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Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier.      Copyright © by Elsevier.      All rights reserved.      Origi...
To my daughter E. Doris Lee
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CONTENTSAcknowledgments, xPreface, xi1ANSi Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI Standards. F...
3Refinery Pipe       ...........................      Pipe Specifications. Storing Pipe. Calculations      to Use.4API Fla...
Appendix APiping Abbreviations          .....................   157Appendix BUseful Formulas        .........................
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   I would like to express my appreciation to certain colleaguesand business associates for their contribut...
PREFACE   Materials personnel are usually the first to be assignedto a project and the last to close it. Their responsibil...
required to fit the nut. An oval ring gasket cross-refer- ence chart is also included.   The book is quite useful to draft...
1                 ANSI                 FLANGES   A flange is used to join pipe, valves, or a vessel withina system. The co...
"Im~L~_ZATLO ~ORGE_A           R       ~             Welding Neck Flange ~-.LO~-]~] TAYLORF O R G E ~                Slip-...
q         Reducing Slip-on Flange           ~.~,~ ~"~.~...       i~*         Socket Welding Flange                        ...
O         ~/i                 ~                   ._~     =~            Q     ~        ~                   0              ...
3. Primary pressure rating (also known as the flange   rating)--150-Ib, 300-1b, etc.4. Face designation--the machined gask...
common in 150-1b and 300-1b classes. Heavier rat-       ings are ~/4-in. raised faces. A ring type joint is       availabl...
Types of ANSI FlangesWeldneck Flange  This flange, shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2, is normallyused for high-pressure, cold o...
Slip-on Flange                           Lap Joint Flange    Figure 1-4. Slip-on and lap joint flanges. (Courtesy of Taylo...
Figure 1-5. Threadedflange. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division of TrinityIndus-tries.)Figure 1-6. Socket weld flange. (C...
A                                    B figure1-7.Reducingandblindflanges.(Courtesy TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.)            ...
Figure 1-8. Longweldneckflange.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Orifice Flange   The function of ...
Figure1-10.Cutawayof an orificeflange.(Courtesyof TaylorForge.)   As illustrated in Figure 1-10, the orifice flange hasdri...
Applying Commodity Code Numbers   When flanges are received, apply your companyscommodity identification numbers on flange...
Accounting Records   Good technical descriptions are necessary in any sys-tem. The very best source for technical descript...
Figure1-12.Commercialflangeprotectors.(Courtesyof MarkV, divisionof Phoe-nix Industries,Inc.)or overseas shipment. Figure ...
"~i-                        "111                   ~;~            -~-                 9 ;~            - "                 ...
. . . . . .           ~       e,i ~ ~ e~                      I                l                                          ...
als control persons. Familiarize yourself with the tableand its contents.   For an exercise, blank out the markings on a f...
in. wall thickness. All three have the same meaning perTable 1-1, in the 6-in. size.                 ANSI Flange BoltingSt...
Do not grease, spray, or clean bolts without specific in-structions from your supervisor. Do not store new boltswith used ...
IIItlllllllllJlfJI                I..dFigure 1-14. Methodof measuringmachinebolts. (Courtesyof the AmericanPe-troleum Inst...
9   .Figure 1-15. Dimensional gauge for bolting. (Courtesy of Lone Star Screw Co. ofHouston, Inc.)22
Table 1-2                   Alloy Steel Machine Bolts for ANSI 150-1b                    Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges,...
Table 1-3                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150-1b                      Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges,...
Table 1-4                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b                     Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two...
Table 1-5                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b                     Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two...
Table 1-6                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b                    Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two ...
Table 1-7                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b                    Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two ...
Table 1-8                   Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b                    Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two ...
Table 1-9                  Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500-1b                   Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two   ...
Table 1-10                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150.1b                        Ring Type Joint Flanges With  ...
Table 1-11                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b                     Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each Wit...
Table 1-12                   Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b                  Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Tw...
Table 1-13                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b                     Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each Wit...
Table 1-14                    Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b                     Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each Wit...
Table 1-15                   Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b                    Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With...
Table 1-16                   Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500.1b                    Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With...
e~wE                                                                     cO                      013                      ...
o         c)                                    r         03                                    r         r               ...
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2                 ANSI                 BUTTWELD                 FITTINGS   ANSI buttweld fittings are used to change direc...
LABORATORY                                                                 CONTROL NUMBER                                 ...
Figure 2-2.90-degreeelbows,longand short radius. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-3. 90...
A            III            E            o            "c     D~     lore     --~E                                         ...
c~       e~                                                                                     ~           ooo    o~     ...
Figure2-4.45-degreeelbow,longradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionofTrinity Industries.)45-degree Elbows   Figure 2-...
Figure2-5. 180-degreereturns,longand shortradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc.,a division of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-6. St...
How to Read Reducing Fittings                          Elbows                          To assist the user in "reading"    ...
Tees                                               Crosses            C                                 C                 ...
Figure2-8.Weldcross.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Reducers   Eccentric and concentric reducers...
Lap Joint Stub Ends   The stub end is used in lines requiring quick discon-nection. See Figure 2-10. The lap forms a gaske...
Figure2-12.Weldpipecap. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndus-tries.)Caps  Pipe caps are used to block off t...
Figure 2-13. Pipe saddle. (Courtesyof Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity Indus-tries.)                          l,,aFigu...
Figure 2-15. Scraper bar tee. (Courtesy of Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity In-dustries.)Scraper Bar Tee   Figure 2-15...
Large diameter fittings can be stored and protectedwith end covers, either plastic or metal. Fittings 1~/2 ins.and smaller...
When you receive such fittings from vendors, markeach fitting with positive markings for future identifica-tion. (The vend...
Figure 2-17. Flat type and ridge type welding rings. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Tech-nologies, Inc.)   The backup rings are i...
6 6 ~                                                                                                     ~         o o   ...
e,4.~                .....           ~--    ~~~1 !~ I~i-~ ~0,1   w      Z      Uom,0      w                               ...
Fs OF HEADER                                                      .                                                     - ...
the Olets are shown in the table, and are suitable for usein your materials accounting system.   Notice in Table 2-2, the ...
WELDOLET                               ,ti                                                      ;,~.                      ...
threaded, socket weld, and buttweld outlets. Table 2-3lists the sizes of elbolets and the correct descriptions.Flatolet | ...
..j==,,=,.,=~                          Socket Weld Reducing Inserts                                                       ...
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  1. 1. This Page Intentionally Left Blank
  2. 2. Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier. Copyright © by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting Customer Support and then Obtaining Permissions., ......... This book is printed on acid-free paper. ~ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Date Lee. R. R. (Robert R.), 1928- Pocket guide to flanges, fittings, and piping data/R.R. Lee.-3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN-13:978-0-88415-310-8 ISBN-10: 0-88415-310-X 1. Flanges Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Pipe fittings Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Pipe Handbooks, manuals, etc. 1. Title. TA492.P5L44 1999 621.8672-dc21 99-38352 CIP For information on all Gulf publications available, contact our World Wide Web homepage at http://www.bh.com/gulf 109876 Printed in the United States of America.
  3. 3. To my daughter E. Doris Lee
  4. 4. This Page Intentionally Left Blank
  5. 5. CONTENTSAcknowledgments, xPreface, xi1ANSi Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI Standards. Flange Bores. Types of ANSI Flanges. Miscellaneous Flanges. Materials Control. Flange Dimensions. ANSI Flange Bolting.2ANSi Buttweld Fittings ................... 41 Types of Buttweld Fittings. Special Buttweld Fittings. Material Cotnrol. Branch Olet Connections. VIi
  6. 6. 3Refinery Pipe ........................... Pipe Specifications. Storing Pipe. Calculations to Use.4API Flanges ............................ 83 Type 6B and 6BX Flanges. Bolting and Ring Gaskets for API Flanges. API Hubs and Clamps. API Ring Gaskets.5Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Dimensions and Markings. Types of Stainless Steel. Stainless Steel Fittings. Stainless Steel Pipe. Identification Tests.6M i s c e l l a n e o u s Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1277Pipeline Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1358Materials Handling Tips .................. 149 Tallying Pipes. Marking Fabricated Pipe Spools. Warehouse Layout Tips. Vendor Data. Storing Materials Inside/Outside. = = =VIII
  7. 7. Appendix APiping Abbreviations ..................... 157Appendix BUseful Formulas ......................... 163Index .................................. 166 ix
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to certain colleaguesand business associates for their contributions and support forstrong material control programs: J. M. Smith, P. Rajagapolan,and Mohd Kunhi, MIS Dubai, U.A.E.; A.S. Zeidy, Cairo, Egypt;T. W. Acosta, C. L. Davis, McDermott (Saudi Arabia); JosephTwail, MIS Oman; Edgar H. Von Minden, Jr., Tube Turns Tech-nologies, Inc.; Beatrice Welch, M. D.; J. R. Lee, AMOCO Produc-tion Co.; K. D. Callaway, HAH-Kuwait; Delmar and Elmar Boyd,Bechtel (Libya); Kevin Talbot, MIS-Sharjah; Yousef A. AI-Omani,MISCO-Kuwait; and my wife Pat for assistance with the prepara-tion of this book.
  9. 9. PREFACE Materials personnel are usually the first to be assignedto a project and the last to close it. Their responsibilitiesof collecting tables, catalogs, specifications, and materi-als accounting system forms and supplies commenceeven before they depart for the jobsite, which could verywell be in Mukluk, AI Mukalla, AI Khobar, Belo Horizonte,or just outside of Houston. To have all the required docu-mentation on hand at the jobsite is a real challenge. This handbook is designed to bridge the gap for pipingdata and materials storage procedures until a moreformal specification has been issued by your projectmanager. It is intended to help train new materials per-sonnel on the project by answering questions they maybe afraid to ask. The markings on fittings and pipe areexplained in a non-technical language. Pipe schedulesare provided to show equal schedules in certain sizes,but different call-outs such as standard and schedule 40.Tables describing the size and length of bolts for flangesand clamps are included, in addition to the size wrench xi
  10. 10. required to fit the nut. An oval ring gasket cross-refer- ence chart is also included. The book is quite useful to drafters, purchasingagents, pipefitters, students, and project managers. The material in the book is believed to be technicallycorrect; neither the author nor Gulf Publishing Companywarrant its use. Always consult the applicable specifica-tion issued by the project manager at your project. R. R. Lee Houston, Texas i.Xll
  11. 11. 1 ANSI FLANGES A flange is used to join pipe, valves, or a vessel withina system. The common ANSI flanges are shown in Fig-ure 1-1, and special flanges are illustrated and definedlater in this chapter. ANSI Standards Pressure ratings for flanges are designed to ANSIstandards of 150 Ib, 300 Ib, 400 Ib, 600 Ib, 900 Ib, 1500Ib, and 2500 lb. The most common terminology used isthe pound reference, although the more formal referenceis by class, such as Class 150 flange. The ANSI standards require that each flange bestamped with identifying markings as shown in Figure1-2. The markings include: 1. Manufacturers trade name. 2. Nominal pipe size--the outside diameter of pipe the flange will match when welded to the pipe. 1
  12. 12. "Im~L~_ZATLO ~ORGE_A R ~ Welding Neck Flange ~-.LO~-]~] TAYLORF O R G E ~ Slip-on Flange Threaded Flange ~..~r i q ~ f W ~ ~_~TAYLOR FORGEA" Lap Joint Flange (Continued on next page)
  13. 13. q Reducing Slip-on Flange ~.~,~ ~"~.~... i~* Socket Welding Flange f 4,JI, ~ bk Blind FlangeFigure 1-1. ANSI flanges. (Courtesyof TaylorForge.)
  14. 14. O ~/i ~ ._~ =~ Q ~ ~ 0 ~ e e~ o e,- ~5 c- O E ~ o ~ N e-- I- E E
  15. 15. 3. Primary pressure rating (also known as the flange rating)--150-Ib, 300-1b, etc.4. Face designation--the machined gasket surface area of the flange (resembles a phonograph record, see Figure 1-3). The flange face is the most impor- tant part of the flange. The lhs-in, raised face is Figure 1-3. Flangeface gasketsurfaces.(Courtesyof TaylorForge.) 5
  16. 16. common in 150-1b and 300-1b classes. Heavier rat- ings are ~/4-in. raised faces. A ring type joint is available in all classes, but more common in the 600-1b and greater classes. 5. Bore (also known as the nominal wall thickness of matching pipe)--the measure of the flange wall thickness, which matches the inside dimension of the pipe being used. 6. Material designation--ASTM specifications that describe the raw materials from which the flange is made, such as ingots, blooms, billets, slabs, or bars. 7. Ring gasket number--used when the flange face is a ring type joint style. 8. Heat number or code--the batch number used by steel forgers to identify a particular batch number of steel forgings and test results. The mill test re- sults are made available to the purchasers of the flanges. Flange Bores Weldneck and socket weld flanges are drilled (ma-chined) with the wall thickness of the flange having thesame dimensions of the matching pipe. The lighter thepipe is, the larger the bore; conversely, the heavier thepipe, the smaller the bore. Other flanges are drilled to match the outside diameterof pipe sizes, and do not have bore markings to indicatea pipe schedule.6
  17. 17. Types of ANSI FlangesWeldneck Flange This flange, shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2, is normallyused for high-pressure, cold or hot temperatures.Slip-on and Lap Joint Flanges Figure 1-4 shows these "twin" flanges. Note, however,that a slip-on flange is bored slightly larger than the ODof the matching pipe. The pipe slips into the flange priorto welding both inside and outside to prevent leaks. The lap joint flange has a curved radius at the boreand face to accommodate a lap joint stub end. (Stubends are described in Chapter 2.) The lap joint flangeand stub end assembly are normally used in systems re-quiring frequent dismantling for inspection.Threaded Flange This type of flange, shown in Figure 1-5, is used in sys-tems not involving temperature or stresses of any magni-tude.Socket Weld Flange This flange is similar to slip-on flange, except theyhave a bore and a counter bore. See Figure 1-6. 7
  18. 18. Slip-on Flange Lap Joint Flange Figure 1-4. Slip-on and lap joint flanges. (Courtesy of Taylor Forge.) The counter bore is slightly larger than the OD of thematching pipe, allowing the pipe to be inserted. A restric-tion is built into the bottom of the bore, which acts as ashoulder for the pipe to rest on, and has the same ID ofthe matching pipe. The flow is not restricted in any direc-tion.8
  19. 19. Figure 1-5. Threadedflange. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division of TrinityIndus-tries.)Figure 1-6. Socket weld flange. (Courtesyof Hackney, Inc., a division of TrinityIndustries.)Reducing Flange The reducing flange is similar in every respect to thefull size of the flange from which the reduction is to bemade. See Figure 1-7A. 9
  20. 20. A B figure1-7.Reducingandblindflanges.(Courtesy TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.) of The reducing flange is described in the same manneras a reducer--that is, the large end first, the reductionsecond. An example would be a 6-in. raised face by 2-in.threaded reducing flange, ANSI 150 Ib rating.Blind Flange Figure 1-7B shows a blind flange, which has no bore,and is used to close ends of piping systems. A blindflange also permits easy access to a line once it hasbeen sealed. The blind flange is sometimes machined to accept apipe of the nominal size to which the reduction is beingmade. The reduction can be either threaded or welded. Miscellaneous FlangesLong Weldneck Flange This is a special flange used for nozzles on pressurevessels. The hub is always straight, and the hub thick-ness is greater than the diameter of any piping that maybe bolted to the flange. See Figure 1-8.10
  21. 21. Figure 1-8. Longweldneckflange.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Orifice Flange The function of an orifice flange is to meter the flow ofliquids and gases through a pipe line. Figure 1-9 showsan orifice flange complete with bolting and jack screws.The jack screws are used to spread the flanges apart in aline to change an orifice plate between the two flanges.Figure 1-9. Orificeflangewith jackscrews.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof Trinity Industries.) 11
  22. 22. Figure1-10.Cutawayof an orificeflange.(Courtesyof TaylorForge.) As illustrated in Figure 1-10, the orifice flange hasdrilled and tapped outlets for installing the metering de-vice (recorder). Materials ControlReceiving Flanges It is very important to carefully examine every flangeto verify that each conforms to the purchase order speci-fications. It is equally important to check for damage tothe face and beveled end, and inspect the flanges forcorrosion. Report any damage or other discrepancies toyour supervisor or prepare an over, short, and damagereport (OS&D).12
  23. 23. Applying Commodity Code Numbers When flanges are received, apply your companyscommodity identification numbers on flanges and othermaterials. Apply the numbers in the same area as the manufac-turers stamped flange identification numbers. Alwaysstock the flanges with the numbers facing the same di-rection for prompt and positive material identification.Storing Flanges The preferred storage method for flanges is face downon wooden pallets or wooden docks, using dunnage toseparate each layer of flanges, as shown in Figure 1-11.(For dunnage, use wooden strips, paneling, cardboard,plywood, etc.) Special care should be extended to theflange facing during storage or shipments to other areas. ~ ~ - ~ L-~ ~~ ~,~ Flanges I~ ~11~ ......~ ~ - ~ Dunnage Palletor Dock Figure1-11.Diagramof methodfor storingflanges. 13
  24. 24. Accounting Records Good technical descriptions are necessary in any sys-tem. The very best source for technical descriptions isyour companys computer master. If the computer mas-ter is not available, then try to be consistent each timeyou describe the same materials in the accounting sys-tem. A good technical description of the weldneck flangeshown in Figure 1-2 would be:What is it? Weldneck Flange.What type facing? Faced and drilled raised face.What is the pressure rating? ANSI 150 Ib rating.What is the bore? Bore standard weight (.237-inch wall thick- ness). It is not necessary when describing flanges and othermaterials to include the trademark, the ASTM specifica-tion, or the heat number unless requested to do so byyour supervisor.Shipping Flanges When flanges are to be shipped to other locations ei-ther loose or as an integral part of a fabricated pipepiece, protect the flange face with a flange protector, andthe beveled end with an end protector. Flange protectors are very inexpensive compared toreplacing even one damaged flange during an offshore14
  25. 25. Figure1-12.Commercialflangeprotectors.(Courtesyof MarkV, divisionof Phoe-nix Industries,Inc.)or overseas shipment. Figure 1-12 shows a low-cost, du-rable protector that can be quickly installed and locked inplace by friction lock poly bolts. These protectors protect the entire flange facing fromimpact damage, and will not deteriorate. The protectorsare reusable. A wrap of duct tape around the outeredge of the protector and the flange ring will preventsand and water from entering the pipe or nozzle areas. Flange Dimensions Table 1-1 includes the wall thickness schedules and di-mensions of ANSI flanges. The table is very useful to en-gineers, draftsmen, fabricators, purchasing, and materi- 15
  26. 26. "~i- "111 ~;~ -~- 9 ;~ - " | I" "~ i-.- v-~. i,- ~- l , - l l i ~ l I i.-i.-,- ! 9 ~ ~ ~_~~_~_~ (#} . . . . . in I Ill ~ IIt~- ~ ~:~;~ ~ - ~ - ~ :~;~-~ ~ ~ ~,:~: :-.~ . .,~ . ,, ..J "" ~/~! ~ ~::.:~ ~ : e - ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~,~ ~. ,...1 ~~ .... . ..... , ..... , ..... ,_.9 _~ . , , , ~,, ! ~,~ ~-~-~ ~r : ~ ~ ~.~ ~ ~ {0 D e~ ,.L A , lle ~mmm~ mmioi,-r- olomm~ oN~i,,ol _,o .kkl, , I .114 " ~ I "~0 . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 l . ~. , , , .~ kl. ~l " " 9 . ~ ~e ~, ~e ~ t1<> Iit .................... <,> w 8 (I} "" E ,.i f~ j . . . . . ~ e . e . e~ m m l - - ; : i i ! i i i 7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ,In i u..,~ ; e _ ii ..... I. . . . . .......... I ..... .~ . ~r ~ ~ . ..~ ~.##.~ lO-~~~ -~-~ -~ -* -* " ~~-~ l! :l,i, : ~ ! :l, : ~ t ~i, :~:~16
  27. 27. . . . . . . ~ e,i ~ ~ e~ I l 9 . . i ~ r,,. m uJ ,~m :. I . . . . . . . . .:. . ~ ~~5~ ~ ..."" .,.I ~ :~s ~,~ ~ ~8~ ~_:~ ~ ~ ... 9 ~,, o;;; ~ .-. ~ "" U,I ,~,mm ~ ~ ...... :-:1:::-: ~ ~ ~" ~ ; ! ~ , . . . . . . ": ~T--.~Z ~ "" " . _11 ~ . ~o~ ~,~: ~,,{~ ~08~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ " u_~, m~,:~ ~:~ ~,~.:~:~ ~ i L_ z ~ ~ ~ o~ 00008 ~ . ~ ~ ~ 1 ~~,~ ~~ ~ ......... o o ~ ii ;~ ,-T,.:,- ~ , o ~=o~ Z |174 |174169 |
  28. 28. als control persons. Familiarize yourself with the tableand its contents. For an exercise, blank out the markings on a flange,and by using the table as a reference, properly identifythe flange as to size, bolt holes, rating, bore, etc. Thepractice will enrich your skill and self-confidence as amaterials person. Table 1-1 also includes pipe schedules that describethe flange bores,as well as fittings. It is necessary at thistime for you to become familiar with the following sched-ule terminology: Light wall Schedule 10 (Sch/10, S/10) Schedule 20 (Sch/20, etc.) Schedule 30 Schedule 40 Standard Weight Schedule 60 Extra Strong (Extra heavy, EH, XH) Schedule 80 Schedule 100 Schedule 120 Schedule 140 Schedule 160 Double Extra Strong (Double extra heavy, XXH, XXS) Many of the schedules are identical in certain sizes,and either description is correct, but be consistent. Anexample of 6-in. Schedule 40, standard weight, or .237-18
  29. 29. in. wall thickness. All three have the same meaning perTable 1-1, in the 6-in. size. ANSI Flange BoltingStud Bolts In ANSI piping, stud bolts are stamped with identifyingnumbers on the ends of bolts and the face of the nuts. Acommon mark for bolts is B7, and Grade 2H on the nuts.The bolts are often plated with various coatings, some ofwhich are listed below: Plating Marking Cadmium B7 Zinc L7 Chromium B16 Tin B8 Silver B8M Stud bolts are shipped from vendors as so many bolts/nuts per pound. If the purchase order states 100 studbolts with two heavy hex nuts each, then you may re-ceive 99 or 102 bolts with nuts. To save time, and avoidcounting each bolt, verify the total weight as being cor-rect, verify about 25% of the markings per the specifica-tion, then store the bolts in the shipping container ratherthan using valuable warehouse shelving space. 19
  30. 30. Do not grease, spray, or clean bolts without specific in-structions from your supervisor. Do not store new boltswith used bolts.Machine Bolts The machine bolt is commonly used for slip-on andthreaded flanges. Only one heavy hex nut is required fora machine bolt. Both the bolt and the nut are identifiedthe same way as for stud bolts.Measuring Stud Bolts A fast way to measure a stud bolt diameter is by mea-suring the thickness of the heavy hex nut; for example, a1/2-in. diameter bolt has a heavy hex nut that is 1/2-in.thick. Measure the length of stud bolts to the nearest 1/4-in.from thread to thread, less the point heights as shown inFigure 1-13. CI I [ llilliiai ]IIOI lliIiIiIiliII i Point height Stud Bolt With NutsFigure 1-13. Methodof measuringstud bolts. (Courtesyof the AmericanPetro-leum Institute.)20
  31. 31. IIItlllllllllJlfJI I..dFigure 1-14. Methodof measuringmachinebolts. (Courtesyof the AmericanPe-troleum Institute.)Measuring Machine Bolts Measure the length of a machine bolt from the under-side of the head to the end point. See Figure 1-14. (Allbolts are rounded off to the nearest V4-in.). Tables 1-2 through 1-16 describe stud bolt and machinebolt tables for all ANSI flanges previously discussed forraised and flat faced flanges, plus ring type joint flanges(RTJ). The tables also include the size of the wrench re-quired to fit the heavy hex nuts used on each diameter ofstud bolts. (Wrench size is calculated as one and one-halftimes the size of the bolt plus one eighth of an inch). Figure1-15 shows a dimensional gauge for bolting. Example: 1V2 x 1 = 1~/2 + ~/8 = l S/8-in. wrench for a1-in. nut. Table 1-17 gives suggested materials for use in differ-ent line service temperatures. 21
  32. 32. 9 .Figure 1-15. Dimensional gauge for bolting. (Courtesy of Lone Star Screw Co. ofHouston, Inc.)22
  33. 33. Table 1-2 Alloy Steel Machine Bolts for ANSI 150-1b Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges, Each with One Heavy Hex NutNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Machine Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Machine Bolts (in.) Nut (in.) 1/2 4 lhx2 % % 4 lh x 21/4 % 1 4 lh x 21/4 % 11/4 4 lh x 21h % 11/2 4 lh x 21h 7/8 2 4 % x 23/4 11/le 21/2 4 %x3 11/le 3 4 % x 31/4 lY16 31/2 8 %x3V4 1Vie 4 8 s18 x 3114 lY16 5 8 314 X 3114 11/4 6 8 314x 3112 11/4 8 8 3/4 X 33/4 11/4 10 12 %x4 1%6 12 12 % x 41/4 17/16 14 12 1 x41h 1% 16 16 1 x43/4 1% 18 16 1118x 5 113/lS 20 20 1118x 511, 113/16 22 20 1114x 5314 2 24 20 1114x 6 2 26 24 11/4 X 61/4 2 28 28 1114X 61/4 2 3O 28 11/4 x 61/2 2 32 28 11/2 x 7 23/8 34 32 1112x 7114 2318 36 32 1112x 7114 2% 42 36 11/2 x 73/4 23/8In a g r e e m e n t w i t h A N S I B. 16.5 23
  34. 34. Table 1-3 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150-1b Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex Nuts Nominal Number M Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size for Size (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) ./2 4 V2x21h % 314 4 V2x2V2 % 1 4 112x 2% 71, 1114 4 l12x2a14 1is 1112 4 Y2x3 % 2 4 %x3V4 lyle 21/2 8 %x3V2 11/16 3 4 % x 3314 1Vie 31/2 4 % x 3% ly16 4 4 sis x 3314 1vie 5 8 s/4x4 1114 6 8 S/4X4 1114 8 8 s14 X 4.h 1114 10 12 71s x 4314 17/le 12 12 % x 4314 1711e 14 12 I x 5"14 15/8 16 16 1 x 5./2 1% 18 16 1./8 x 6 1-/le 20 20 11/s x 6./4 113116 22 20 1./4 x 6% 2 24 20 1./4 x 7 2 26 24 1./4 x 71/4 2 28 28 1./4 x 71/4 2 30 28 I.14 X 7.12 2 32 28 1./2 X 8.14 2% 34 32 IV, X 8114 2% 36 32 11/2 x 8./2 2% 42 36 1V2x9 2%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.524
  35. 35. Table 1-4 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 1/2 x 2% 7Is 3/4 4 %x3 1Vie 1 4 %x31h lV16 11/4 4 %x31h 1Vie 111, 4 3/4 x 3% 11/4 2 8 %x31h 11/16 21/, 8 3hx4 1114 3 8 3/4 x 41/4 1114 31/2 8 3h x 41h 1114 4 8 314x 41h 1114 5 8 314x 4314 1114 6 12 314x5 1114 8 12 718 x 511, 1711e 10 16 1 X61/4 1% 12 16 11/8 X 6% 113118 14 20 11/8 X 7 113116 16 20 11/4 X 71/2 2 18 24 .1114x 73/4 2 20 24 1114x 8114 2 22 24 11/2 x 9 2% 24 24 11/2 X 91/4 23/8 26 28 15/8 • 10114 2% 28 28 1518x I0a14 29/lS 30 28 1314x 11114 2314 32 28 1718x 12114 21S116 34 28 1718x 12112 215/16 36 32 2 x 13 31/3In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 25
  36. 36. Table 1-5 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) lh 4 1/2 x 31/4 7/8 3/4 4 %x31h 1Vie 1 4 %x3% lyre lV4 4 %x4 lV16 11h 4 %x41h 11/4 2 8 %x41h 1Vie 21/2 8 3/4 x 43/4 11/4 3 8 3/4x5 11/4 31/2 8 %x51h 17118 4 8 7hx51h 17/le 5 8 7/8 X 53/4 17/lS 6 12 %x6 17118 8 12 I x 6314 1% 10 16 11/8 x 71/2 113/m 12 16 11/4 x 8 2 14 20 11/4 x 81/4 2 16 20 1% x 83/4 23he 18 24 1% x 9 23/1, 20 24 11/2 X 93/4 23/, 24 24 13/4 X 103/4 23/,,In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.526
  37. 37. Table 1-6 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 lh x 31/4 7/a 3/4 4 % x 31/2 11/18 1 4 % x 33/4 11/15 11/4 4 S/ex4 11116 11/2 4 314x41/4 11/4 2 8 5h x 41/4 11/16 21/2 8 % x 43/4 11/4 3 8 3/4x5 11/4 31/2 8 % x 51/2 17/le 4 8 718 X 5314 17116 5 8 1 x61/2 15/8 6 12 1 x 6% 15/8 8 12 11/8 x 73/4 113116 10 16 11/4 x 81/2 2 12 20 1114X 8314 2 14 20 13/8 x 91/4 23/16 16 20 11/2 x 10 23/8 18 20 1518X 103/4 29/16 20 24 15/8 x 111/2 29/16 22 24 13/4 x 12114 23/4 24 24 17/8 x 13 215/le 26 28 17/8 x 131/2 215/18 28 28 2 x 14 31/8 30 28 2 x 14114 31/8 32 28 21/4 x 15 31/2 36 28 21/2 x 16 3%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 27
  38. 38. Table 1-7 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 % 4 % x 41/2 11/4 1 4 %x5 17/le 11/4 4 7/8x5 17/16 11/2 4 1 x51/2 15/8 2 8 7/s x 53/4 17/,6 21/2 8 1 x61/4 1% 3 8 7/e x 53/4 17/le 4 8 11/8 x 6% 113/le 5 8 11/4x 71/2 2 6 12 11/8 x 7% 113/le 8 12 13/8 x 83/4 23/le 10 16 13/8 x 91/4 P/le 12 20 13/8 x 10 23/le 14 20 11/2 x 103/4 23/8 16 20 15/8 x 111/4 2911e 18 20 17/8 x 123/4 21s116 20 20 2 x 131/2 311e 24 20 2,/2 x 171/4 3718In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.528
  39. 39. Table 1-8 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heaw Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 3/4 4 %x41h 11/4 1 4 %x5 17/m 11/4 4 %x5 17/le lV2 4 1x51h 1% 2 8 %x5% 17/le 21/2 8 1 x61/4 1% 3 8 11/8 x 7 113116 4 8 1114x 7% 2 5 8 11/2 x 9% 23/8 6 12 1% x 10114 23/16 8 12 1% x 11112 29116 10 12 1% x 13114 21s/16 12 16 2 x 14314 31/a 14 16 21/4 x 16 31/2 16 16 21/2 x 17112 37/8 18 16 2% x 19112 41/4 20 16 3 x 21112 4% 24 16 31/2 x 24V2 5%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 29
  40. 40. Table 1-9 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 112 4 %x51h 1114 3/4 4 %x51h 1114 1 4 7/8 X 53/4 I;115 11/4 4 1 x61h 1518 11/2 4 11hx7 113115 2 8 1 x71h 1518 21/2 8 11/8 x 8 113115 3 8 11hx9 2 4 8 11/2 x 101/2 2318 6 8 2 x 13314 3118 8 12 2 x 15114 3118 10 12 2112x 19112 318 12 12 2% x 21112 4114In a g r e e m e n t with ANSI B. 16.530
  41. 41. Table 1-10 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150.1b Ring Type Joint Flanges With Two Heavy Hex Nuts EachNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in,) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1 4 lhx3V4 718 R-15 11/4 4 lh x 31h 7/8 R-17 11/2 4 lh x 31h 7/8 R-19 2 4 % x 33/4 l Vie R-22 21/2 4 % x 4 1Vie R-25 3 4 sis x 41/4 1Vie R-29 31/2 8 % x 4114 I~11s R-33 4 8 % x 4114 11he R-36 5 8 314X 41h 1114 R-40 6 8 314x 41h 1114 R-43 8 8 314x 4314 1114 R-48 10 12 718x 5114 17116 R-52 12 12 718x 5114 17116 R-56 14 12 1 X 5314 1518 R-59 16 16 1 x6 15/8 R-64 18 16 11/8 x 6V2 113h6 R-68 20 20 11/8 x 63/4 113h6 R-72 24 20 11/4 x 71/2 2 R-76In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 31
  42. 42. Table 1-11 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolls (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 1/2x3 ;Is R-11 % 4 % x 31/2 1Vie R-13 1 4 5/8 x 33/4 11/le R-16 11/4 4 % x 33/4 1~/le R-18 11/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/4 11/16 R-23 2~/2 8 314X4314 1114 R-26 3 8 314X5 1114 R-31 31/2 8 314 X 5114 1114 R-34 4 8 314X 51h 1114 R-37 5 8 314 x 5112 1114 R-41 6 12 314 x 5314 1114 R-45 8 12 718x 6114 1711e R-49 10 16 1x 7 1518 R-53 12 16 11/8 x 71/2 113/le R-57 14 20 l~/s x 7% 113/18 R-61 16 20 11/4 x 81/4 2 R-65 18 24 lV4 x 81/2 2 R-69 20 24 11/4 x 9 2 R-73 24 24 11/2 x 101/4 2% R-77In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.532
  43. 43. Table 1-12 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring PIN Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in,) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number lh 4 lhx3 7/a R-11 % 4 5/8 x 31/2 1 Vie R-13 1 4 5/8 x 33/4 1V16 R-16 11/4 4 5/8 x 4 lVls R-18 11/2 4 %x41h 1114 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/2 11/le R-23 21/2 8 314X5 1114 R-26 3 8 314 X 5114 1114 R-31 31/2 8 718 X 5314 17/16 R-34 4 8 7/a X 53/4 17116 R-37 5 8 718 x 6 17115 R-41 6 12 718x 6114 17118 R-45 8 12 I x 7 1518 R-49 10 16 11/8 x 73/4 113118 R-53 12 16 1114X 8114 2 R-57 14 20 11/4 x 81/2 2 R-61 16 20 1% x 9 2-~/16 R-65 18 24 1% x 91/4 23hs R-69 20 24 11/2 x 10 2% R-73 24 24 1% x 111/4 2% R-77In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 33
  44. 44. Table 1-13 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 1/2x3 % R-11 3/4 4 % x 31/2 lY16 R-13 1 4 5/8 x 3314 1Vie R-16 11/4 4 % x 4 lVls R-18 11/2 4 3/4 x41h 1114 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/2 11/le R-23 21/2 8 3/4x5 11/4 R-26 3 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 R-31 31/2 8 718 x 5314 17/le R-34 4 8 % x 6 17116 R-37 5 8 1 x63h 1518 R-41 6 12 1x 7 1% R-45 8 12 1118 x 7314 113/16 R-49 10 16 11/4 x 8314 2 R-53 12 20 11/4 x 9 2 R-57 14 20 13/8 x 91/2 23118 R-61 16 20 1112x 10114 2318 R-65 18 20 1518x 11 29118 R-69 20 24 1518x 11314 29118 R-73 24 24 1718x 13114 215118 R-77 26 28 1718 x 14 215118 R-93 28 28 2 x 14112 31/8 R-94 30 28 2 x 14314 31/8 R-95 36 28 21/2 x 16314 37/8 R-98In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.534
  45. 45. Table 1-14 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 314x4114 11/4 R-12 3/4 4 3/4 x 4V2 11/4 R-14 1 4 % x 5 17/lS R-16 11/4 4 % X 5 17/15 R-18 11/2 4 1 X 51/2 1% R-20 2 8 % X 5314 17115 R-24 21/2 8 I X 6114 1518 R-27 3 8 7/8 X 6 17116 R-31 4 8 11/8 X 7 113116 R-37 5 8 11/4 X 73h 2 R-41 6 12 11/8 X 73/4 113115 R-45 8 12 13/e X 9 23/lS R-49 10 16 1318 X 91/2 23116 R-53 12 20 1318 X 10114 23116 R-57 14 20 11/2 x 11114 23/8 R-62 16 20 1518 x 11314 28116 R-66 18 20 1718 x 13112 215116 R-70 20 20 2 x 141/4 31/8 R-74 24 20 2112 x 17314 3718 R-78In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 35
  46. 46. Table 1-15 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 3/, x 41/4 11/, R-12 % 4 %x41h 11/4 R-14 1 4 % x 5 17/le R-16 11/4 4 7/8 x 5 17/16 R-18 11/2 4 1 x 51/2 1% R-20 2 8 % x 53/4 17he R-24 21/2 8 1 x61/, 1% R-27 3 8 11/e x 7 113he R-35 4 8 11/4 x 73/4 2 R-39 5 8 1~/2 x 9s/4 2% R-44 6 12 13/8 x 101/2 23he R-46 8 12 15/8 x 12 2~ R-50 10 12 17/8 x 133/4 21shs R-54 12 16 2 x 151/, 31/a R-58 14 16 21/4 x 17 31/2 R-63 16 16 2Y2 x 18Y2 3% R-67 18 16 2% x 201/2 41/4 R-71 20 16 3 x 22112 4% R-75 24 16 31/2 x 25% 5% R-79In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.536
  47. 47. Table 1-16 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500.1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 R-13 3/4 4 %x5V4 11/4 R-16 1 4 7/8 x 53/4 17h6 R-18 11/4 4 1 x61h 1% R-21 11/:, 4 lV8 x 71/4 1~3/18 R-23 2 8 1 x71/2 1% R-26 21/2 8 1118 x 8114 113116 R-28 3 8 1114 x 9114 2 R-32 4 8 1112x 10314 23/8 R-38 5 8 13/4 x 12314 23/4 R-42 6 8 2 x 14112 3118 R-47 8 12 2 x 16 31/8 R-51 10 12 21/2 x 20112 37/8 R-55 12 12 23/4 x 22112 41/4 R-60In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 37
  48. 48. e~wE cO 013 z ~ z w ~S~ Z ,, ~. - ~ CD ~ Q 03 03 03 O0 z I-- W o-~ ~ Lt3 ~ Q CD o~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o o 8 8 ~ o og~ W0:3 c~ c~ c~ c~ 03 03 0"3 03 02 8 o o CD o o c~ u~ c~ ~ c::~c:::~ u~ Lr~ u~ uJ C~ Ma~ e~ ,~.~ 9 9 o c~ o~ 9 C3.1.~ ~ "o C3.1.~~ o E~ Maa. ~o~o~o~ o ~ uJ I I I I uJ ff- 123 013 Z O 03 03 03 o coco co ~ o c~ o~ od od uJ o0
  49. 49. o c) r 03 r r I-- ~ N I I I,_. ,,. ~ ~~=oooooo~o III I-- ~- ~ ..a_, bO ~Z Z Z o~ ~ ~ ~_o~_ , ,.. ~, "~-.~ 0 0 r .__ "-- m 0 r tO r .~ ~ --- _~.~ ~ ~ ~- ~ ~ Z _~. e-- Z c~-t~ =~-~ - c~ ~ c~ -r I-- I- ,,- o 8 ~ 0 u.4 d ~ c~tr~03 03 0 r0 0 0 o 0 oo N N t- N N N ou4 u,4 ~ ~ c~ c~ c:) O0 O0 0 01~ o "r ,r ~ P P 9 ~.~ r . C-) r r oaN N .o =~ NEo ~.~-~ c2. r-h-. E o "I-*" I I I 0 0 0 d,=o ~ o L_ r 09 r qO r.~ c 0 _J ,4, " ~ 9 x L_ r ~~176 I-- I-- I-- r e-I-- I,-- k-- ~ 0
  50. 50. This Page Intentionally Left Blank
  51. 51. 2 ANSI BUTTWELD FITTINGS ANSI buttweld fittings are used to change direction orjoin parts of a piping system. Mastering the names of thevarious shapes is not too difficult, because the numberof shapes is limited. Figure 2-1 shows the identification markings that arerequired on all fittings. The 90-degree long radius elbowis marked with the size and schedule number, the mate-rial grade, and the heat code symbol, also known as thelaboratory control number. Types of Buttweld FittingsElbows The elbow is the most commonly used fitting, and thelong radius elbow is probably the most commonly usedelbow. The short radius elbow is used in systems withtight spaces, such as offshore and skid units. Figure 2-2 shows the 90-degree long radius elbow nextto a 90-degree short radius elbow. Remember that a 90- 41
  52. 52. LABORATORY CONTROL NUMBER MATERIAL or TYPE NUMBER WALL THICKNESS NOMINAL PIPE SIZE TUBE TURNS" IDENTIFICATIONFigure 2-1. Identification markings. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Technologies, Inc.)degree long radius elbow has a center-to-face dimensionof one and one-half times the size of the elbow. The cen-ter-to-face dimension of a short radius elbow is the sameas the size of the elbow; e.g. a 2-in. short radius elbowhas a center-to-face dimension of 2 ins. For other dimen-sions, see Table 2-1.42
  53. 53. Figure 2-2.90-degreeelbows,longand short radius. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-3. 90-degreereducingelbow, long radius. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of Trinity Industries.)Reducing Elbows The 90-degree reducing elbow is used to change di-rection and reduce the flow in piping systems. See Fig-ure 2-3. 43
  54. 54. A III E o "c D~ lore --~E n 9 . ~ ~ . ,-_ ~,-~ 9 . .--i~J~ m . . . . i! ........ ..._~ ~~174176 0 "4 " ~ ~..i.i~::~-~.~ ~:," 9 "~ . . . . ~ ~l ::::: . . . . . . ::: . . . : :: . . . :~8~. ~r ~ . . . . . . . . ~, ~ : ::: ~c,) c0o c~r 9o 9 me,, ~ . i~ . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ ~ i~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . g g . : "21 ........ ~ ~nn ~.~. ~ : . 44 . . . . . . . . . . ,.II~II IIII~
  55. 55. c~ e~ ~ ooo o~ ~ ,-.. ~ ~ I;.. ,|:.:-_ J ~LcB"~ 1 .i ; ~ :.:..i:.". 9 ~, ~ I,. 9 +. , . . . . !!-+~ ++. .~i"~;.-".Yi" "J~ -~ " " :~.~.~_~ 9 :_~_+.~_~ :_~.~_~_~ :_=--! l + 9 ii , ,~ . . . . . 45
  56. 56. Figure2-4.45-degreeelbow,longradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionofTrinity Industries.)45-degree Elbows Figure 2-4 shows a 45-degree long radius elbow.These elbows are used for partial changes in direction ofthe line. The 45-degree elbows are sometimes trimmedto a lesser degree when required, such as 37 degrees.180-degree Returns The return is used for direction changes of 180-de-grees, thus avoiding the use of two 90-degree elbows.Figure 2-5 depicts a long and short radius 180-degree re-turn.Tees A tee is a branched connection to the main flow, andcan be either straight or reducing, as shown in Figure46
  57. 57. Figure2-5. 180-degreereturns,longand shortradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc.,a division of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-6. Straightand reducingtees. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division ofTrinity Industries.)2-6. The reducing outlet can be specified on any branch,and Figure 2-7 shows the correct descriptions used forreducing tees and other fittings.Crosses Straight or reducing crosses are seldom used in sys-tems, except where space requirements dictate it. Figure2-8 shows a straight cross. Crosses are made in sizes of12-in. and smaller. 47
  58. 58. How to Read Reducing Fittings Elbows To assist the user in "reading" reducing fittings, a variety of types most commonly required for piping systems are illus- trated on this page. In these illustrations, each opening of the fitting is identified with a A A letter which indicates the se- 90 ~ | l b o w 9 0 ~ Siroot Elbow quence to be followed in read- Reducing Reducing on male end ing the size of the fitting. In designating the outlets of reducing fittings, the openings should be read in the order in- dicated by the sequence of the letters "A", "B", "C", and A A "D". On side outlet reducing IlilllW Hand Left Hand fittings, the size of the side Side Outlet 9 0 ~ Elbow outlet is named last. Reducing on twoOut~n Fw exmwdb: A Cross having one end of the run and one outlet reduced isdesignated as: A B C D 2~ x !~ x 2~ x !~ Simply name the largest open- C ing first and then name the Double Ikrencb Illbew other openings in the order Reducing on both ends of Run indicated, Although all but one of the illustrations are of screwed fittings, the same rules apply to the "reading" of reducing T r u e "Y" flanged, welding, solder-joint, and other types of fittings Service Tee c A~ ! B I I A Reducingonmaleendonly (Continued on next page)48
  59. 59. Tees Crosses C C @ ALj~ A A B Tee Tee 9 I With Outk,e Wi~ one end D reduced of Run reduced Crees teduc~Oon one Outlet onlyA B A B A B Tee TeeWith one ond of Rue ~ head type ~..~. |and Outlet reduced e~ls of Run reduced D Cress leducin9 on both Outlets B B C C J ~ ~ I A B ^ * 1" Ilillkt Nend Left Need i Side Ouelet Tees D With one end of Ru~ end OutleN reduced Cress Reducing on one end of Run end on one Outlet 45 ~ Y- Bend C B I ! D A Cress 4S ~ Y . | e n d (Lotee~l) Reducing on one end of Reducing on Outlet c~dy Run and o~ both Outlels Figure 2-7. How to read reducing fittings. (Courtesy of Crane Co.) 49
  60. 60. Figure2-8.Weldcross.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Reducers Eccentric and concentric reducers, illustrated in Fig-ure 2-9, are used to reduce a line to a smaller size. Veryfew eccentric reducers are used in piping systems,therefore it is not difficult to tell which is which. The con-centric reducer has an inlet and outlet that are on a cen-ter line. The eccentric reducer has an off-center outlet, and isflat on one side. The eccentric reducer fits flush againsta wall, ceiling, or floor to give greater pipe support to theline.Figure 2-9. Concentricand eccentricweld reducers.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of TrinityIndustries.)5O
  61. 61. Lap Joint Stub Ends The stub end is used in lines requiring quick discon-nection. See Figure 2-10. The lap forms a gasket surfacethat replaces the gasket surface of a flange, and aremated with a lap joint flange. (Refer to Figure 1-4)o Stub ends should not be confused with stub-ins, thelatter being one pipe stubbed into another pipe andwelded. See Figure 2-11.Figure 2-10. Lap joint stub end. (Courtesy of Hackney, Inc., a division of TrinityIndustries.) Figure 2-11. A stub-in. 51
  62. 62. Figure2-12.Weldpipecap. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndus-tries.)Caps Pipe caps are used to block off the end of a line bywelding it to the pipe. Caps should never be stored in aposition to trap rain water or sand. See Figure 2-12. Special Buttweld FittingsPipe Saddles The saddle, as shown in Figure 2-13, is used to rein-force a junction of pipe or fitting in a line. After a nipplehas been welded into a line, the saddle is placed overthe outlet, and welded to both the outlet and the line.52
  63. 63. Figure 2-13. Pipe saddle. (Courtesyof Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity Indus-tries.) l,,aFigure 2-14. 45-degreelateral. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division of Trinity In-dustries.)Laterals Figure 2-14 shows a 45-degree lateral. Low-pressureapplications are about the only time laterals will be used. 53
  64. 64. Figure 2-15. Scraper bar tee. (Courtesy of Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity In-dustries.)Scraper Bar Tee Figure 2-15 shows that bars have been fabricated in-side the outlet of a tee. The bars limit the direction apipeline scraper (or "Pig"), can travel inside a pipeline. Material ControlProtecting Weld Fittings Store weld fittings in a position so that water or sandwill not collect inside them.54
  65. 65. Large diameter fittings can be stored and protectedwith end covers, either plastic or metal. Fittings 1~/2 ins.and smaller should be stored inside, away from the ele-ments. Fittings can be stacked in layers with or without dun-nage. Metal to metal contact will not harm adjacent fit-tings. In corrosive areas, spray the fittings with a specifiedpreservative to prevent rust. Do not throw or dump the fittings from containers. Per-manent damage to a fittings beveled ends may result. When you are receiving fittings from a vendor or fromanother area, always check each and every fitting fordamage and markings per the purchase order specifica-tions.Mixed Schedule Fittings It is very common to have fittings of a mixed schedulematch different pipe wall thicknesses. When the fittingsare machined to a lower pipe schedule, the process iscalled "taper boring." Two examples would be: 1. One 12-in. 90-degree weld elbow, schedule 60 long radius, taper bore each end to extra strong. 2. A 12-in. by 6-in. concentric reducer, schedule 120, taper bore the 12-in. end to schedule 100, the 6-in. end to schedule 80. 55
  66. 66. When you receive such fittings from vendors, markeach fitting with positive markings for future identifica-tion. (The vendor should have already marked the fit-tings for you). Do not store altered fittings with regular sized fittings.A wrong fitting installed by accident in a system couldprove disastrous.Backing Rings Figure 2-16 shows rings that are sometimes used inpiping systems under severe service conditions. Onetype ring is grooved with knockoff spacer pins.Figure2-16.Grovetypeweldingringwithknock-offspacerpins.(Courtesyof TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.)56
  67. 67. Figure 2-17. Flat type and ridge type welding rings. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Tech-nologies, Inc.) The backup rings are inserted in the adjoining ends ofpipes that are to be buttwelded. The rings prevent spat-ter and metal icicles from forming inside the pipe. Thering becomes a permanent part of the piping system.Figure 2-17 shows two other type backing rings--the flatand ridge types. Branch Olet Connections There are many reputable manufacturers of Olet fit-tings used for branch connections. For description andillustration purposes, the Bonney Forge fittings are de-scribed here, along with their registered trade names forthe fittings.Interchangeability Table 2-2 shows the interchangeability and size con-solidation of the Olet fittings. The correct descriptions of 57
  68. 68. 6 6 ~ ~ o o ~ . - , c.., ..... ,..,.) .::~ u-) , . o o 0 ..:-, ~ r~.l c,-) ,.,.. ! (.-,~ ~,,o ,,::r N ~.o__.~- ~ O e~ e,~ r,-) ,~,) ,,=- u,-) c o o o ~ ~ ~,.) ,,.,- O ,ll o "r i U z_N O . - uJ oO N u) O C ~ m 9 .4-, e,~ e,4 (I,1 v C == U Ii == iml (II I= g s~z,s . n . S : i Z I S Nnl:l ..58
  69. 69. e,4.~ ..... ~-- ~~~1 !~ I~i-~ ~0,1 w Z Uom,0 w ~ ~!i~:~_~ ~=~~ S3ZI$ N N t l 59
  70. 70. Fs OF HEADER . - OF BRANCft GHT OR IEDULE qUFACTURERS NTIFICATION ,T N T I F I C A T I O N NO ~ERIAL SPEC BRANCH & HEADER SAME WEIGHT OR SCHEDULE S C H E D U L E OF HEADER S C H E D U L E OF BRANCH HEAT N U M B E R BRANCH & HEADER DIFFERENT WEIGHT OR SCHEDULE Figure 2-18. Markings on branch connections. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.)60
  71. 71. the Olets are shown in the table, and are suitable for usein your materials accounting system. Notice in Table 2-2, the run size numbers--36-3, 8-3,12-6, etc. These and the other numbers fit run sizes fromthe high number down through the low number. The sys-tem is further explained in Table 2-2. Figure 2-18 illustrates the identification markings thatare required on Olet fittings.Thredolets This is a fitting that is buttwelded on the run of pipeand has a threaded outlet. It is widely used on all proj-ects. See Figure 2-19.Sockolet This fitting is exactly the same as the Thredolet exceptit has a socket weld outlet. See Figure 2-19.Sweepolet | Resembling a saddle, this fitting is strong enough tosupport the branch line being buttwelded to it. See Fig-ure 2-19. Sweepolets will not be used too often on yourprojects.Elbolet | This fitting is welded to a 90-degree elbow to form anoutlet. See Figure 2-19. Elbolets are available with 61
  72. 72. WELDOLET ,ti ;,~. ,< THREDOLET SOCKOLET ELBOLET SWEEPOLETFigure 2-19. Bonney Forge fittings. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.)62
  73. 73. threaded, socket weld, and buttweld outlets. Table 2-3lists the sizes of elbolets and the correct descriptions.Flatolet | This fitting is used on flat surface areas, such as weldcaps and heads. Table 2-3 Bonney Forge Elbolets| (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.) DIMENSIONS =NOMINAL 3 0 0 0 = THREADED 6 0 0 0 = THREADED ELBOW SIZE OUTLET SIZE & SOCKET WELD INCHES & SOCKET WELD INCHES Std. & XS Butt-Weld Sch. 160 & XXS Butt-Weld C E C E 36-11/4 i/. i% 1]%2 1 89 11%2 361Va % 1% i]%2 11/2 11%2 36-11/4 89 i% 11%2 12~2 17/8 36-11//4 3~ 12~2 17/e 21/4 2% 36-2 I 2% 21/4 27/8 21/2 36.2 11//4 27/8 21/2 31/s 2] 88 36-2 1% 3~/s 21~6 4~6 31//4 363 2 4~6 31/4 2% 4~6 3% :. :.3 5 88 37/e ORDER TO =,-:4 6% 41~6 SPECIFIC ::6 93/8 61/2 ELBOW SIZES :8 13~6 8 88 ::= 10 17~2 103/8 12 19% 111/~ 63
  74. 74. ..j==,,=,.,=~ Socket Weld Reducing Inserts Socket Weld Steel Weld Couplet Threaded Steel Weld Couplet NIPOLET: Plain End or Threaded LATROLETFigure 2-20. Bonney Forge Nipolet~, Latrolet~, and couplets; reducing inserts byHenry Vogt Machine Company. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge and Henry Vogt Ma-chine Company.)64

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