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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Psychology
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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Psychology

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Term 1 part 2 How can psycholgy affect performance …

Term 1 part 2 How can psycholgy affect performance
managing anxiety

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  • 1. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Motivation:
    • Motivation can be described as an internal state, that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving a set goal.
    • In elite sport; motivation can easily be studies and observed through watching athletes that go beyond the realm of pain and discomfort to achieve a goal. E.G (A marathon runner in the last two kilometres)
    • What drives the athlete to keep pushing?
    • Motivation is the principle / driving force behind an athlete pushing on through pain and or completing an activity which may require extreme mental strength.
  • 2. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Anxiety: (is predominantly a psychological process characterised by fear or apprehension in anticipation of confronting a situation perceived to be potentially threatening.)
    • Anxiety is extremely complex
    At the top of anxiety = it disrupts focus, concentration and can affect Muscular control We all feel anxiety in different ways every day! = At the extreme and Especially in sport anxiety can contribute to poorer performance. It can be called = choking
  • 3. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Anxiety: There are two types of anxiety
    TRAIT = The general level of stress that an individual can handle. -It is evident in day to day activities we deal with -It ranges from one person to another -If well trained in public speaking (no probs) if not then anxiety will set in -Can be controlled by relaxation techniques or progressive Muscular relaxation STATE: Is a more specific type of anxiety, eg it can fluctuate, -eg when an athlete has a penalty goal. -It comes from a fear of failure -It can contribute to a feeling of mental and physical paralysis preventing normal actions -Some sports have modified their equipment to try and accommodate state anxiety -E.G long handle golf putters
  • 4. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Sources of stress:
    • Stress is a non specific response by the body when a demand has been placed upon it.
    • Stress has the potential to cause body reactions (shaking and nausea)
    • So what causes stress? = an increase in adrenaline
  • 5. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Causes of stress:
    • Characteristics of stress:
    • Increased blood supply
    • More oxygen
    • Increased glucose production
    • Increased sweat production
    • Tightened muscles
  • 6. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Sources of stress:
    • Stress can be real or imaginary.
    • Real – spiders in your bed
    • Imaginative – Just thinking about spiders in your bed.
    • Both can cause immediate body changes.
    • The mind finds it very hard to differentiate between real or imagined experience.
    • Imaginative stress can cause increased sweat and HR
  • 7. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Sources of stress:
    • Stress depends on the individual = meaning genetic make up and coping strategies. E.G (A lot of people go to the toilet to relieve anxiety or chew gum)
    • How a person can handle stress will reflect the following attributes:
    • -past experience – routines – expectations – amount of support - frequency of stress
    • Stress can come from
    • - Lack of income – family problems – relationship problems – illness
  • 8. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Sources of stress:
    • In sport stress can come from
    • - personal pressure = desire to win
    • - competition pressure = exerted by competition
    • - social pressure = from coaches, parents or other athletes
    • - physical pressure = having to perform learned skill under pressure
  • 9. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Sources of stress / how to deal with it:
    • Relaxation techniques
    • Practice of focusing on the skill not the result
    • By developing confidence in your skills
    • Planning strategies
  • 10. How can psychology affect performance?
    • OPTIMAL AROUSAL:
    • Arousal is the level of anxiety before or during a performance.
    • Arousal is different to anxiety as it is a psychological reaction and arousal is a physical reaction to anxiety.
    • Arousal is necessary for athletes to have.
    • It can increase performance or decrease it depending on the level.
  • 11. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Levels of arousal are very much dependant on the athlete.
    • Two examples:
    • Those athletes who have high anxiety usually will require less arousal
    • Those athletes who have a low anxiety level will require more arousal
    A surfer performs really poor due to a lack of motivation and energy due to poor performance prior. Low arousal A golfer performs a put poorly due to a high level of motivation and anxiety (they become to tense) high arousal
  • 12. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Optimum arousal:
    • Both a high and a low arousal will result in a poor performance.
    • Optimum Arousal can be reached by achieving a middle ground (this changes for different skills and for different people)
    • Motivation, reinforcement and anxiety all affect arousal and how an athlete reaches their optimum arousal.
    • It is the coaches and athletes job to know about their levels of arousal and how they can achieve their optimal arousal.
  • 13. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Optimum Arousal:
  • 14.
    • Optimal Arousal:
    • The last diagram = the inverted u hypothesis
    • At the height of the curve = optimal arousal.
    How can psychology affect performance? Too low = no motivation, lacks in energy. Equal arousal = great performance Too high = to stressed, Muscular paralysis
  • 15.
    • Arousal varies from one skill to another, usually hard skills (multi muscular = archery, golf) need a lower arousal and easy skills (large muscle groups running = weight lifting) need high arousal.
    How can psychology affect performance?
  • 16. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Optimal arousal depends on:
    • -self expectation
    • -expectation by others
    • -experience
    • -financial pressures
    • -level of competition
    • -degree of difficulty
    • -skills finesse
    • When arousal is controlled it will produce quality performances.
  • 17. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Optimum arousal:
    • Make a graph that represents the following sports in relation to arousal:
    • Rowing
    • Pistol shooting
    • Discuss throwing
    • Weight lifting
    • Golf put
    • Tennis serve
    • Penalty kick (soccer)
  • 18. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Managing anxiety :
    • Uncontrolled anxiety can have a negative impact on performance, but a complete lack of motivation will also result in poor performance.
    • Concentration /attention skills
    • Concentration is about focusing on doing, not on thinking about doing.
    • So an athlete needs to be able to focus on the task at hand and not on the emotions and thoughts associated with completing the task.
    • When concentration is evident there is an uninterrupted link between movement and execution.
    • Psychologists refer to SELF 1 AND OR SELF 2:
    • SELF 1 = INFORMATION COLLECTION ASKING QUESTIONS
    • SELF 2 = EXECUTION AND TASK COMPLETION
    • In training self 1 is catered for however when an athlete is in a game they should rely more on self 2.
  • 19. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Training therefore should be centred around getting athletes to focus on the task at hand, completing that task.
    • We term this focusing on the process rather than the outcome
    • Why would an athlete want to focus on the process rather than the outcome? = well this gets the athlete thinking about the technique and not the result.
  • 20. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Athletes should be able to widen and narrow their concentration and attention skills throughout a game: focus just on the shot, then have to focus on their defence as well.
    • Coach reinforcement and feedback is one way that the athlete is told what to focus on during a game.
    • The coach may yell out “stay on number 9” to focus the athlete on defending that specific player.
    • Improved concentration ultimately raises confidence, level of arousal and focus on their goals.
  • 21. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Mental Rehearsal:
    • Is the technique of picturing the performance or skill before executing it.
    • It has been shown to enhance skills and or performance. Weight lifting, gymnastics and high jump are often sports that require mental rehearsal.
    • It requires the athlete to go over and over the skill they need to perform in their mind.
    • It requires the athlete to be able to see clearly what that movement looks like.
    • If done correctly it is a form of practice that can be done in wet weather or as variety of physical training.
    • The flaws are : the coach does not have control over the image.
    • Daydreaming is not mental rehearsal
  • 22. How can psychology affect performance?
    • It is important;
    • To elevate the body to a desired level of arousal.
    • Gives the athlete a clear idea of task
    • Heightens concentration
    • Focuses the athlete on the task
    • The skill has to be an example of a great example of a skill
    • Narrows thoughts to exclude distractions
    • Never experience failure
    • Requires constant practice
  • 23. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Visualisation:
    • This is the same as mental rehearsal but focuses on a specific skill. So the perfect contact on a golf swing.
    • For visualisation to work then the athlete must be relaxed. And the images must be really specific.
  • 24. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Relaxation:
    • Relaxation seeks to control aspects or responses to stress.
    • Relaxation looks to control the autonomic nervous system = controls the psychological response of stress e.g HR
  • 25. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Techniques commonly used:
    • -progressive muscular relaxation
    • -mental relaxation
    • -Self hypnosis
    • -mental rehearsal
    • -meditation
    • -centred breathing
    • -yoga
    • It is vital that the athlete finds the technique that suits them the best.
  • 26. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Goal setting:
    • Goals are targets that we direct our efforts towards.
    • They give reason to athletes to continue training and persevere.
    • Athlete’s should look to gain a goal training relationship = a link between what they want to achieve at training and what they want to achieve in the game.
  • 27. How can psychology affect performance?
    • Goals:
    GOALS can be = -short term -long term -behavioural goals -Performance goals
  • 28. Two essay questions
    • Choose three psychological strategies used by athletes. Explain each strategy and suggest why it improves performance.
    A brief outline of what a psychological strategies Strategy 1 = explanation Strategy 2 = explanation Strategy 3 = explanation Explain how athletes can improve performance by Using these strategies
  • 29. Two essay questions
    • What is the inverted U hypothesis? How can it explain failure to achieve a best performance in
    • A) team sport?
    • B) an individual sport such as archery?
    Explanation of U hypothesis Use a diagram with analysis Team sport Explanation with examples Individual sport Explanation with examples Links to u hypotehsis
  • 30. Factors Affecting Performance
    • How can nutrition affect performance?
  • 31.
    • balanced diet
  • 32.
    • supplementation
  • 33.
    • guidelines for fluid replacement.
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