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Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11
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Core 2 PD/H/PE YR 11

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  • 1. Actions and Plans to achieve and maintain health Chapter 6
  • 2. What do we mean by health promotion?
    • Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and improve their health.
    • Health promotion is all about prevention rather than treating an illness.
    • Provides resources and opportunities for people to achieve positive health.
    • Includes school and community health education.
    • Provides equal access to health and physical activity resources for everyone.
    • It includes legislation, policies and economic conditions to protect people from harm.
    • In 1977 the ‘Health for all’ strategy was developed which aimed at all governments around the world to aim for better health by 2000
    • To Help this work the Ottawa Charter for health Promotion (never forget this ever) document was developed in 1986. This is one of the most important documents in the history of health promotion.
    • The Ottawa Charter action areas are essential to any health promotion worldwide. THEY ARE ALL BASED ON THE IDEA THAT HEALTH IS SOCIALLY DETERMINED.
  • 3.
    • The Ottawa Charter is a global approach organised by the World Health Organisation.
    • ACTION AREAS OF THE OTTAWA CHARTER
    • These actions were developed to improve health and create greater equality in health.
    • (Learn these of by heart)
    • - Developing personal skills
    • This will be achieved through, provision of information. Education for health and the enhancement of life skills. It aims to increase the individuals ability to make decisions.
    • These skills are developed in schools, workplaces and other community settings.
    • Skills are; Communication, problem solving, planning, decision making, conflict resolution, goal setting. These skills allow the individual to seek information, individual empowerment and self reliance (autonomy) They allow the individual to respond well to changes and adjustments that occur in our lives.
    • EMPOWERMENT: means an individual is aware of the choices they have and can make decisions without relying on others.
  • 4.
    • CREATING SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENTS :
    • This area focuses on the areas where people live, work and play. It focuses on improving peoples health promoting choices in certain areas. Eg, homeless in the city. Eg by providing safe playing areas for children to exercise.
    • It focuses on our social and physical environments. Workplaces, support groups, health services, schools, the media and families can all help to provide supportive environments. E.g no smoking in the workplace and policing toxic waste.
  • 5.
    • STRENTHENING COMMUNITY ACTION:
    • The aim is to empower communities to identify and implement actions to address their health concerns.
    • It is a positive if communities can make decisions, plan strategies and impelement them for their own health promotion.
    • E.g, workplaces, schools, self help groups, local goverments, community health centres, doctors, and media groups. Such as WAAT centre, health promoting schools programs and ‘Go for 2 and 5’ promotion
  • 6.
    • REORIENTING HEALTH SERVICES:
    • The focus and delivery of health services has moved away from traditional aspects of health; diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. It now focuses on the whole person by promoting health, preventing ill health and supporting wellbeing. This requires a change in attitude from all who deal with health.
    • Eg The national heart foundation and the cancer council.
    • Eg in schools, jump rope for heart, and healthy canteen strategy.
  • 7.
    • BUILDING HEALTHY PUBLIC POLICY:
    • This relates to all decisions made at all government levels. It involves the housing department, health sector, employment, finance, anything really that somehow may end up affecting health. By all sectors working together then it is easier for people to make quality decisions about their health.
    • E.g alcopops, compulsory seatbelts, nutritional labeling on food, oh&s and sun safety programs.
  • 8.
    • Now lets look at the HIV ACTION plan from 1989 to 1995
  • 9.
    • ANALYSING ACTIONS FOR IMPROVING PERSONAL HEALTH:
    • In addressing any of the topics covered so far, nutrition, physical activity, drug use and relationships we need to recognise that individual decisions, policies, environments, community action and access to health services all interact to improve health.
    • Within each of the above mentioned topics we can
    • -identify skills needed
    • -question and examine what we can do to create supportive environments
    • -recognise how health policies can promote or harm our health in each area.
    • Now have a look at an example of nutrition being promoted through the 5 different areas.
    • THREE ACTION AREAS NEED TO BE THE FOCUS WHEN INVESTIGATING THE ABOVE TOPICS; developing personal skills, creating supportive environments and strengthening community action. Through these we can make the most changes to individual and community health.
  • 10.
    • ESTABLISHING AN ACTION PLAN TO OPTIMISE HEALTH
    • Motivating people to change any type of behaviour is a complex process. Especially if this means changing negative actions into postive ones.
    • To make these changes we need to look at spiral models. (people can enter or exit at any stage)
    • Before change can happen however the person needs to be ready for the change to happen.
    • We need to understand why we want change and where we are heading. (eg our goals)
    • We must enjoy the results of the change to maintain our action.
  • 11. Spiral model
    • Pre Contemplation
    • Aware of the health consequences but not yet thinking about changing that behaviour
    • Contemplation
    • Aware of the problem and thinking about changing the problem
  • 12. Spiral model
    • Preparing for action
    • Intending to take action within the next month
    • Starts to make small changes in preperation
    • Action
    • Begun to modify behaviour, experiences or environment
    • Coping skills are very important
  • 13.
    • At any time during those four steps the person can relapse back to another level. They fail.
    • Or they maintain the results they have achieved.
    • To design any action plan the following elements are necessary
    • -short term and long term goals
    • -a timeline
    • -a support network
    • -contract or agreement for change.
    • ACTION PLANS;
    • -First we need to decide what we want to change and that needs to be specific, e.g loose weight, for self confidence or mobility or to fit some new jeans.
    • -Secondly we need to set short and long term goals so as to give us direction and something to work towards. Short term- weeks Long term – months to years.
    • Goals when achieved make us feel good and therefore move us towards more change.
    • Look at the handout ten hints for goal setting.
    • SHORT TERM – SMART
    • SPECIFIC:
    • MEASURABLE:
    • ACHIEVABLE:
    • REALISTIC:
    • TIME FRAME:
    • LONG TERM:
    • POSITIVE AND SHOULD PROVIDE INCENTIVES
    • HAVE A CLEAR TIMEFRAME
    • BE PERSONAL
  • 14.
    • Thirdly we need a timeline for the implementation. A timeline requires flexibility so as the plan can be adapted when needed.
    • Fourthly we need to gain support or a support network; This includes social networks, family and environment. This includes external incentives, internal incentives, planning, communicating with others, school programs, role models, and professional help, such as quite or doctors.
    • There is always the possibility that we may drift back to the old ways so we trust in our support networks to prop us up in those times.
    • Lastly we need to get a contract that will bind us to the change. This can be informal or formal.
  • 15.
    • THE DEGREE OF CONTROL INDIVIDUALS CAN EXERT OVER THEIR HEALTH :
    • We only have control over our health when we believe we can acquire info, make choices, manage a situation that may be threatening and use the skills we have.
    • The environment can impact health in negative or positive ways and we can impact on our environment in positive ways to improve health.
    • Some people need to avoid certain environments so they can avoid certain damaging behaviors' like smoking or (pubs) drinking.
    • HOPEFULLY YOU CAN REMEMBER ‘SELF EFFICACY’ and what it means. Self efficacy empowers the person to make decisions and helps with self esteem. If Self efficacy is high then that individuals control over their health.
  • 16.
    • Factors affecting health decisions:
    • Our health choices and actions are influenced by a number of variables. (HAM) is the health action model that shows how we make decsions about health.
    • Lets look at the model.
    • As you can see the model works on 2 different sections that include (next page)
  • 17.
    • Beliefs, motivation and social norms: These interact to influence our intentions to act in a certain situation.
    • Facilitating or inhibiting factors: These two act to support the decision to act on health.
  • 18.
    • Ok lets run through the models parts.
    • Beliefs: Beliefs are closely associated with our self efficacy and relate to our control over certain health issues. E.G beliefs on risk taking or drug taking. Beliefs are our general motivation to act on a health problem.
    • Motivation: Motivation incorporates personal drives (eg hunger, sex, pain, guilt or passion) and relies on our attitudes and values. Eg So the attitudes that have been instilled in you from an early age will influence much of your decision making in regards to health.
    • Social Norms: Come from our social environment. They are behaviours that cause conformity. Eg, 18 th bday parties, you must drink. After formal parties. Social norms come from our friends, groups we hang around, community networks, and general social behaviours. Eg (having sex before marriage or not) Don’t forget role models here as well (you only need to look at corey on big brother at the moment, what sort of role model is corey to Australian Teenagers. )
  • 19.
    • Facilitating or inhibiting factors:
    • There are always barriers to someone making that change in their health that is required. E.g. ( a person with diabetes giving up coke???? What's the barrier?)
    • Eg a environmental barrier to having safe sex may be a lack of access to buying a condom in country areas.
    • Eg a personal promotion or facilitator may be the skills to put a condom on with the knowledge of contraception.
    • The Decision: Environmental and personal factors are really significant so if the experience is positive then the behaviour will be followed again. If failure is experienced then the decision will be very difficult to make again. If it is a single choice then it will more effected by a persuasive pressures.
    • SELF ESTEEM: PLAYS A MASSIVE ROLE IN THIS MODEL THROUGH SUCCESS AND OTHER PEOPLES OPIONIONS.
  • 20.
    • FACTORS WE HAVE NO CONTROL OVER:
    • Heredity:
    • Socio cultural environment:
    • Health laws and regulations
    • Geographic Location
    • Media
    • Physical Environment
    • However no matter how much information or health promotion that is done the individual does not always consider health when making every day decisions.
  • 21.
    • Is health determined by individuals or by other factors?
    • If we can change an individuals decision making environment then that person will be more likely to improve their health.
    • Remember you can’t take behaviour out of a social context.
  • 22.  

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