Core 2 Factors affecting performance Psychology


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Term 1 part 2 How can psycholgy affect performance
managing anxiety

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Core 2 Factors affecting performance Psychology

  1. 1. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Motivation: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation can be described as an internal state, that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving a set goal. </li></ul><ul><li>In elite sport; motivation can easily be studies and observed through watching athletes that go beyond the realm of pain and discomfort to achieve a goal. E.G (A marathon runner in the last two kilometres) </li></ul><ul><li>What drives the athlete to keep pushing? </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the principle / driving force behind an athlete pushing on through pain and or completing an activity which may require extreme mental strength. </li></ul>
  2. 2. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Anxiety: (is predominantly a psychological process characterised by fear or apprehension in anticipation of confronting a situation perceived to be potentially threatening.) </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety is extremely complex </li></ul>At the top of anxiety = it disrupts focus, concentration and can affect Muscular control We all feel anxiety in different ways every day! = At the extreme and Especially in sport anxiety can contribute to poorer performance. It can be called = choking
  3. 3. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Anxiety: There are two types of anxiety </li></ul>TRAIT = The general level of stress that an individual can handle. -It is evident in day to day activities we deal with -It ranges from one person to another -If well trained in public speaking (no probs) if not then anxiety will set in -Can be controlled by relaxation techniques or progressive Muscular relaxation STATE: Is a more specific type of anxiety, eg it can fluctuate, -eg when an athlete has a penalty goal. -It comes from a fear of failure -It can contribute to a feeling of mental and physical paralysis preventing normal actions -Some sports have modified their equipment to try and accommodate state anxiety -E.G long handle golf putters
  4. 4. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Sources of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is a non specific response by the body when a demand has been placed upon it. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress has the potential to cause body reactions (shaking and nausea) </li></ul><ul><li>So what causes stress? = an increase in adrenaline </li></ul>
  5. 5. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Causes of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>More oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Increased glucose production </li></ul><ul><li>Increased sweat production </li></ul><ul><li>Tightened muscles </li></ul>
  6. 6. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Sources of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can be real or imaginary. </li></ul><ul><li>Real – spiders in your bed </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative – Just thinking about spiders in your bed. </li></ul><ul><li>Both can cause immediate body changes. </li></ul><ul><li>The mind finds it very hard to differentiate between real or imagined experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Imaginative stress can cause increased sweat and HR </li></ul>
  7. 7. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Sources of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>Stress depends on the individual = meaning genetic make up and coping strategies. E.G (A lot of people go to the toilet to relieve anxiety or chew gum) </li></ul><ul><li>How a person can handle stress will reflect the following attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>-past experience – routines – expectations – amount of support - frequency of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Stress can come from </li></ul><ul><li>- Lack of income – family problems – relationship problems – illness </li></ul>
  8. 8. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Sources of stress: </li></ul><ul><li>In sport stress can come from </li></ul><ul><li>- personal pressure = desire to win </li></ul><ul><li>- competition pressure = exerted by competition </li></ul><ul><li>- social pressure = from coaches, parents or other athletes </li></ul><ul><li>- physical pressure = having to perform learned skill under pressure </li></ul>
  9. 9. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Sources of stress / how to deal with it: </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Practice of focusing on the skill not the result </li></ul><ul><li>By developing confidence in your skills </li></ul><ul><li>Planning strategies </li></ul>
  10. 10. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>OPTIMAL AROUSAL: </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal is the level of anxiety before or during a performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal is different to anxiety as it is a psychological reaction and arousal is a physical reaction to anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Arousal is necessary for athletes to have. </li></ul><ul><li>It can increase performance or decrease it depending on the level. </li></ul>
  11. 11. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Levels of arousal are very much dependant on the athlete. </li></ul><ul><li>Two examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Those athletes who have high anxiety usually will require less arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Those athletes who have a low anxiety level will require more arousal </li></ul>A surfer performs really poor due to a lack of motivation and energy due to poor performance prior. Low arousal A golfer performs a put poorly due to a high level of motivation and anxiety (they become to tense) high arousal
  12. 12. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Optimum arousal: </li></ul><ul><li>Both a high and a low arousal will result in a poor performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Arousal can be reached by achieving a middle ground (this changes for different skills and for different people) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, reinforcement and anxiety all affect arousal and how an athlete reaches their optimum arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the coaches and athletes job to know about their levels of arousal and how they can achieve their optimal arousal. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Optimum Arousal: </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Optimal Arousal: </li></ul><ul><li>The last diagram = the inverted u hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>At the height of the curve = optimal arousal. </li></ul>How can psychology affect performance? Too low = no motivation, lacks in energy. Equal arousal = great performance Too high = to stressed, Muscular paralysis
  15. 15. <ul><li>Arousal varies from one skill to another, usually hard skills (multi muscular = archery, golf) need a lower arousal and easy skills (large muscle groups running = weight lifting) need high arousal. </li></ul>How can psychology affect performance?
  16. 16. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Optimal arousal depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>-self expectation </li></ul><ul><li>-expectation by others </li></ul><ul><li>-experience </li></ul><ul><li>-financial pressures </li></ul><ul><li>-level of competition </li></ul><ul><li>-degree of difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>-skills finesse </li></ul><ul><li>When arousal is controlled it will produce quality performances. </li></ul>
  17. 17. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Optimum arousal: </li></ul><ul><li>Make a graph that represents the following sports in relation to arousal: </li></ul><ul><li>Rowing </li></ul><ul><li>Pistol shooting </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss throwing </li></ul><ul><li>Weight lifting </li></ul><ul><li>Golf put </li></ul><ul><li>Tennis serve </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty kick (soccer) </li></ul>
  18. 18. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Managing anxiety : </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled anxiety can have a negative impact on performance, but a complete lack of motivation will also result in poor performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration /attention skills </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration is about focusing on doing, not on thinking about doing. </li></ul><ul><li>So an athlete needs to be able to focus on the task at hand and not on the emotions and thoughts associated with completing the task. </li></ul><ul><li>When concentration is evident there is an uninterrupted link between movement and execution. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists refer to SELF 1 AND OR SELF 2: </li></ul><ul><li>SELF 1 = INFORMATION COLLECTION ASKING QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>SELF 2 = EXECUTION AND TASK COMPLETION </li></ul><ul><li>In training self 1 is catered for however when an athlete is in a game they should rely more on self 2. </li></ul>
  19. 19. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Training therefore should be centred around getting athletes to focus on the task at hand, completing that task. </li></ul><ul><li>We term this focusing on the process rather than the outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Why would an athlete want to focus on the process rather than the outcome? = well this gets the athlete thinking about the technique and not the result. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Athletes should be able to widen and narrow their concentration and attention skills throughout a game: focus just on the shot, then have to focus on their defence as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Coach reinforcement and feedback is one way that the athlete is told what to focus on during a game. </li></ul><ul><li>The coach may yell out “stay on number 9” to focus the athlete on defending that specific player. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved concentration ultimately raises confidence, level of arousal and focus on their goals. </li></ul>
  21. 21. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Mental Rehearsal: </li></ul><ul><li>Is the technique of picturing the performance or skill before executing it. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been shown to enhance skills and or performance. Weight lifting, gymnastics and high jump are often sports that require mental rehearsal. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires the athlete to go over and over the skill they need to perform in their mind. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires the athlete to be able to see clearly what that movement looks like. </li></ul><ul><li>If done correctly it is a form of practice that can be done in wet weather or as variety of physical training. </li></ul><ul><li>The flaws are : the coach does not have control over the image. </li></ul><ul><li>Daydreaming is not mental rehearsal </li></ul>
  22. 22. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>It is important; </li></ul><ul><li>To elevate the body to a desired level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives the athlete a clear idea of task </li></ul><ul><li>Heightens concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses the athlete on the task </li></ul><ul><li>The skill has to be an example of a great example of a skill </li></ul><ul><li>Narrows thoughts to exclude distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Never experience failure </li></ul><ul><li>Requires constant practice </li></ul>
  23. 23. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Visualisation: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the same as mental rehearsal but focuses on a specific skill. So the perfect contact on a golf swing. </li></ul><ul><li>For visualisation to work then the athlete must be relaxed. And the images must be really specific. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Relaxation: </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation seeks to control aspects or responses to stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxation looks to control the autonomic nervous system = controls the psychological response of stress e.g HR </li></ul>
  25. 25. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Techniques commonly used: </li></ul><ul><li>-progressive muscular relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>-mental relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>-Self hypnosis </li></ul><ul><li>-mental rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>-meditation </li></ul><ul><li>-centred breathing </li></ul><ul><li>-yoga </li></ul><ul><li>It is vital that the athlete finds the technique that suits them the best. </li></ul>
  26. 26. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Goal setting: </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are targets that we direct our efforts towards. </li></ul><ul><li>They give reason to athletes to continue training and persevere. </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete’s should look to gain a goal training relationship = a link between what they want to achieve at training and what they want to achieve in the game. </li></ul>
  27. 27. How can psychology affect performance? <ul><li>Goals: </li></ul>GOALS can be = -short term -long term -behavioural goals -Performance goals
  28. 28. Two essay questions <ul><li>Choose three psychological strategies used by athletes. Explain each strategy and suggest why it improves performance. </li></ul>A brief outline of what a psychological strategies Strategy 1 = explanation Strategy 2 = explanation Strategy 3 = explanation Explain how athletes can improve performance by Using these strategies
  29. 29. Two essay questions <ul><li>What is the inverted U hypothesis? How can it explain failure to achieve a best performance in </li></ul><ul><li>A) team sport? </li></ul><ul><li>B) an individual sport such as archery? </li></ul>Explanation of U hypothesis Use a diagram with analysis Team sport Explanation with examples Individual sport Explanation with examples Links to u hypotehsis
  30. 30. Factors Affecting Performance <ul><li>How can nutrition affect performance? </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>balanced diet </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>supplementation </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>guidelines for fluid replacement. </li></ul>