, compulsory seatbelts, nutritional labeling on food, oh&s and sun safety programs.
In addressing any of the topics covered so far, nutrition, physical activity, drug use and relationships we need to recognise that individual decisions, policies, environments, community action and access to health services all interact to improve health.
Within each of the above mentioned topics we can
-identify skills needed
-question and examine what we can do to create supportive environments
-recognise how health policies can promote or harm our health in each area.
Now have a look at an example of nutrition being promoted through the 5 different areas.
THREE ACTION AREAS NEED TO BE THE FOCUS WHEN INVESTIGATING THE ABOVE TOPICS; developing personal skills, creating supportive environments and strengthening community action. Through these we can make the most changes to individual and community health.
Thirdly we need a timeline for the implementation. A timeline requires flexibility so as the plan can be adapted when needed.
Fourthly we need to gain support or a support network; This includes social networks, family and environment. This includes external incentives, internal incentives, planning, communicating with others, school programs, role models, and professional help, such as quite or doctors.
There is always the possibility that we may drift back to the old ways so we trust in our support networks to prop us up in those times.
Lastly we need to get a contract that will bind us to the change. This can be informal or formal.
THE DEGREE OF CONTROL INDIVIDUALS CAN EXERT OVER THEIR HEALTH :
We only have control over our health when we believe we can acquire info, make choices, manage a situation that may be threatening and use the skills we have.
The environment can impact health in negative or positive ways and we can impact on our environment in positive ways to improve health.
Some people need to avoid certain environments so they can avoid certain damaging behaviors' like smoking or (pubs) drinking.
HOPEFULLY YOU CAN REMEMBER ‘SELF EFFICACY’ and what it means. Self efficacy empowers the person to make decisions and helps with self esteem. If Self efficacy is high then that individuals control over their health.
Beliefs: Beliefs are closely associated with our self efficacy and relate to our control over certain health issues. E.G beliefs on risk taking or drug taking. Beliefs are our general motivation to act on a health problem.
Motivation: Motivation incorporates personal drives (eg hunger, sex, pain, guilt or passion) and relies on our attitudes and values. Eg So the attitudes that have been instilled in you from an early age will influence much of your decision making in regards to health.
Social Norms: Come from our social environment. They are behaviours that cause conformity. Eg, 18 th bday parties, you must drink. After formal parties. Social norms come from our friends, groups we hang around, community networks, and general social behaviours. Eg (having sex before marriage or not) Don’t forget role models here as well (you only need to look at corey on big brother at the moment, what sort of role model is corey to Australian Teenagers. )
There are always barriers to someone making that change in their health that is required. E.g. ( a person with diabetes giving up coke???? What's the barrier?)
Eg a environmental barrier to having safe sex may be a lack of access to buying a condom in country areas.
Eg a personal promotion or facilitator may be the skills to put a condom on with the knowledge of contraception.
The Decision: Environmental and personal factors are really significant so if the experience is positive then the behaviour will be followed again. If failure is experienced then the decision will be very difficult to make again. If it is a single choice then it will more effected by a persuasive pressures.
SELF ESTEEM: PLAYS A MASSIVE ROLE IN THIS MODEL THROUGH SUCCESS AND OTHER PEOPLES OPIONIONS.