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    Piping data [cyberdownlinx.blogspot.com] Piping data [cyberdownlinx.blogspot.com] Document Transcript

    • This Page Intentionally Left Blank
    • Gulf Professional Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier. Copyright © by Elsevier. All rights reserved. Originally published by Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier Science homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting Customer Support and then Obtaining Permissions., ......... This book is printed on acid-free paper. ~ Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Date Lee. R. R. (Robert R.), 1928- Pocket guide to flanges, fittings, and piping data/R.R. Lee.-3rd ed. p. cm. ISBN-13:978-0-88415-310-8 ISBN-10: 0-88415-310-X 1. Flanges Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Pipe fittings Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Pipe Handbooks, manuals, etc. 1. Title. TA492.P5L44 1999 621.8672-dc21 99-38352 CIP For information on all Gulf publications available, contact our World Wide Web homepage at http://www.bh.com/gulf 109876 Printed in the United States of America.
    • To my daughter E. Doris Lee
    • This Page Intentionally Left Blank
    • CONTENTSAcknowledgments, xPreface, xi1ANSi Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI Standards. Flange Bores. Types of ANSI Flanges. Miscellaneous Flanges. Materials Control. Flange Dimensions. ANSI Flange Bolting.2ANSi Buttweld Fittings ................... 41 Types of Buttweld Fittings. Special Buttweld Fittings. Material Cotnrol. Branch Olet Connections. VIi
    • 3Refinery Pipe ........................... Pipe Specifications. Storing Pipe. Calculations to Use.4API Flanges ............................ 83 Type 6B and 6BX Flanges. Bolting and Ring Gaskets for API Flanges. API Hubs and Clamps. API Ring Gaskets.5Stainless Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Dimensions and Markings. Types of Stainless Steel. Stainless Steel Fittings. Stainless Steel Pipe. Identification Tests.6M i s c e l l a n e o u s Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1277Pipeline Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1358Materials Handling Tips .................. 149 Tallying Pipes. Marking Fabricated Pipe Spools. Warehouse Layout Tips. Vendor Data. Storing Materials Inside/Outside. = = =VIII
    • Appendix APiping Abbreviations ..................... 157Appendix BUseful Formulas ......................... 163Index .................................. 166 ix
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my appreciation to certain colleaguesand business associates for their contributions and support forstrong material control programs: J. M. Smith, P. Rajagapolan,and Mohd Kunhi, MIS Dubai, U.A.E.; A.S. Zeidy, Cairo, Egypt;T. W. Acosta, C. L. Davis, McDermott (Saudi Arabia); JosephTwail, MIS Oman; Edgar H. Von Minden, Jr., Tube Turns Tech-nologies, Inc.; Beatrice Welch, M. D.; J. R. Lee, AMOCO Produc-tion Co.; K. D. Callaway, HAH-Kuwait; Delmar and Elmar Boyd,Bechtel (Libya); Kevin Talbot, MIS-Sharjah; Yousef A. AI-Omani,MISCO-Kuwait; and my wife Pat for assistance with the prepara-tion of this book.
    • PREFACE Materials personnel are usually the first to be assignedto a project and the last to close it. Their responsibilitiesof collecting tables, catalogs, specifications, and materi-als accounting system forms and supplies commenceeven before they depart for the jobsite, which could verywell be in Mukluk, AI Mukalla, AI Khobar, Belo Horizonte,or just outside of Houston. To have all the required docu-mentation on hand at the jobsite is a real challenge. This handbook is designed to bridge the gap for pipingdata and materials storage procedures until a moreformal specification has been issued by your projectmanager. It is intended to help train new materials per-sonnel on the project by answering questions they maybe afraid to ask. The markings on fittings and pipe areexplained in a non-technical language. Pipe schedulesare provided to show equal schedules in certain sizes,but different call-outs such as standard and schedule 40.Tables describing the size and length of bolts for flangesand clamps are included, in addition to the size wrench xi
    • required to fit the nut. An oval ring gasket cross-refer- ence chart is also included. The book is quite useful to drafters, purchasingagents, pipefitters, students, and project managers. The material in the book is believed to be technicallycorrect; neither the author nor Gulf Publishing Companywarrant its use. Always consult the applicable specifica-tion issued by the project manager at your project. R. R. Lee Houston, Texas i.Xll
    • 1 ANSI FLANGES A flange is used to join pipe, valves, or a vessel withina system. The common ANSI flanges are shown in Fig-ure 1-1, and special flanges are illustrated and definedlater in this chapter. ANSI Standards Pressure ratings for flanges are designed to ANSIstandards of 150 Ib, 300 Ib, 400 Ib, 600 Ib, 900 Ib, 1500Ib, and 2500 lb. The most common terminology used isthe pound reference, although the more formal referenceis by class, such as Class 150 flange. The ANSI standards require that each flange bestamped with identifying markings as shown in Figure1-2. The markings include: 1. Manufacturers trade name. 2. Nominal pipe size--the outside diameter of pipe the flange will match when welded to the pipe. 1
    • "Im~L~_ZATLO ~ORGE_A R ~ Welding Neck Flange ~-.LO~-]~] TAYLORF O R G E ~ Slip-on Flange Threaded Flange ~..~r i q ~ f W ~ ~_~TAYLOR FORGEA" Lap Joint Flange (Continued on next page)
    • q Reducing Slip-on Flange ~.~,~ ~"~.~... i~* Socket Welding Flange f 4,JI, ~ bk Blind FlangeFigure 1-1. ANSI flanges. (Courtesyof TaylorForge.)
    • O ~/i ~ ._~ =~ Q ~ ~ 0 ~ e e~ o e,- ~5 c- O E ~ o ~ N e-- I- E E
    • 3. Primary pressure rating (also known as the flange rating)--150-Ib, 300-1b, etc.4. Face designation--the machined gasket surface area of the flange (resembles a phonograph record, see Figure 1-3). The flange face is the most impor- tant part of the flange. The lhs-in, raised face is Figure 1-3. Flangeface gasketsurfaces.(Courtesyof TaylorForge.) 5
    • common in 150-1b and 300-1b classes. Heavier rat- ings are ~/4-in. raised faces. A ring type joint is available in all classes, but more common in the 600-1b and greater classes. 5. Bore (also known as the nominal wall thickness of matching pipe)--the measure of the flange wall thickness, which matches the inside dimension of the pipe being used. 6. Material designation--ASTM specifications that describe the raw materials from which the flange is made, such as ingots, blooms, billets, slabs, or bars. 7. Ring gasket number--used when the flange face is a ring type joint style. 8. Heat number or code--the batch number used by steel forgers to identify a particular batch number of steel forgings and test results. The mill test re- sults are made available to the purchasers of the flanges. Flange Bores Weldneck and socket weld flanges are drilled (ma-chined) with the wall thickness of the flange having thesame dimensions of the matching pipe. The lighter thepipe is, the larger the bore; conversely, the heavier thepipe, the smaller the bore. Other flanges are drilled to match the outside diameterof pipe sizes, and do not have bore markings to indicatea pipe schedule.6
    • Types of ANSI FlangesWeldneck Flange This flange, shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2, is normallyused for high-pressure, cold or hot temperatures.Slip-on and Lap Joint Flanges Figure 1-4 shows these "twin" flanges. Note, however,that a slip-on flange is bored slightly larger than the ODof the matching pipe. The pipe slips into the flange priorto welding both inside and outside to prevent leaks. The lap joint flange has a curved radius at the boreand face to accommodate a lap joint stub end. (Stubends are described in Chapter 2.) The lap joint flangeand stub end assembly are normally used in systems re-quiring frequent dismantling for inspection.Threaded Flange This type of flange, shown in Figure 1-5, is used in sys-tems not involving temperature or stresses of any magni-tude.Socket Weld Flange This flange is similar to slip-on flange, except theyhave a bore and a counter bore. See Figure 1-6. 7
    • Slip-on Flange Lap Joint Flange Figure 1-4. Slip-on and lap joint flanges. (Courtesy of Taylor Forge.) The counter bore is slightly larger than the OD of thematching pipe, allowing the pipe to be inserted. A restric-tion is built into the bottom of the bore, which acts as ashoulder for the pipe to rest on, and has the same ID ofthe matching pipe. The flow is not restricted in any direc-tion.8
    • Figure 1-5. Threadedflange. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division of TrinityIndus-tries.)Figure 1-6. Socket weld flange. (Courtesyof Hackney, Inc., a division of TrinityIndustries.)Reducing Flange The reducing flange is similar in every respect to thefull size of the flange from which the reduction is to bemade. See Figure 1-7A. 9
    • A B figure1-7.Reducingandblindflanges.(Courtesy TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.) of The reducing flange is described in the same manneras a reducer--that is, the large end first, the reductionsecond. An example would be a 6-in. raised face by 2-in.threaded reducing flange, ANSI 150 Ib rating.Blind Flange Figure 1-7B shows a blind flange, which has no bore,and is used to close ends of piping systems. A blindflange also permits easy access to a line once it hasbeen sealed. The blind flange is sometimes machined to accept apipe of the nominal size to which the reduction is beingmade. The reduction can be either threaded or welded. Miscellaneous FlangesLong Weldneck Flange This is a special flange used for nozzles on pressurevessels. The hub is always straight, and the hub thick-ness is greater than the diameter of any piping that maybe bolted to the flange. See Figure 1-8.10
    • Figure 1-8. Longweldneckflange.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Orifice Flange The function of an orifice flange is to meter the flow ofliquids and gases through a pipe line. Figure 1-9 showsan orifice flange complete with bolting and jack screws.The jack screws are used to spread the flanges apart in aline to change an orifice plate between the two flanges.Figure 1-9. Orificeflangewith jackscrews.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof Trinity Industries.) 11
    • Figure1-10.Cutawayof an orificeflange.(Courtesyof TaylorForge.) As illustrated in Figure 1-10, the orifice flange hasdrilled and tapped outlets for installing the metering de-vice (recorder). Materials ControlReceiving Flanges It is very important to carefully examine every flangeto verify that each conforms to the purchase order speci-fications. It is equally important to check for damage tothe face and beveled end, and inspect the flanges forcorrosion. Report any damage or other discrepancies toyour supervisor or prepare an over, short, and damagereport (OS&D).12
    • Applying Commodity Code Numbers When flanges are received, apply your companyscommodity identification numbers on flanges and othermaterials. Apply the numbers in the same area as the manufac-turers stamped flange identification numbers. Alwaysstock the flanges with the numbers facing the same di-rection for prompt and positive material identification.Storing Flanges The preferred storage method for flanges is face downon wooden pallets or wooden docks, using dunnage toseparate each layer of flanges, as shown in Figure 1-11.(For dunnage, use wooden strips, paneling, cardboard,plywood, etc.) Special care should be extended to theflange facing during storage or shipments to other areas. ~ ~ - ~ L-~ ~~ ~,~ Flanges I~ ~11~ ......~ ~ - ~ Dunnage Palletor Dock Figure1-11.Diagramof methodfor storingflanges. 13
    • Accounting Records Good technical descriptions are necessary in any sys-tem. The very best source for technical descriptions isyour companys computer master. If the computer mas-ter is not available, then try to be consistent each timeyou describe the same materials in the accounting sys-tem. A good technical description of the weldneck flangeshown in Figure 1-2 would be:What is it? Weldneck Flange.What type facing? Faced and drilled raised face.What is the pressure rating? ANSI 150 Ib rating.What is the bore? Bore standard weight (.237-inch wall thick- ness). It is not necessary when describing flanges and othermaterials to include the trademark, the ASTM specifica-tion, or the heat number unless requested to do so byyour supervisor.Shipping Flanges When flanges are to be shipped to other locations ei-ther loose or as an integral part of a fabricated pipepiece, protect the flange face with a flange protector, andthe beveled end with an end protector. Flange protectors are very inexpensive compared toreplacing even one damaged flange during an offshore14
    • Figure1-12.Commercialflangeprotectors.(Courtesyof MarkV, divisionof Phoe-nix Industries,Inc.)or overseas shipment. Figure 1-12 shows a low-cost, du-rable protector that can be quickly installed and locked inplace by friction lock poly bolts. These protectors protect the entire flange facing fromimpact damage, and will not deteriorate. The protectorsare reusable. A wrap of duct tape around the outeredge of the protector and the flange ring will preventsand and water from entering the pipe or nozzle areas. Flange Dimensions Table 1-1 includes the wall thickness schedules and di-mensions of ANSI flanges. The table is very useful to en-gineers, draftsmen, fabricators, purchasing, and materi- 15
    • "~i- "111 ~;~ -~- 9 ;~ - " | I" "~ i-.- v-~. i,- ~- l , - l l i ~ l I i.-i.-,- ! 9 ~ ~ ~_~~_~_~ (#} . . . . . in I Ill ~ IIt~- ~ ~:~;~ ~ - ~ - ~ :~;~-~ ~ ~ ~,:~: :-.~ . .,~ . ,, ..J "" ~/~! ~ ~::.:~ ~ : e - ~ : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~,~ ~. ,...1 ~~ .... . ..... , ..... , ..... ,_.9 _~ . , , , ~,, ! ~,~ ~-~-~ ~r : ~ ~ ~.~ ~ ~ {0 D e~ ,.L A , lle ~mmm~ mmioi,-r- olomm~ oN~i,,ol _,o .kkl, , I .114 " ~ I "~0 . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 l . ~. , , , .~ kl. ~l " " 9 . ~ ~e ~, ~e ~ t1<> Iit .................... <,> w 8 (I} "" E ,.i f~ j . . . . . ~ e . e . e~ m m l - - ; : i i ! i i i 7 ~ ~ ~ ~ ,In i u..,~ ; e _ ii ..... I. . . . . .......... I ..... .~ . ~r ~ ~ . ..~ ~.##.~ lO-~~~ -~-~ -~ -* -* " ~~-~ l! :l,i, : ~ ! :l, : ~ t ~i, :~:~16
    • . . . . . . ~ e,i ~ ~ e~ I l 9 . . i ~ r,,. m uJ ,~m :. I . . . . . . . . .:. . ~ ~~5~ ~ ..."" .,.I ~ :~s ~,~ ~ ~8~ ~_:~ ~ ~ ... 9 ~,, o;;; ~ .-. ~ "" U,I ,~,mm ~ ~ ...... :-:1:::-: ~ ~ ~" ~ ; ! ~ , . . . . . . ": ~T--.~Z ~ "" " . _11 ~ . ~o~ ~,~: ~,,{~ ~08~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ " u_~, m~,:~ ~:~ ~,~.:~:~ ~ i L_ z ~ ~ ~ o~ 00008 ~ . ~ ~ ~ 1 ~~,~ ~~ ~ ......... o o ~ ii ;~ ,-T,.:,- ~ , o ~=o~ Z |174 |174169 |
    • als control persons. Familiarize yourself with the tableand its contents. For an exercise, blank out the markings on a flange,and by using the table as a reference, properly identifythe flange as to size, bolt holes, rating, bore, etc. Thepractice will enrich your skill and self-confidence as amaterials person. Table 1-1 also includes pipe schedules that describethe flange bores,as well as fittings. It is necessary at thistime for you to become familiar with the following sched-ule terminology: Light wall Schedule 10 (Sch/10, S/10) Schedule 20 (Sch/20, etc.) Schedule 30 Schedule 40 Standard Weight Schedule 60 Extra Strong (Extra heavy, EH, XH) Schedule 80 Schedule 100 Schedule 120 Schedule 140 Schedule 160 Double Extra Strong (Double extra heavy, XXH, XXS) Many of the schedules are identical in certain sizes,and either description is correct, but be consistent. Anexample of 6-in. Schedule 40, standard weight, or .237-18
    • in. wall thickness. All three have the same meaning perTable 1-1, in the 6-in. size. ANSI Flange BoltingStud Bolts In ANSI piping, stud bolts are stamped with identifyingnumbers on the ends of bolts and the face of the nuts. Acommon mark for bolts is B7, and Grade 2H on the nuts.The bolts are often plated with various coatings, some ofwhich are listed below: Plating Marking Cadmium B7 Zinc L7 Chromium B16 Tin B8 Silver B8M Stud bolts are shipped from vendors as so many bolts/nuts per pound. If the purchase order states 100 studbolts with two heavy hex nuts each, then you may re-ceive 99 or 102 bolts with nuts. To save time, and avoidcounting each bolt, verify the total weight as being cor-rect, verify about 25% of the markings per the specifica-tion, then store the bolts in the shipping container ratherthan using valuable warehouse shelving space. 19
    • Do not grease, spray, or clean bolts without specific in-structions from your supervisor. Do not store new boltswith used bolts.Machine Bolts The machine bolt is commonly used for slip-on andthreaded flanges. Only one heavy hex nut is required fora machine bolt. Both the bolt and the nut are identifiedthe same way as for stud bolts.Measuring Stud Bolts A fast way to measure a stud bolt diameter is by mea-suring the thickness of the heavy hex nut; for example, a1/2-in. diameter bolt has a heavy hex nut that is 1/2-in.thick. Measure the length of stud bolts to the nearest 1/4-in.from thread to thread, less the point heights as shown inFigure 1-13. CI I [ llilliiai ]IIOI lliIiIiIiliII i Point height Stud Bolt With NutsFigure 1-13. Methodof measuringstud bolts. (Courtesyof the AmericanPetro-leum Institute.)20
    • IIItlllllllllJlfJI I..dFigure 1-14. Methodof measuringmachinebolts. (Courtesyof the AmericanPe-troleum Institute.)Measuring Machine Bolts Measure the length of a machine bolt from the under-side of the head to the end point. See Figure 1-14. (Allbolts are rounded off to the nearest V4-in.). Tables 1-2 through 1-16 describe stud bolt and machinebolt tables for all ANSI flanges previously discussed forraised and flat faced flanges, plus ring type joint flanges(RTJ). The tables also include the size of the wrench re-quired to fit the heavy hex nuts used on each diameter ofstud bolts. (Wrench size is calculated as one and one-halftimes the size of the bolt plus one eighth of an inch). Figure1-15 shows a dimensional gauge for bolting. Example: 1V2 x 1 = 1~/2 + ~/8 = l S/8-in. wrench for a1-in. nut. Table 1-17 gives suggested materials for use in differ-ent line service temperatures. 21
    • 9 .Figure 1-15. Dimensional gauge for bolting. (Courtesy of Lone Star Screw Co. ofHouston, Inc.)22
    • Table 1-2 Alloy Steel Machine Bolts for ANSI 150-1b Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges, Each with One Heavy Hex NutNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Machine Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Machine Bolts (in.) Nut (in.) 1/2 4 lhx2 % % 4 lh x 21/4 % 1 4 lh x 21/4 % 11/4 4 lh x 21h % 11/2 4 lh x 21h 7/8 2 4 % x 23/4 11/le 21/2 4 %x3 11/le 3 4 % x 31/4 lY16 31/2 8 %x3V4 1Vie 4 8 s18 x 3114 lY16 5 8 314 X 3114 11/4 6 8 314x 3112 11/4 8 8 3/4 X 33/4 11/4 10 12 %x4 1%6 12 12 % x 41/4 17/16 14 12 1 x41h 1% 16 16 1 x43/4 1% 18 16 1118x 5 113/lS 20 20 1118x 511, 113/16 22 20 1114x 5314 2 24 20 1114x 6 2 26 24 11/4 X 61/4 2 28 28 1114X 61/4 2 3O 28 11/4 x 61/2 2 32 28 11/2 x 7 23/8 34 32 1112x 7114 2318 36 32 1112x 7114 2% 42 36 11/2 x 73/4 23/8In a g r e e m e n t w i t h A N S I B. 16.5 23
    • Table 1-3 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150-1b Raised Face or Flat Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex Nuts Nominal Number M Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size for Size (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) ./2 4 V2x21h % 314 4 V2x2V2 % 1 4 112x 2% 71, 1114 4 l12x2a14 1is 1112 4 Y2x3 % 2 4 %x3V4 lyle 21/2 8 %x3V2 11/16 3 4 % x 3314 1Vie 31/2 4 % x 3% ly16 4 4 sis x 3314 1vie 5 8 s/4x4 1114 6 8 S/4X4 1114 8 8 s14 X 4.h 1114 10 12 71s x 4314 17/le 12 12 % x 4314 1711e 14 12 I x 5"14 15/8 16 16 1 x 5./2 1% 18 16 1./8 x 6 1-/le 20 20 11/s x 6./4 113116 22 20 1./4 x 6% 2 24 20 1./4 x 7 2 26 24 1./4 x 71/4 2 28 28 1./4 x 71/4 2 30 28 I.14 X 7.12 2 32 28 1./2 X 8.14 2% 34 32 IV, X 8114 2% 36 32 11/2 x 8./2 2% 42 36 1V2x9 2%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.524
    • Table 1-4 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 1/2 x 2% 7Is 3/4 4 %x3 1Vie 1 4 %x31h lV16 11/4 4 %x31h 1Vie 111, 4 3/4 x 3% 11/4 2 8 %x31h 11/16 21/, 8 3hx4 1114 3 8 3/4 x 41/4 1114 31/2 8 3h x 41h 1114 4 8 314x 41h 1114 5 8 314x 4314 1114 6 12 314x5 1114 8 12 718 x 511, 1711e 10 16 1 X61/4 1% 12 16 11/8 X 6% 113118 14 20 11/8 X 7 113116 16 20 11/4 X 71/2 2 18 24 .1114x 73/4 2 20 24 1114x 8114 2 22 24 11/2 x 9 2% 24 24 11/2 X 91/4 23/8 26 28 15/8 • 10114 2% 28 28 1518x I0a14 29/lS 30 28 1314x 11114 2314 32 28 1718x 12114 21S116 34 28 1718x 12112 215/16 36 32 2 x 13 31/3In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 25
    • Table 1-5 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each with Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) lh 4 1/2 x 31/4 7/8 3/4 4 %x31h 1Vie 1 4 %x3% lyre lV4 4 %x4 lV16 11h 4 %x41h 11/4 2 8 %x41h 1Vie 21/2 8 3/4 x 43/4 11/4 3 8 3/4x5 11/4 31/2 8 %x51h 17118 4 8 7hx51h 17/le 5 8 7/8 X 53/4 17/lS 6 12 %x6 17118 8 12 I x 6314 1% 10 16 11/8 x 71/2 113/m 12 16 11/4 x 8 2 14 20 11/4 x 81/4 2 16 20 1% x 83/4 23he 18 24 1% x 9 23/1, 20 24 11/2 X 93/4 23/, 24 24 13/4 X 103/4 23/,,In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.526
    • Table 1-6 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 lh x 31/4 7/a 3/4 4 % x 31/2 11/18 1 4 % x 33/4 11/15 11/4 4 S/ex4 11116 11/2 4 314x41/4 11/4 2 8 5h x 41/4 11/16 21/2 8 % x 43/4 11/4 3 8 3/4x5 11/4 31/2 8 % x 51/2 17/le 4 8 718 X 5314 17116 5 8 1 x61/2 15/8 6 12 1 x 6% 15/8 8 12 11/8 x 73/4 113116 10 16 11/4 x 81/2 2 12 20 1114X 8314 2 14 20 13/8 x 91/4 23/16 16 20 11/2 x 10 23/8 18 20 1518X 103/4 29/16 20 24 15/8 x 111/2 29/16 22 24 13/4 x 12114 23/4 24 24 17/8 x 13 215/le 26 28 17/8 x 131/2 215/18 28 28 2 x 14 31/8 30 28 2 x 14114 31/8 32 28 21/4 x 15 31/2 36 28 21/2 x 16 3%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 27
    • Table 1-7 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 % 4 % x 41/2 11/4 1 4 %x5 17/le 11/4 4 7/8x5 17/16 11/2 4 1 x51/2 15/8 2 8 7/s x 53/4 17/,6 21/2 8 1 x61/4 1% 3 8 7/e x 53/4 17/le 4 8 11/8 x 6% 113/le 5 8 11/4x 71/2 2 6 12 11/8 x 7% 113/le 8 12 13/8 x 83/4 23/le 10 16 13/8 x 91/4 P/le 12 20 13/8 x 10 23/le 14 20 11/2 x 103/4 23/8 16 20 15/8 x 111/4 2911e 18 20 17/8 x 123/4 21s116 20 20 2 x 131/2 311e 24 20 2,/2 x 171/4 3718In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.528
    • Table 1-8 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heaw Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 1/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 3/4 4 %x41h 11/4 1 4 %x5 17/m 11/4 4 %x5 17/le lV2 4 1x51h 1% 2 8 %x5% 17/le 21/2 8 1 x61/4 1% 3 8 11/8 x 7 113116 4 8 1114x 7% 2 5 8 11/2 x 9% 23/8 6 12 1% x 10114 23/16 8 12 1% x 11112 29116 10 12 1% x 13114 21s/16 12 16 2 x 14314 31/a 14 16 21/4 x 16 31/2 16 16 21/2 x 17112 37/8 18 16 2% x 19112 41/4 20 16 3 x 21112 4% 24 16 31/2 x 24V2 5%In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 29
    • Table 1-9 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500-1b Raised Face Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Pipe Bolts of Size forSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) 112 4 %x51h 1114 3/4 4 %x51h 1114 1 4 7/8 X 53/4 I;115 11/4 4 1 x61h 1518 11/2 4 11hx7 113115 2 8 1 x71h 1518 21/2 8 11/8 x 8 113115 3 8 11hx9 2 4 8 11/2 x 101/2 2318 6 8 2 x 13314 3118 8 12 2 x 15114 3118 10 12 2112x 19112 318 12 12 2% x 21112 4114In a g r e e m e n t with ANSI B. 16.530
    • Table 1-10 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 150.1b Ring Type Joint Flanges With Two Heavy Hex Nuts EachNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in,) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1 4 lhx3V4 718 R-15 11/4 4 lh x 31h 7/8 R-17 11/2 4 lh x 31h 7/8 R-19 2 4 % x 33/4 l Vie R-22 21/2 4 % x 4 1Vie R-25 3 4 sis x 41/4 1Vie R-29 31/2 8 % x 4114 I~11s R-33 4 8 % x 4114 11he R-36 5 8 314X 41h 1114 R-40 6 8 314x 41h 1114 R-43 8 8 314x 4314 1114 R-48 10 12 718x 5114 17116 R-52 12 12 718x 5114 17116 R-56 14 12 1 X 5314 1518 R-59 16 16 1 x6 15/8 R-64 18 16 11/8 x 6V2 113h6 R-68 20 20 11/8 x 63/4 113h6 R-72 24 20 11/4 x 71/2 2 R-76In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 31
    • Table 1-11 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 300-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolls (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 1/2x3 ;Is R-11 % 4 % x 31/2 1Vie R-13 1 4 5/8 x 33/4 11/le R-16 11/4 4 % x 33/4 1~/le R-18 11/2 4 % x 41/4 11/4 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/4 11/16 R-23 2~/2 8 314X4314 1114 R-26 3 8 314X5 1114 R-31 31/2 8 314 X 5114 1114 R-34 4 8 314X 51h 1114 R-37 5 8 314 x 5112 1114 R-41 6 12 314 x 5314 1114 R-45 8 12 718x 6114 1711e R-49 10 16 1x 7 1518 R-53 12 16 11/8 x 71/2 113/le R-57 14 20 l~/s x 7% 113/18 R-61 16 20 11/4 x 81/4 2 R-65 18 24 lV4 x 81/2 2 R-69 20 24 11/4 x 9 2 R-73 24 24 11/2 x 101/4 2% R-77In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.532
    • Table 1-12 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 400-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring PIN Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in,) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number lh 4 lhx3 7/a R-11 % 4 5/8 x 31/2 1 Vie R-13 1 4 5/8 x 33/4 1V16 R-16 11/4 4 5/8 x 4 lVls R-18 11/2 4 %x41h 1114 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/2 11/le R-23 21/2 8 314X5 1114 R-26 3 8 314 X 5114 1114 R-31 31/2 8 718 X 5314 17/16 R-34 4 8 7/a X 53/4 17116 R-37 5 8 718 x 6 17115 R-41 6 12 718x 6114 17118 R-45 8 12 I x 7 1518 R-49 10 16 11/8 x 73/4 113118 R-53 12 16 1114X 8114 2 R-57 14 20 11/4 x 81/2 2 R-61 16 20 1% x 9 2-~/16 R-65 18 24 1% x 91/4 23hs R-69 20 24 11/2 x 10 2% R-73 24 24 1% x 111/4 2% R-77In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 33
    • Table 1-13 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 600-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 1/2x3 % R-11 3/4 4 % x 31/2 lY16 R-13 1 4 5/8 x 3314 1Vie R-16 11/4 4 % x 4 lVls R-18 11/2 4 3/4 x41h 1114 R-20 2 8 5/8 x 41/2 11/le R-23 21/2 8 3/4x5 11/4 R-26 3 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 R-31 31/2 8 718 x 5314 17/le R-34 4 8 % x 6 17116 R-37 5 8 1 x63h 1518 R-41 6 12 1x 7 1% R-45 8 12 1118 x 7314 113/16 R-49 10 16 11/4 x 8314 2 R-53 12 20 11/4 x 9 2 R-57 14 20 13/8 x 91/2 23118 R-61 16 20 1112x 10114 2318 R-65 18 20 1518x 11 29118 R-69 20 24 1518x 11314 29118 R-73 24 24 1718x 13114 215118 R-77 26 28 1718 x 14 215118 R-93 28 28 2 x 14112 31/8 R-94 30 28 2 x 14314 31/8 R-95 36 28 21/2 x 16314 37/8 R-98In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.534
    • Table 1-14 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 900-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 314x4114 11/4 R-12 3/4 4 3/4 x 4V2 11/4 R-14 1 4 % x 5 17/lS R-16 11/4 4 % X 5 17/15 R-18 11/2 4 1 X 51/2 1% R-20 2 8 % X 5314 17115 R-24 21/2 8 I X 6114 1518 R-27 3 8 7/8 X 6 17116 R-31 4 8 11/8 X 7 113116 R-37 5 8 11/4 X 73h 2 R-41 6 12 11/8 X 73/4 113115 R-45 8 12 13/e X 9 23/lS R-49 10 16 1318 X 91/2 23116 R-53 12 20 1318 X 10114 23116 R-57 14 20 11/2 x 11114 23/8 R-62 16 20 1518 x 11314 28116 R-66 18 20 1718 x 13112 215116 R-70 20 20 2 x 141/4 31/8 R-74 24 20 2112 x 17314 3718 R-78In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 35
    • Table 1-15 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 1500-1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 3/, x 41/4 11/, R-12 % 4 %x41h 11/4 R-14 1 4 % x 5 17/le R-16 11/4 4 7/8 x 5 17/16 R-18 11/2 4 1 x 51/2 1% R-20 2 8 % x 53/4 17he R-24 21/2 8 1 x61/, 1% R-27 3 8 11/e x 7 113he R-35 4 8 11/4 x 73/4 2 R-39 5 8 1~/2 x 9s/4 2% R-44 6 12 13/8 x 101/2 23he R-46 8 12 15/8 x 12 2~ R-50 10 12 17/8 x 133/4 21shs R-54 12 16 2 x 151/, 31/a R-58 14 16 21/4 x 17 31/2 R-63 16 16 2Y2 x 18Y2 3% R-67 18 16 2% x 201/2 41/4 R-71 20 16 3 x 22112 4% R-75 24 16 31/2 x 25% 5% R-79In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.536
    • Table 1-16 Alloy Steel Stud Bolts for ANSI 2500.1b Ring Type Joint Flanges, Each With Two Heavy Hex NutsNominal Number of Size & Length Wrench Oval Ring Pipe Bolts of Size for GasketSize (in.) Required Stud Bolts (in.) Nuts (in.) R-Number 1/2 4 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 R-13 3/4 4 %x5V4 11/4 R-16 1 4 7/8 x 53/4 17h6 R-18 11/4 4 1 x61h 1% R-21 11/:, 4 lV8 x 71/4 1~3/18 R-23 2 8 1 x71/2 1% R-26 21/2 8 1118 x 8114 113116 R-28 3 8 1114 x 9114 2 R-32 4 8 1112x 10314 23/8 R-38 5 8 13/4 x 12314 23/4 R-42 6 8 2 x 14112 3118 R-47 8 12 2 x 16 31/8 R-51 10 12 21/2 x 20112 37/8 R-55 12 12 23/4 x 22112 41/4 R-60In a g r e e m e n t with A N S I B. 16.5 37
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    • 2 ANSI BUTTWELD FITTINGS ANSI buttweld fittings are used to change direction orjoin parts of a piping system. Mastering the names of thevarious shapes is not too difficult, because the numberof shapes is limited. Figure 2-1 shows the identification markings that arerequired on all fittings. The 90-degree long radius elbowis marked with the size and schedule number, the mate-rial grade, and the heat code symbol, also known as thelaboratory control number. Types of Buttweld FittingsElbows The elbow is the most commonly used fitting, and thelong radius elbow is probably the most commonly usedelbow. The short radius elbow is used in systems withtight spaces, such as offshore and skid units. Figure 2-2 shows the 90-degree long radius elbow nextto a 90-degree short radius elbow. Remember that a 90- 41
    • LABORATORY CONTROL NUMBER MATERIAL or TYPE NUMBER WALL THICKNESS NOMINAL PIPE SIZE TUBE TURNS" IDENTIFICATIONFigure 2-1. Identification markings. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Technologies, Inc.)degree long radius elbow has a center-to-face dimensionof one and one-half times the size of the elbow. The cen-ter-to-face dimension of a short radius elbow is the sameas the size of the elbow; e.g. a 2-in. short radius elbowhas a center-to-face dimension of 2 ins. For other dimen-sions, see Table 2-1.42
    • Figure 2-2.90-degreeelbows,longand short radius. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-3. 90-degreereducingelbow, long radius. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of Trinity Industries.)Reducing Elbows The 90-degree reducing elbow is used to change di-rection and reduce the flow in piping systems. See Fig-ure 2-3. 43
    • A III E o "c D~ lore --~E n 9 . ~ ~ . ,-_ ~,-~ 9 . .--i~J~ m . . . . i! ........ ..._~ ~~174176 0 "4 " ~ ~..i.i~::~-~.~ ~:," 9 "~ . . . . ~ ~l ::::: . . . . . . ::: . . . : :: . . . :~8~. ~r ~ . . . . . . . . ~, ~ : ::: ~c,) c0o c~r 9o 9 me,, ~ . i~ . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ . ~ ~ i~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . g g . : "21 ........ ~ ~nn ~.~. ~ : . 44 . . . . . . . . . . ,.II~II IIII~
    • c~ e~ ~ ooo o~ ~ ,-.. ~ ~ I;.. ,|:.:-_ J ~LcB"~ 1 .i ; ~ :.:..i:.". 9 ~, ~ I,. 9 +. , . . . . !!-+~ ++. .~i"~;.-".Yi" "J~ -~ " " :~.~.~_~ 9 :_~_+.~_~ :_~.~_~_~ :_=--! l + 9 ii , ,~ . . . . . 45
    • Figure2-4.45-degreeelbow,longradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionofTrinity Industries.)45-degree Elbows Figure 2-4 shows a 45-degree long radius elbow.These elbows are used for partial changes in direction ofthe line. The 45-degree elbows are sometimes trimmedto a lesser degree when required, such as 37 degrees.180-degree Returns The return is used for direction changes of 180-de-grees, thus avoiding the use of two 90-degree elbows.Figure 2-5 depicts a long and short radius 180-degree re-turn.Tees A tee is a branched connection to the main flow, andcan be either straight or reducing, as shown in Figure46
    • Figure2-5. 180-degreereturns,longand shortradius.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc.,a division of Trinity Industries.)Figure 2-6. Straightand reducingtees. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division ofTrinity Industries.)2-6. The reducing outlet can be specified on any branch,and Figure 2-7 shows the correct descriptions used forreducing tees and other fittings.Crosses Straight or reducing crosses are seldom used in sys-tems, except where space requirements dictate it. Figure2-8 shows a straight cross. Crosses are made in sizes of12-in. and smaller. 47
    • How to Read Reducing Fittings Elbows To assist the user in "reading" reducing fittings, a variety of types most commonly required for piping systems are illus- trated on this page. In these illustrations, each opening of the fitting is identified with a A A letter which indicates the se- 90 ~ | l b o w 9 0 ~ Siroot Elbow quence to be followed in read- Reducing Reducing on male end ing the size of the fitting. In designating the outlets of reducing fittings, the openings should be read in the order in- dicated by the sequence of the letters "A", "B", "C", and A A "D". On side outlet reducing IlilllW Hand Left Hand fittings, the size of the side Side Outlet 9 0 ~ Elbow outlet is named last. Reducing on twoOut~n Fw exmwdb: A Cross having one end of the run and one outlet reduced isdesignated as: A B C D 2~ x !~ x 2~ x !~ Simply name the largest open- C ing first and then name the Double Ikrencb Illbew other openings in the order Reducing on both ends of Run indicated, Although all but one of the illustrations are of screwed fittings, the same rules apply to the "reading" of reducing T r u e "Y" flanged, welding, solder-joint, and other types of fittings Service Tee c A~ ! B I I A Reducingonmaleendonly (Continued on next page)48
    • Tees Crosses C C @ ALj~ A A B Tee Tee 9 I With Outk,e Wi~ one end D reduced of Run reduced Crees teduc~Oon one Outlet onlyA B A B A B Tee TeeWith one ond of Rue ~ head type ~..~. |and Outlet reduced e~ls of Run reduced D Cress leducin9 on both Outlets B B C C J ~ ~ I A B ^ * 1" Ilillkt Nend Left Need i Side Ouelet Tees D With one end of Ru~ end OutleN reduced Cress Reducing on one end of Run end on one Outlet 45 ~ Y- Bend C B I ! D A Cress 4S ~ Y . | e n d (Lotee~l) Reducing on one end of Reducing on Outlet c~dy Run and o~ both Outlels Figure 2-7. How to read reducing fittings. (Courtesy of Crane Co.) 49
    • Figure2-8.Weldcross.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndustries.)Reducers Eccentric and concentric reducers, illustrated in Fig-ure 2-9, are used to reduce a line to a smaller size. Veryfew eccentric reducers are used in piping systems,therefore it is not difficult to tell which is which. The con-centric reducer has an inlet and outlet that are on a cen-ter line. The eccentric reducer has an off-center outlet, and isflat on one side. The eccentric reducer fits flush againsta wall, ceiling, or floor to give greater pipe support to theline.Figure 2-9. Concentricand eccentricweld reducers.(Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., adivision of TrinityIndustries.)5O
    • Lap Joint Stub Ends The stub end is used in lines requiring quick discon-nection. See Figure 2-10. The lap forms a gasket surfacethat replaces the gasket surface of a flange, and aremated with a lap joint flange. (Refer to Figure 1-4)o Stub ends should not be confused with stub-ins, thelatter being one pipe stubbed into another pipe andwelded. See Figure 2-11.Figure 2-10. Lap joint stub end. (Courtesy of Hackney, Inc., a division of TrinityIndustries.) Figure 2-11. A stub-in. 51
    • Figure2-12.Weldpipecap. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a divisionof TrinityIndus-tries.)Caps Pipe caps are used to block off the end of a line bywelding it to the pipe. Caps should never be stored in aposition to trap rain water or sand. See Figure 2-12. Special Buttweld FittingsPipe Saddles The saddle, as shown in Figure 2-13, is used to rein-force a junction of pipe or fitting in a line. After a nipplehas been welded into a line, the saddle is placed overthe outlet, and welded to both the outlet and the line.52
    • Figure 2-13. Pipe saddle. (Courtesyof Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity Indus-tries.) l,,aFigure 2-14. 45-degreelateral. (Courtesyof Hackney,Inc., a division of Trinity In-dustries.)Laterals Figure 2-14 shows a 45-degree lateral. Low-pressureapplications are about the only time laterals will be used. 53
    • Figure 2-15. Scraper bar tee. (Courtesy of Hackney, Inc., a division of Trinity In-dustries.)Scraper Bar Tee Figure 2-15 shows that bars have been fabricated in-side the outlet of a tee. The bars limit the direction apipeline scraper (or "Pig"), can travel inside a pipeline. Material ControlProtecting Weld Fittings Store weld fittings in a position so that water or sandwill not collect inside them.54
    • Large diameter fittings can be stored and protectedwith end covers, either plastic or metal. Fittings 1~/2 ins.and smaller should be stored inside, away from the ele-ments. Fittings can be stacked in layers with or without dun-nage. Metal to metal contact will not harm adjacent fit-tings. In corrosive areas, spray the fittings with a specifiedpreservative to prevent rust. Do not throw or dump the fittings from containers. Per-manent damage to a fittings beveled ends may result. When you are receiving fittings from a vendor or fromanother area, always check each and every fitting fordamage and markings per the purchase order specifica-tions.Mixed Schedule Fittings It is very common to have fittings of a mixed schedulematch different pipe wall thicknesses. When the fittingsare machined to a lower pipe schedule, the process iscalled "taper boring." Two examples would be: 1. One 12-in. 90-degree weld elbow, schedule 60 long radius, taper bore each end to extra strong. 2. A 12-in. by 6-in. concentric reducer, schedule 120, taper bore the 12-in. end to schedule 100, the 6-in. end to schedule 80. 55
    • When you receive such fittings from vendors, markeach fitting with positive markings for future identifica-tion. (The vendor should have already marked the fit-tings for you). Do not store altered fittings with regular sized fittings.A wrong fitting installed by accident in a system couldprove disastrous.Backing Rings Figure 2-16 shows rings that are sometimes used inpiping systems under severe service conditions. Onetype ring is grooved with knockoff spacer pins.Figure2-16.Grovetypeweldingringwithknock-offspacerpins.(Courtesyof TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.)56
    • Figure 2-17. Flat type and ridge type welding rings. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Tech-nologies, Inc.) The backup rings are inserted in the adjoining ends ofpipes that are to be buttwelded. The rings prevent spat-ter and metal icicles from forming inside the pipe. Thering becomes a permanent part of the piping system.Figure 2-17 shows two other type backing rings--the flatand ridge types. Branch Olet Connections There are many reputable manufacturers of Olet fit-tings used for branch connections. For description andillustration purposes, the Bonney Forge fittings are de-scribed here, along with their registered trade names forthe fittings.Interchangeability Table 2-2 shows the interchangeability and size con-solidation of the Olet fittings. The correct descriptions of 57
    • 6 6 ~ ~ o o ~ . - , c.., ..... ,..,.) .::~ u-) , . o o 0 ..:-, ~ r~.l c,-) ,.,.. ! (.-,~ ~,,o ,,::r N ~.o__.~- ~ O e~ e,~ r,-) ,~,) ,,=- u,-) c o o o ~ ~ ~,.) ,,.,- O ,ll o "r i U z_N O . - uJ oO N u) O C ~ m 9 .4-, e,~ e,4 (I,1 v C == U Ii == iml (II I= g s~z,s . n . S : i Z I S Nnl:l ..58
    • e,4.~ ..... ~-- ~~~1 !~ I~i-~ ~0,1 w Z Uom,0 w ~ ~!i~:~_~ ~=~~ S3ZI$ N N t l 59
    • Fs OF HEADER . - OF BRANCft GHT OR IEDULE qUFACTURERS NTIFICATION ,T N T I F I C A T I O N NO ~ERIAL SPEC BRANCH & HEADER SAME WEIGHT OR SCHEDULE S C H E D U L E OF HEADER S C H E D U L E OF BRANCH HEAT N U M B E R BRANCH & HEADER DIFFERENT WEIGHT OR SCHEDULE Figure 2-18. Markings on branch connections. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.)60
    • the Olets are shown in the table, and are suitable for usein your materials accounting system. Notice in Table 2-2, the run size numbers--36-3, 8-3,12-6, etc. These and the other numbers fit run sizes fromthe high number down through the low number. The sys-tem is further explained in Table 2-2. Figure 2-18 illustrates the identification markings thatare required on Olet fittings.Thredolets This is a fitting that is buttwelded on the run of pipeand has a threaded outlet. It is widely used on all proj-ects. See Figure 2-19.Sockolet This fitting is exactly the same as the Thredolet exceptit has a socket weld outlet. See Figure 2-19.Sweepolet | Resembling a saddle, this fitting is strong enough tosupport the branch line being buttwelded to it. See Fig-ure 2-19. Sweepolets will not be used too often on yourprojects.Elbolet | This fitting is welded to a 90-degree elbow to form anoutlet. See Figure 2-19. Elbolets are available with 61
    • WELDOLET ,ti ;,~. ,< THREDOLET SOCKOLET ELBOLET SWEEPOLETFigure 2-19. Bonney Forge fittings. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.)62
    • threaded, socket weld, and buttweld outlets. Table 2-3lists the sizes of elbolets and the correct descriptions.Flatolet | This fitting is used on flat surface areas, such as weldcaps and heads. Table 2-3 Bonney Forge Elbolets| (Courtesy of Bonney Forge.) DIMENSIONS =NOMINAL 3 0 0 0 = THREADED 6 0 0 0 = THREADED ELBOW SIZE OUTLET SIZE & SOCKET WELD INCHES & SOCKET WELD INCHES Std. & XS Butt-Weld Sch. 160 & XXS Butt-Weld C E C E 36-11/4 i/. i% 1]%2 1 89 11%2 361Va % 1% i]%2 11/2 11%2 36-11/4 89 i% 11%2 12~2 17/8 36-11//4 3~ 12~2 17/e 21/4 2% 36-2 I 2% 21/4 27/8 21/2 36.2 11//4 27/8 21/2 31/s 2] 88 36-2 1% 3~/s 21~6 4~6 31//4 363 2 4~6 31/4 2% 4~6 3% :. :.3 5 88 37/e ORDER TO =,-:4 6% 41~6 SPECIFIC ::6 93/8 61/2 ELBOW SIZES :8 13~6 8 88 ::= 10 17~2 103/8 12 19% 111/~ 63
    • ..j==,,=,.,=~ Socket Weld Reducing Inserts Socket Weld Steel Weld Couplet Threaded Steel Weld Couplet NIPOLET: Plain End or Threaded LATROLETFigure 2-20. Bonney Forge Nipolet~, Latrolet~, and couplets; reducing inserts byHenry Vogt Machine Company. (Courtesy of Bonney Forge and Henry Vogt Ma-chine Company.)64
    • Storing Olets All threaded sizes of Olets should be stored inside. Fit-tings 2 ins. and larger with weld ends may be stored out-doors. Small weld fittings should be stored indoors.Cardboard bin boxes are an excellent storage method toseparate the smaller Olets inside of warehouse shelvingfor easy inventory and issue.Other Olets Some of the other Olet fittings are Nipolets | Latro-lets | , couplets, reducing inserts, and etc. See Figure2-20. 65
    • 3 REFINERY PIPE Standard pipe is widely used in the oil and gas indus-tries, and is manufactured to ASTM standards (ANSIB36.10). Pipe charts, such as the one in Table 3-1, andcareful attention to purchase order descriptions whenshipping or receiving pipe help achieve accurate results.Therefore, a description of piping definitions and howvarious types are manufactured follow.Pipe Size In pipe of any given size, the variations in wall thick-ness do not affect the outside dimension (OD), just theinside dimension (ID). For example, 12-in. nominal pipehas the same OD whether the wall thickness is 0.375 in.or 0.500 in. (Refer to Table 3-1 for wall thickness of pipe). (Text continued on page 70)66
    • Table 3-1 Pipe Chart (Courtesy of Tioga Pipe Supply Company) 405 lOS 049 307 1863 40 40S Std 068 269 2447 80 80S Ex Hvy 095 215 3145 540 10S O65 410 3297 40 40S Std 088 364 4248 80 80S Ex Hvy 119 302 5351 675 10S 065 545 4235 40 40S Std. 091 493 5676 80 80S Ex Hvy 126 423 7388 840 5S 065 710 5383 10S 083 674 6710 40 40S Std 109 622 8510 80 80S Ex Hvy 147 546 1088 160 188 466 1 309 XX Hvy 294 252 1 7141 050 5S 065 920 6838 10S 083 884 8572 40 40SStd 113 824 1131 80 80S Ex Hvy 154 742 1 474 160 219 614 1 944 XX Hvy 308 434 2 4411315 5S 065 1185 8678 10S 109 1 097 1 404 40 40S Std 133 1 049 1 679 80 80S Ex Hvy 179 957 2172 160 250 815 2 844 XX Hvy 358 599 3 659 (Continued on next page) 67
    • Table 3-1 continued 1I/4 1 660 5S O65 1 530 1107 10S 109 1 442 1 806 40 40S Std 140 1 380 2 273 80 80S Ex Hvy 191 1 278 2 997 160 250 1 160 3 765 XX Hvy 382 896 5214 11/2 1 900 5S 065 1 770 1 274 10S 109 1 682 2 085 40 40S Std 145 1610 2718 80 80S Ex Hvy 200 1 500 3631 160 281 1 338 4 859 XX Hvy 400 1 100 6408 2 2375 5S 065 2 245 1 604 10S 109 2157 2 638 40 40S Std 154 2 067 3653 80 80S Ex Hvy 218 1 939 5022 160 344 1 689 7.462 XX Hvy 436 1 503 9029 21/2 2875 5S 083 2709 2475 10S 120 2 635 3531 40 40S Std 203 2469 5 793 80 80S Ex Hvy 276 2323 7661 160 375 2t25 1001 XX Hvy 552 1 771 13.69 3 3500 5S 083 3 334 3 029 10S 120 3 260 4 332 40 40S Std 216 3 068 7 576 80 80S Ex Hvy 300 2 900 10 25 160 438 2 624 14.32 XX Hvy 600 2 300 18 58 (Continued on next page)68
    • Table 3.1 continued 3V2 4.000 5 5S 083 3.834 3472 10 10S 120 3 760 4.973 40 40S Std 226 3.548 9109 80 80S Ex Hvy 318 3.364 12.50 XX Hvy 636 2.728 22.85 4 4 500 5S .083 4.334 3.915 10S 120 4.260 5.613 40 40S Std 237 4.026 10.79 80 80S Ex Hvy 337 3.826 1498 120 438 3.624 19.00 160 531 3.438 22.51 XX Hvy 674 3152 27 54 4V2 5 O0 40 Std 247 4.506 12.53 80 Ex Hvy 355 4 290 17.61 XX Hvy 710 3.580 32 43 5 5 563 5S 109 5 345 6.349 10S 134 5.295 7770 40 40S Std 258 5 047 14.62 80 80S Ex Hvy 375 4.813 2078 120 500 4.563 27.04 160 625 4 313 32.96 XX Hvy 750 4 063 38.55 6 6625 5S 109 6.407 7.585 10S .134 6.357 9.289 40 40S Std 280 6.065 18.97 80 80S Ex Hvy 432 5.761 28.57 120 562 5,491 36.39 160 .719 5 189 45.35 XX Hvy 864 4.897 53 16 (Continued on next page) 69
    • Table 3.1 continued 7 7625 40 Std 301 7023 23.57 80 Ex Hvy 500 6.625 38.05 XX Hvy 875 5.875 6308 8 8.625 5S 109 8.407 9.914 10S 148 8.329 13.40 20 250 8125 22.36 30 277 8.071 24.70 40 40S Std. 322 7.981 28.55 60 406 7.813 35.64 80 80S Ex Hvy .500 7.625 43.39 100 .594 7.439 50.95 120 .719 7.189 60.71 140 812 7.001 67.76 XX Hvy 875 6.875 72.42 160 906 6.813 74.69 9 9.625 40 Std 342 8.941 33.90 80 Ex Hvy 500 8.625 48.72 XX Hvy .875 7.875 81.77 10 10750 5S 134 10.482 15.19 10S 165 10.420 18.70 20 250 10.250 28.04 30 307 10.136 34.24 40 40S Std. 365 10.020 40.48 60 80S Ex. Hvy .500 9.750 54.74 80 .594 9.564 64.43 100 .719 9.314 77.03 120 .844 9.064 89.29 140 1.000 8.750 104.13 160 1.125 8.500 115.64 11 11 750 40 Std. 375 11.000 45.55 80 Ex Hvy 500 10.750 6007 XX Hvy. .875 I0.000 101.63 (Continued on next page)70
    • Table 3-1 continued 12 12.750 5S 165 12.420 22.18 10S 180 12.390 24.20 250 12.250 33.38 .330 12.090 43.77 40S Std. 375 12.000 49.56 40 .406 11.938 53.52 80S Ex. Hvy. .500 11.750 65.42 60 .562 11.626 73.15 80 .688 11.376 88.63 100 .844 11.064 107.32 120 1.000 10.750 125.49 140 1 125 10.500 139.67 160 1.312 10.126 160.27 14 14.000 10 .250 13.500 36.71 20 .312 13.376 45.61 30 Std. .375 13.250 54.57 40 438 13.124 63.44 Ex. Hvy. .500 13.000 72.09 60 .594 12.814 85.05 80 .750 12.500 106.13 O0 .938 12.126 130.85 20 .094 11.814 150.9 40 .250 11.500 170.21 60 .406 11.188 189.1 16 16.000 10 .250 15.500 42.05 20 312 15 376 52.27 30 Std. 375 15.250 62.58 40 Ex. Hvy 500 15.000 82.77 60 .656 14.688 107.5 80 .844 14.314 136.61 100 .031 13.938 164.82 120 219 13.564 192.43 140 .438 13 124 223.64 160 .594 12.814 245.25 (Continued on next page) 71
    • Table 3-1 continued 18 18.000 10 250 17.500 47.39 20 312 17 376 58.94 Std 375 17250 70.59 30 438 17124 82.15 Ex Hvy 500 17000 93.45 40 562 16.876 104.67 60 750 16.500 138.17 80 938 16126 170.92 100 1156 15688 207.96 120 1.375 15.250 244.14 140 1.562 14 876 274.22 160 1 781 14 438 308.5 20 20.000 10 250 19500 52.73 20 Std 375 19 250 78.60 30 Ex Hvy 500 19000 104.13 40 594 18 814 123.11 60 812 18 376 166.4 80 1031 17938 208.87 100 1281 17438 256.1 120 1 500 17 000 296.37 140 1 750 16 500 341.09 160 1.969 16 064 379.17 22 22.000 10 250 21 500 58 07 20 Std 375 21 250 86 61 30 X Hvy 500 21 000 114 81 60 875 20.250 197.41 80 1.125 19.750 250.81 100 1.375 19.250 302.88 120 1.625 18.750 353.61 140 1.875 18.250 403.0 160 2.125 17.750 451.06 24 24.000 10 250 23.500 63.41 20 Std. 375 23.250 94.62 Ex. Hvy .500 23.000 125.49 (Continued on next page)72
    • Table 3-1 continued 30 562 22.876 140.68 40 688 22.626 171.29 60 969 22.064 238.35 80 1.219 21.564 296.58 100 1531 20.938 367.39 120 1.812 20.376 429.39 140 2.062 19.876 483.1 160 2.344 19.314 542.13 26 26.000 312 25.376 85.60 Std 375 25.250 102.63 X Hvy 500 25.000 136.17 28 28 000 312 27 376 92.26 Std .375 27.250 110.64 500 27000 146.85 .625 26.750 182.73 30 30 000 312 29.376 98.93 Std 375 29.250 118.65 20 Ex Hvy 500 29.000 157.53 30 625 28.750 196.08 32 32000 312 31 376 105.59 Std 375 31.250 126.66 20 .500 31.000 168.21 30 625 30.750 209.43 40 688 30.624 230.08 34 34 000 312 33.376 112.25 Std .375 33.250 134.67 20 500 33.000 178.89 30 625 32 750 222.78 40 .688 32 624 244.77 36 36 000 312 35.375 118.92 Std 375 35250 142.68 Ex Hvy 500 35.000 189.57 (Continued on next page) 73
    • Table 3-1 continued 42 42.000 Std .375 41.250 166.71 20 X Hvy 500 41.000 221.61 30 .625 40.750 276,18 40 750 40.500 330.41 48 48.000 Std. .375 47.250 190.74 X Hvy 500 47.000 253.65Pipe Length Pipe is supplied and referred to as single random, dou-ble random, longer than double random, and cutlengths. Single random pipe length is usually 18-22 ft threadedand coupled (T&C), and 18-25 ft plain end (PE). Double random pipe lengths average 38-40 feet. Cut lengths are made to order within • Vs-in. Somepipe is available in about 80-ft lengths. The major manufacturers of pipe offer brochures ontheir process of manufacturing pipe. The following de-scriptions are based upon vendor literature and specifi-cations.74
    • Seamless Pipe This type of pipe is made by heating billets and ad-vancing them over a piercer point. The pipe then passesthrough a series of rolls where it is formed to a true roundand sized to exact requirements.Electric Weld Coils or rolls of flat steel are fed to a forming sectionthat transforms the flat strip of steel into a round pipesection. A high-frequency welder heats the edges of thestrip to 2,600~ at the fusion point. Pressure rollers thensqueeze the heated edges together to form a fusionweld.Double Submerged Arc Weld Flat plate is used to make large-diameter pipe (20-in.-44 in.)in double random lengths. The plate is rolled andpressed into an "O" shape, then welded at the edgesboth inside and outside. The pipe is then expanded tothe final diameter.Continuous Weld Coiled skelp (skelp is semi-finished coils of steel plateused specifically for making pipe), is fed into a flattener,and welded to the trailing end of a preceding coil, thusforming a continuous strip of skelp. The skelp travels 75
    • through a furnace where it is heated to 2,600~ and thenbent into an oval by form rollers. It then proceedsthrough a welding stand where the heat in the skelp andpressure exerted by the rolls forms the weld. The pipe isstretched to a desired OD and ID, and cut to lengths.(Couplings if ordered for any size pipe will be hand tightonly.) Pipe SpecificationsASTM A-120 Sizes V8-in. to 16-ins., standard weight, extra strong,and double extra strong (Std. Wt., XS, XXS). The specifi-cation covers black and hot-dipped galvanized weldedand seamless average wall pipe for use in steam, gas,and air lines.Markings. Rolled, stamped or stenciled on each length ofpipe: the brand name, ASTM A-120, and the length of thepipe. In case of bundled pipe, markings will appear on atag attached to each bundle. Table 3-2 shows a bundlingschedule.ASTM A-53 Sizes V8-in. to 26-ins., standard weight, extra strong,and double extra strong, ANSI schedules 10 through 160(see Table 3-1 for ANSI pipe schedules). The specifica-tion covers seamless and welded black and hot-dipped76
    • Table 3-2 Bundling ScheduleNominal Number Standard Weight Pipe Extra Strong Pipe Pipe pines per Total length Total weight Total length Total weightSize (in.) Bundle (fl) (Ibs) (ft) (ibs) 1/8 30 630 151 630 195 1/4 24 504 212 504 272 3/8 18 378 215 378 280 V2 12 252 214 252 275 3/4 7 147 166 147 216 1 5 105 176 105 228 11/4 3 63 144 63 189 11/2 3 63 172 63 229galvanized average wall pipe for conveying oil, water,gas, and petroleum products.Markings. Rolled, stamped or stenciled with brandname, kind, schedule, length of pipe, and type of steelused. In case of bundles, markings will appear on a bun-dle tag.ASTM A-106 Sizes 1/8 to 26-ins., ANSI schedules to 160. The speci-fication covers seamless carbon steel average wall pipefor high-temperature service.Markings. Rolled, stamped or stenciled with brandname, type such as ASTM A-IO6A, A-IO6B, A-106C (theA, B, C, indicate tensile strengths and yield point desig-nations), the test pressure, and length of pipe. In case ofbundles, the markings will appear on a bundle tag. 77
    • API-5L Sizes 1/8-in. to 48-ins., standard weight through doubleextra strong. The specification covers welded and seam-less pipe suitable for use in conveying oil, water, andgas.Markings. Paint stenciled with brand name, the API mon-ogram, size, grade, steel process, type of steel, length,and weight per foot on pipe 4-ins. and larger. In case ofbundles, the markings will be on the bundle tag. Cou-plings, if ordered, will be hand tight. Storing PipeStep 1--Pipe Racks Figure 3-1 shows a pipe rack made by using 12 x 12-in. timbers. The rack has been assigned a number formaterials accounting purposes. Do not store pipe di-rectly on the ground. If rack materials are not available,then use the pipe itself by preparing a rack from the pipewith a few boards under each end.Step 2--Layers Form the first layer of pipe with one end straight, andother joints straight across the rack. Secure the stack bynailing wooden blocks to the sills, against the side of thepipe on the inside edges (see Figure 3-1).78
    • ~+L ".! ~RACK ~ 8 ~,,..__, .----+, .... ,, ,,+-,, --~+_..~-- T / I 24" .375" WT 6 JTS. P.O. 60-3801 API 5LX-B 186 FT. 1 I 24" 375~ WT 6JTS. P.O. 60-3801 ! ,86~r ~ I 1 | _r!m"~~_, API 5LX-B . 186 F T . j r-- _.,, ,,l--.;-l~ -._~_-..- .___.--+ - .,, -~...- f.~l ._~ _,~.,.~ ~ l~_.~-,,~ 7 ...- _ / U_ _ = _ _ + _ + +__+_+. . . . . . . . . . Figure 3-1. Schematic of rack for storing pipe. 79
    • Step 3--Measure Tally each joint of pipe in the layer. Use a paint stick orsuitable marker to mark each joint according to length,size, schedule, and purchase order item number. Total the footage on the layer of pipe, and then markthe total footage and number of joints on the outside pipefor future inventory purposes. Apply color codes to pipeat this time if applicable.Step 4--Dunnage Apply sufficient dunnage of the same thickness acrossthe pipe with wooden blocks nailed to one side. Stackthe next layer of pipe directly over the first layer with thestraight ends in line with each other. Then follow steps 2,3, and 4. Continue to follow the steps until the rack is consid-ered full by the supervisor.Rules for Storing Pipe 1. Do not mix pipe sizes and schedules on the same pipe rack. 2. Keep the pipe storage area clean to prevent acci- dents. 3. Do not crowd the storage areas. Leave room for large trucks and cranes. 4. Make a physical count of the pipe on a weekly or monthly basis to verify your materials accounting records as correct.80
    • 5. Always measure pipe within tenths of an inch. Mea- sure the entire length of pipes, including couplings and threads. Calculations to Use If the outside diameter (OD) and the wall thickness of apipe (t) are known, then you may calculate the weight perfoot with the following equation: Weight per foot = 10.68 x ( O D - t ) x t Example: What is the weight per foot of a 3-in. pipe with a .216-in. wall thickness and an OD of 3.500 ins.? Using the equation, Weight per foot = 10.68 x (3.500 - .216) x .216 = 7.58 Ibs/ft Another method to determine weight per foot of pipewhere the outside diameter and wall thickness areknown is called the Baiamonte plate method. It is basedon a square foot of plate 1 inch thick weighing 40.833Ibs, and uses the following equation: Wei0 t 0er ,oot = 2 t) x T r x t Example: What is the weight per foot of an 8-in. pipe with a wall thickness of .322 in.? Table 3-1 81
    • shows that an 8-in. pipe has an OD of 8.625 ins. So, using the equation, / Weight per foot = 40.833 x 1 8 . 6 2 5 - ,322 12 x 3.1416 x t = 28.58 Ibs/ft82
    • 4 APi FLANGES The difference between API and ANSI flanges is thematerial from which they are fabricated and the higherworking pressure at which API flanges may be operated. API flanges are manufactured primarily for use with oilindustry high-strength tubular goods. The API 6A andANSI B. 16.5 flanges are similar dimensionally (see Ta-ble 4-1), but they cannot be interconnected without af-fecting the overall working pressure rating. Another difference is the through-bore nominal sizedesignation, such as 113116and 21116, for 6B flanges inplace of old nominal sizes, such as 1V2-inch, and 2-inch,for consistency with 6BX flange size designations. (SeeTables 4-2 and 4-3.) Some API flanges with casing or tubing threads havehub lengths greater than required for ANSI flanges. The new bore size designations for API flanges orclamp type connectors, will take several years to be-come a routine part of the materials vocabulary. There-fore, for reference, Tables 4-2 and 4-3 contain a complete 83
    • Table 4-1 API vs. ANSI Flange Dimensions Pressure Nominal Old APIFlange Type Class Rating Size Range (in.) Nominal size (in.) ANSI API ANSI APIWeldneck 600 2000 1/2-24 113/16to 11 11hto 10 900 3000 1/2-24 113/16to 11 11h to 10 1500 5000 1/2-24 113116to 11 11/2 to 10Blind,Threaded, &Integral 600 2000 V2-24 113/16to 211/4 11hto 20 900 3000 1/2-24 113/16to 20% 11/2 to 20 1500 5000 1/2-24 113/16to 11 11/2to 10 Table 4-2 API Bore Sizes and Matching Tubular Goods Sizes for 2,000, 3,000 and 5,000-1b psi Flanges or 5,000 Ib psi Clamp Type Connectors New API Line Bore Sizes Old Nominal Pipe Tubing Casingfor Flanges Flange Nominal Outside Outside and Hubs Size (in.) Size (in.) Diamater (in.) Diameter (in.) 113/le 11/2 11/2 1.660 & 1.900 21/le 2 2 1.600 thru 2% 29118 21/2 21/2 27/8 31/8 3 3 31/2 41116 4 4 4 & 41/2 41/2 71116 6 6 41/2 thru 7 9 8 8 75/8 & 85/8 11 10 10 95/8 & 103/4 13% 12 12 11314& 13318 135/8 135/8 -- 113/4 & 13318 163/4 16 16 16 163/4 163/4 -- 16 211/4 20 20 20 20314 20 20 2084
    • Table 4-3 API Bore Sizes and Matching TubularGoodsSizes for 10,000, 15,000 and 20,000 Ib psi Flanges and 10,000 lb. psi Clamp Type Connectors New API Bore Sizes "lTubing Casing for Flanges Outside Outsideand Hubs (in.) Diameter (in.) Diameter (in.) 111/16 1.900 1ls/16 2.063 21116 23/8 2~h6 2~/8 31116 31/2 4V16 4 & 41/2 41/2 71/16 4V2 through 7 9 7% & 8% 11 8% & 9% 13% 10314& 11314 163/4 16 183/4 18516 211/4 20list of the new bore size designations, the old nominalsize designations, and the matching tubular goods sizesfor use with API flanges or clamp type connectors. Bore diameter of API flanges should be the same in-side diameter as the pipe to be used. API flanges are marked with the API monogram (a reg-istered trademark), size, pressure rating, ring gasketsize, bore, manufacturer, and a heat number. Some APIflanges are marked with the manufacturers part or as-sembly numbers. Consult their individual catalogs for re-spective part numbers and descriptions. 85
    • Figure 4-1. API threaded flange. (Courtesy of National Supply Company.)Figure 4-2. API Type 6BX weldneck flange. (Courtesy of National Supply Com-pany.)86
    • API Type 6B and 6BX Flanges 2,000-20,000 psi Maximum Working Pressures Figure 4-1 illustrates a threaded flange. Threadedflanges do not have a bore schedule, but do have a de-scription of the type of thread, such as casing, tubing, orline pipe. The flange illustrated was made by NationalSupply Company, and will service 15,000 lb. WOG pres-sure. Figure 4-2 shows a weld neck flange manufactured bythe same company, which will service 15,000 Ibs. WOGpressure. This type flange does have a bore schedule. Tables 4-4 through 4-13, indicate the size range, boltrequirements, wrench size for the bolts, and the ring gas-ket number required for API type 6B and 6BX flanges. (Text continued on page 88) Table 4.4 API Type 6B Flangesfor 2000 psi MaximumWorkingPressure Nominal Old Size and Nominal Size and Wrench Ring Bore of Size of Number of Lengthof Size for NumberFlange (in.) Flange(in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) n or RX 113/lS 11/2 4 3/4 x 41/4 11/4 20 2V16 2 8 5/8 x 4V2 11/16 23 29118 21/2 8 3/4 x 5 11/4 26 31/8 3 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 31 41/16 4 8 7/8 X 6 17/16 37 51/8 5 8 1 X 63/4 1% 41 71/16 6 12 1X 7 1% 45 9 8 12 11/8 X 8 113118 49 11 10 16 11/4 X 83/4 2 53 13518 12 20 11/4 X 9 2 57 16314 16 20 lV2 X 10114 2% 65 17314 18 20 15/8 X 11 29/le 69 211/4 20 24 15/8 x 113/4 29/16 73 87
    • Table 4-5 API Type 6B Flanges for 3000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Old Size and Nominal Size and Wrench Ring Bore of Size of Number of Length of Size for NumberFlange (in.) Flange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) R or RX 113116 1112 4 1 x 51/2 1% 20 2 V16 2 8 % x 6 17/16 24 29116 21/2 8 1 x 61/2 1% 27 31/8 3 8 % x 6 17/16 31 4 ~/16 4 8 11/6 x 7 113116 37 51/8 5 8 11/,, x 73/,, 2 41 7 Y16 6 12 11/6 x 8 113116 45 9 8 12 13/8 x 9 23/16 49 11 10 16 13/8 x 91h 23/16 53 13% 12 20 13/8 x 101/4 23/16 57 16314 16 20 1% x 11314 29116 66 17314 18 20 17/6 X 13314 216/16 70 20314 20 20 2 x 14112 31/6 74 Table 4-6 API Type 6B Flanges for 5,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Old Size and Nominal Size and Wrench Ring Bore of Size of Number of Length of Size for NumberFlange (in.) Flange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) R or RX 113/16 11/2 4 1 x 51/2 1% 20 21/16 2 8 7/8 x 6 17/16 24 29/16 21/2 8 1 x 61/2 15/6 27 31/8 3 8 11/6 x 71/4 113/16 35 4V16 4 8 11/4 x 8 2 39 51/8 5 8 11/2 X 10 23/6 44 7V16 6 12 13/6 X 103/4 23/16 46 9 8 12 1% X 12 29/16 50 11 10 12 1% X 133/4 216/16 5488
    • Table 4-7 API Type 6BX Weldneck Flanges for 10,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Weight Bore of Number of Length of Size for Ring ofFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number Flange (ibs) 111/16 8 3/4 x 5 11/4 BX-150 22 113/16 8 3/4 x 5 11/4 BX-151 24 21/16 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 BX-152 38 29/16 8 % x 6 17/16 BX-153 38 31/16 8 1 x 63/4 16/6 BX-154 52 41/16 8 11/6 x 8 113/16 BX-155 66 51/6 12 11/6 x 83/4 113/16 BX-169 120 71116 12 11/2 x 11114 23/6 BX-156 340 9 16 11/2 x 13 23/6 BX-157 550 11 16 13/4 x 15 23/4 BX-158 810 13516 20 17/6 x 171/4 215/16 BX-159 970 16314 24 17/o x 171/2 215/16 BX-162 1400 Table 4-8 API Type 6BX Weldneck Flanges for 15,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Weight Bore of Number of Length of Size for Ring ofFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number Flange (Ibs) 111/16 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/,, BX-150 22 113/16 8 7/6 x 51/2 17116 BX-151 28 21116 8 7/6 x 6 17116 BX-152 34 29/16 8 1 x 63/4 15/6 BX-153 34 31/16 8 11/6 x 71/2 113/16 BX-154 64 41116 8 13/6 x 91/4 23116 BX-155 154 7V16 16 11/2 x 123/4 23/6 BX-156 440 89
    • Table 4-9 API Type 6BX Weldne 9 Flanges for 20,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Weight Bore of Number of Length of Size for Ring ofFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number Flange (ibs) 113/16 8 1 x 71/2 15/8 BX-151 35 21/16 8 11/8 x 81/4 113/16 BX-152 52 29/16 8 1V4 x 91/4 2 BX-153 65 31/16 8 13/8 x 10 23116 BX-154 140 41/16 8 13/4 X 121/4 23/4 BX-155 270 71116 16 2 x 171/2 31/6 BX-156 620 Table 4.10 API Type 6BX Integral Flanges for 5,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Bore of Number of Length of Size for RingFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number 135/8 16 lS/6 x 121/2 29/16 BX-160 163/4 16 1% x 141/2 215/16 BX-162 183/4 20 2 x 17V2 31/8 BX-163 211/4 24 2 x 183/4 31/8 BX-16590
    • Table 4-11 API Type 6BX Integral Flanges for 10,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Bore of Number of Length of Size for RingFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number 111/16 8 3/4x5 11/4 BX-150 113/16 8 3/4x5 11/4 BX-151 21/16 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 BX-152 29116 8 % x 6 17/16 BX-153 31/16 8 1 x 63/4 15/8 BX-154 41/16 8 11/6 x 8 113/16 BX-155 51/8 12 11/8 x 83/4 113/16 BX-169 71/18 12 1V2 x 111/4 23/8 BX-156 9 16 11/2 x 13 23/6 BX-157 11 16 1314 x 15 2314 BX-158 13518 20 1716 x 17114 215116 BX-159 16314 24 17/8 x 17112 215116 BX-162 18314 24 2114 x 22112 3V2 BX-164 21114 24 21/2 X 241/2 3718 BX-166 Table 4.12 API Type 6BX Integral Flanges for 15,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Bore of Number of Length of Size for RingFlange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number 111/16 8 3/4 x 51/4 11/4 BX-150 113/16 8 7/8 x 51/2 17/16 BX-151 21/16 8 7/8 x 6 17/16 BX-152 29/16 8 1 x63/4 1% BX-153 31/16 8 11/6 x 71/2 113/16 BX-154 41/16 8 13/8 x 91/4 23116 BX-155 7V16 16 11/2 x 12314 23/8 BX-156 9 16 17/8 x 153/4 215/16 BX-157 11 20 2 x 191/4 31/8 BX-158 91
    • Table 4-13 API Type 6BX Integral Flangesfor 20,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Nominal Size and Size and Wrench Bore of Number of Length of Size for RingRange (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number 113/16 8 1 x71h 1% BX-151 21/lS 8 11/8 x 81/, 1"he BX-152 29/la 8 11/4x91/, 2 BX-153 31he 8 13/8 x 10 23/le BX-154 41he 8 13/, x 121/4 23/, BX-155 71/16 16 2 x 171/2 31/8 BX-156 Table 4-14 Recommended6BX Flange Bolt Torque Bolt Size Torque (ft-I#) 3/, .10 UNC 200 718 -9 UNC 325 1 -8 UNC 475 11/a-8 UN 600 13h -8 UN 1200 11h -8 UN 1400 1% -8 UN 1700 13/, -8 UN 2040 17/8-8 UN 3220 2 -8 UN 3850Table 4-14 is the recommended bolt torque requirementsand wrench size required on API type 6BX flanges. Figure 4-3 shows a Type 6BX weld neck flange with atransition piece. The transition piece, when ordered, isapplied by the manufacturer due to the difficulty of fieldwelding and heat treating at the jobsite. The API mono-gram will not appear on the transition piece. Lengths oftransition pieces will vary.92
    • -< ~ § 1/32 m o x "qP-" ~ - O x45 ,_1 +O J= - i / a " -4 ,/."Figure 4-3. API Type6BX weldneckflangewith translationpiece. (CourtesyofAmericanPetroleumInstitute.) Weights of some API flanges and clamp type connec-tors appear in the tables for use as shipping weights onlyand are not a part of the API specifications. Bolting and Ring Gaskets for API Flanges API type 6B flanges require an R or RX ring gasket.API type 6BX flanges require a BX ring gasket. R and RXring gaskets are interchangeable with each other. BXgaskets are not interchangeable with R and RX ring gas-kets. (See Tables 4-20 and 4-21 .) 93
    • API TYPE 6B FLANGE NO STANDOFF ! API TYPE 6BX FLANGE POINT HEIGHT STUD BOLT WITH NUTSFigure 4-4. API flange standoff difference and bolt lengths. (Courtesy of AmericanPetroleum Institute.)94
    • Bolt lengths have been calculated to accommodatethe standoff difference shown in Figure 4-4 for 6B and6BX flanges. Also illustrated in Figure 4-4, are the pointheights for stud bolts. Point heights are not included inthe calculations for stud bolt lengths. The lengths for point heights in inches are as follows: Bolt Diameter Maximum Point Height 1/2 to 7/s-in. Vs-in. 7/8 to 1VB 3/16 1118 to 15/8 1/4 1% to 1718 5/16 17/8 to 21/4 3/8Dual Completion Flanges Figure 4-5 shows a typical 5,000-1b psi-working-pres-sure segmented flange used for dual completions. Table4-15 shows the bolt requirements, API ring gasket num-ber, and the wrench size required for the bolts.Multiple Completion Flanges Figure 4-6 shows two details of a typical 5,000-1b psi-working-pressure segmented flange used for triple orquadruple completions. Table 4-16 lists the cap screw re-quirements, the API ring gasket number, and the hexwrench size for the cap screws. 95
    • i f / t I ) |"M" HOLES ~,/~, j //--F R - . ~...__: --7~,,--:c-7 _ , .,,(/Figure 4-5. 5,000-psi maximum working pressure API segmented flange for dualcompletions. (Courtesy of American Petroleum Institute.) Table 4-15 5,000 psi Maximunl Working Pressure Segmented Flanges for Dual Completions Size and Wrench Nominal Old Nominal Number of Lengthof Size for Ring Size (in.) Size (in.) Bolts Bolts (in.) Bolts (in.) Number13/8 11/4 5 1/2 X 41/2 7/8 RX-201113/18 13/4 5 % x 53/4 11/18 RX-20521/16 2 5 3/4 x 6 11/4 RX-2029hs 21/2 5 1 x 71/4 1% RX-21031/8 3 5 1 x 73/4 1% RX-2541he 4 6 11/8 x 81/4 113he RX-21541/16 x 41/4 4 x 41/4 6 11/8 x 81/4 113he RX-21596
    • IS s DETAIL I DETAIL 2Figure 4-6. 5,000-psi maximum working pressure API segmented flanges for tripleand quadruple completions. (Courtesy of American Petroleum Institute.) Table 4-16 5,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure Segmented Flanges for Triple and Quadruple Completions Old Size and Hex WrenchNominal Detail Nominal Number of Lengthof Size for RingSize (in.) Number Size (in.) Cap Screws Cap Screws (in.) Cap Screws (in.) Number113/16 2 13/, 5 %-11NCX 23/, 1/2 RX-2052V16 1 2 4 %-9NC x 31/4 3/4 RX-2029116 2 21/2 5 1-8UNC 31/2 x 3/4 RX-21031/8 2 3 6 7/8-9NC x 31/2 3/4 RX-254V16 2 4 6 1-8UNC 4x 3/, RX-2154Y16 x 411, 2 4 x 41/4 6 1-8UNC 4x 3/4 RX-215 97
    • /Figure 4-7. Hubs used with API clamp type connectors. (Courtesy of AmericanPetroleum Institute.) IFigure 4-8. API clamp type connectors for use on hubs. (Courtesy of AmericanPetroleum Institute.)98
    • API Hubs and Clamps Figures 4-7 and 4-8 show hubs and clamp type con-nectors used by some wellhead manufacturers for 5,000and 10,000 Ib psi pressure ratings. Hubs are designed by nominal size and bores. Clampsare designated by clamp numbers, 1A through 15A.Clamp numbers 9A through 15A require a sphericalwasher. The nuts for clamps 1A through 8A have aspherical facing. RX type ring gaskets are used on clampconnectors. Tables 4-17 and 4-18 show the nominal hub size, hubOD, clamp number, clamp weight, RX gasket number,the bolt size and length, spherical washer size, and the Table 4-17 API Clamp Type Connectors Integral Hubs and Clamps 5000 psi Maximum Working Pressure OD Clamp Nut Size WrenchNominal of Hub Ring Clamp Weight for Clamp Size for WasherSize (in.) (in.) Number Number (Ib$) (in.) Nut (in.) OD (in.) 2Vie 5.500 RX-23 1A 35 7h-9UNC-2B 17he 29116 6.750 RX-24 2A 45 1-8UNC-2B 1% m 31/8 7.500 RX-27 3A 100 1lh-8UN-2B 113/16 41/le 9.250 RX-35 4A 56 11/4-8UN-2B 2 m 51/8 11.500 RX-39 5A 67 1%-8UN-2B 23/lS m 7V16 13.625 RX-45 6A 111 1%-8UN-2B 29116 9 16.000 RX-49 7A 160 2-8UN-2B 3118 11 18.500 RX-53 8A 242 21h-8UN-2B 3% E 13318 20.625 RX-57 9A 225 2%-8UN-2B 41/le 4.06* 16314 25.625 RX-65 10A 345 31h-8UN-2B 5 5.00* Clamp sizes 1A through 8A require the use of spherical face nuts. Clamp sizes 9A and 10A require the use of spherical washers and standard nuts. 99
    • Table 4-18 API Clamp Type Connectors Integral Hubs and Clamps 10,000 psi Maximum Working Pressure OD Clamp Nut Size WrenchNominal of Hub Ring Clamp Weight for Clamp Size for WasherSize (in.) (in.) Number Number (ibs) (in.) Nut (in.) OD (in.) 113/le 5.500 RX-20 1A 28 %-9UNC-2B 17/lS -- 2Y16 6.750 RX-23 2A 35 1-8UNC-2B 1% -- 2gh6 7.500 RX-24 3A 45 11/6-8UN-2B 1mh6 -- 3V16 9.250 RX-27 4A 1O0 11/,-8U N-2B 2 -- 4V16 11.500 RX-35 5A 56 13h-8UN-2B 23116 -- 7Y16 16.000 RX-45 7A 111 2-8UN-2B 31/6 -- 9 18.500 RX-49 8A 160 2V2-8UN-2B 37/a -- 11 20.625 RX-53 11A 274 2%-8UN-2B 41/4 4.25" 136/6 22.468 RX-57 12A 215 31/4-8UN-2B 5 5.00 16314 28.000 RX-65 13A 593 3716-8UN-2B 516116 5.94 18314 31.250 RX-69 14A 366 41h,-8UN-2B 67/a 6.88 211/4 34.000 RX-73 15A 850 4%-SUN-2B 71/4 7.25* Clamp sizes 1A through 8A require the use of spherical face nuts. Clamp sizes 9A and 15A require the use of spherical washers and standard nuts. Table 4-19 Recommended Bolt Torque for Clamp Type Connectors Bolt Size Bolt Tension (Ibs) Makeup Torque (ft Ibs) 7/8 -9UNC 16,760 195 1 -8UNC 22040 292 11/8 -8UN 29 120 428 11/4 -8UN 37 160 600 13/8 -8UN 46200 815 1% -8UN 67200 1382 2 -8UN 1O6000 2645 21/2 -8UN 171600 5287 2% -8UN 190400 6182 23/4 -8UN 210,400 7099 31/4 -8UN 299.600 11,685 37/8 -8UN 433200 20,236 41/2 -8UN 591 200 32,078 43/4 -8UN 660000 37,745100
    • wrench size required to fit the nut. Table 4-19 is the rec-ommended bolt torque for clamp type connectors. API Ring Gaskets API ring gaskets type R, RX, and BX are used forflanges and clamp type connectors. The R and RX gas-kets are interchangeable and will fit ANSI flanges whereapplicable (Standard B-16.20, and API 6A). Uses for thedifferent ring gaskets are shown in Figure 4-9. Types RX and BX provide a pressure energized sealbut are not interchangeable. It is not recommended to reuse BX150 through BX160ring gaskets. Types: OVAL and OCTAGONAL. Designed for API Ring Joint Gaskets, these match standard and special grooves. K & W produces a wide selection of custom- designed and standard gaskets in these styles. BX and RX. Designed for extreme pressure service to 15,000 psi required in todays oilfield drilling and production, these gaskets are pressure-actuated (the higher the contained pressure, the tighter the seal). The BX can be used only in API 6 BX flanges. The RX is interchangeable with standard octagonal rings in API 6B flanges. COMBINATION. Designed for ring joints in which the mating flanges have different ring groove diameters.Figure4-9. Typesof API ringgasketsas manufactured K&W,Inc.(Courtesyof byK&W, Inc., a StandcoCompany.) 101
    • Table 4-20 Oval and OctagonalRing Gasket InterchangeTablefor API Type 6B Flanges with Old Nominal Pipe Sizes Old 720 Old OldNominal 960 Nominal Nominal Flange 2,000 Flange Flange Size 3,000 Ibs Size (in.) 5,000 Ibs Size (in.) 2,900 Ibs Ring No. Ring No. Ring No. R RX R RX R RX 1 R-16 1 R-16 1 *R-82 RX-82 11/4 R-18 11/4 R-18 11/2 R-84 RX-84 lV2 R-20 RX-20 11/2 R-20 RX-20 2 R-85 RX-85 2 R-23 RX-23 2 R-24 RX-24 21/2 R-86 RX-86 21/2 R-26 RX-26 21/2 R-27 RX-27 3 R-87 RX-87 3 R-31 RX-31 3 R-35 RX-35 4 R-88 RX-88 31/2 R-34 RX-34 31/2 R-37 RX-37 3V2 R-89 RX-89 4 R-37 RX-37 4 R-39 RX-39 5 R-90 RX-90 5 R-41 RX-41 5 R-44 RX-44 10 R-91 RX-91 6 R-45 RX-45 6 R-46 RX-46 8 R-49 RX-49 8 R-50 RX-50 10 R-53 RX-53 10 R-54 RX-54 12 R-57 RX-57 14 R-61 RX-61 16 R-65 RX-65 18 R-69 RX-69 20 R-73 RX-73*Octagonal is standard in R-80 through R-99.Gasket Markings API ring gaskets are marked with the API monogram,the R-number, and type of steel as follows: Material Marking Soft Iron D (Cadmium plated) Type 304 SS $304 Type 316 SS $316102
    • Table 4.21 BX Gasketsfor API Type 6BX WeldneckFlanges Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal Flange Flange Flange Flange Bore for Bore for Bore for Bore for5000(Ibs) BX-No. lO,O00(Ibs) BX-No. 15,O00(Ibs) BX-No. 20,O00(Ibs) BX-No. 13s/8 BX-160 111/16 BX-150 111116 BX-150 113116 BX-151 163/4 BX-162 113/16 BX-151 1~3/le BX-151 2V16 BX-152 183/4 BX-163 21/le BX-152 21118 BX-152 29hs BX-153 211/4 BX-165 29/16 BX-153 29hs BX-153 3Yls BX-154 31he BX-154 31/ls BX-154 41/16 BX-155 4V18 BX-155 41/16 BX-155 71/le BX-156 51/8 BX-169 71/le BX-156 71/le BX-156 9 BX-157 11 BX-158 13% BX-159 163/4 BX-162 183/4 BX-164 211/4 BX-166Care of Ring Gaskets Store ring gaskets on a flat surface, with cardboard orheavy paper as dunnage to separate each gasket forsurface protection. Do not hang ring gaskets on pegs ornails. Do not store gaskets on their edges. Never ship ring gaskets loose or in sacks. Instead,protect the gaskets during shipment by wrapping eachone in paper, foil, or in boxes in order to prevent damageto the gasket surface. 103
    • 5 STAINLESS STEELS Stainless steels offer a good resistance to certaintypes of corrosion, and provide acceptable solutions foruse in high temperature and sub-zero conditions. Dimensions and Markings Fittings made from nickle, aluminum, copper, molyb-denum or titanium are the same as the carbon steel fit-tings described in Chapter 2. However, wall thicknessand weights are different for stainless schedules 5S,10S, 40S, and 80S on sizes of 12 ins. and smaller, whichare made in accordance to B36.19. See Table 5-1 for thecomplete dimensions of stainless steel pipe fittings.104
    • Table 5-1 Dimensions for Stainless Steel Weld Fittings (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) 90" ELBOWS 45" ELBOWS 180" RETURNS NOM. OUTSIDE LonE Radius Short Radius Line Radius Lol I BINlilN a PIPE I IZE OlAMETEP Center to (O.D.) Centerto Centerto | Center to Back to Face (A) Face (A) Face (B) lad)us (A) Center(0) Face (K) /2 .840 11/, . . . . . . % 1 V, 3 1 Y, ;/4 1.050 11/o . . . . . . ~, IV, 2V, i,~, 1 1.315 11/, I 7/m IVz 3 2~. 11/4 1.660 17/0 11/4 1 17/o 3~ 23/4 I/2 1.900 21/4 1112 1~/. ,,, 2~,~ 4/2 3V4 - - 2 2.375 3 " 2 13/. 3 6 4~. 721/2 2.875 3~/, 2V, 1% 3u 71/z 5~, 3 3.500 41/2 3 2 41/z 9 61/4 31/2 4.000 5V, 31/, 21/, ... 51/, 101/z 7V4 4 4500 6 4 21/2 6 12 EV4 5 5563 711, 5 3Vs 71/, 15 10%, 6 6.625 9 6 3u ,,, 9 18 12~% 8 8.625 12 8 5 12 24 16~, 10 10.750 15 10 61/4 15 30 203/I 12 12.750 1~ 12 7V:, 18 36 24~ 14 14.000 21 14 8:)A 21 42 28 16 16000 24 16 ]0 24 48 32 18 18000 27 18 111/4 27 54 36 20 20 000 30 20 121/, 30 60 40 24 24.000 36 24 15 36 72 I 48 STRAIGHT CAPS STUB ENOS STRAIGHT NOM. OUTSIO[ TEES CROSSES PiPE OlAMETEP SIZE (O.0.) Center to Len kRb-I"~" - Lap (E) (Long) (Short) Center to End (C) ([) Diameter (G) Length(F) Len|th (F) End (C) /2 840 1 1 ...... 13/8 3 2 ..... % 1.050 IVe I ...... I~{, .. 3 2 ..... I 1.315 IV: IVz 11/2 2 4 2 II/2 1 I/4 1.660 17/I 1VZ 11/2 2VZ 4 2 17/a l/z 1.900 21/4 1Z/2 11/2 27/8 4 2 21/4 2 .. 2.375 2VZ iYz 13/, 3.% 6 21/2 21/2 21/2 2.875 3 ll/zl 2 4Ve 6 21/2 3 3 3.500 3~ 2 21/z 5 6 21/z 3~ 3 I/z 4.000 3~ 21/2 3 5V2 b 3 33~.. 4 4.500 4V8 21/2 3 6~, 6 3 41/1 5 5.563 47/8 3 31/2 7~, 8 3 47/0 "6 6.625 56/~ 31/2 4 81/2 8 31/z 5rA 8 8.625 7 4 5 10% 8 4 7 10 10.750 " 81/z 5 6 12:~ 10 5 * 81/z " 12 12.750 10 6 7 15 10 6 10 14 ,, 14.000 11 61/z 71/:, 16V4 12 6 11 16 16.000 12 7 8 18V, 12 6 12 18 18.000 131/, 8 9 21 12 6 13 l/:, 20 2O 000 15 9 10 23 12 6 15 24 24.000 17 lOV2 12 271/4 I2 6 17;Use length E-] where wall thickness is greater than for Schedule 80S. (Continued on next page) 105
    • Table 5-1 continued REDUCING OUTLET T REDUCERS TEES * NOM. Concentr|c & PIPE Eccentr,c Center to End Ce~er to End SIZE Length (H) of Run (C) of Outlet (M) l I/2 ] ] x 3/8 I L/2 ! ! 3/4X 3/8 2 11/8 Iv8 x 1:2 2 ll/s ]l/s l x 3/8 2 11/2 ]1/2 x 1/2 2 11/2 11/2 T x 3A 2 11/2 11/2 T-- 11/4 X I2 2 17/s 17/. ~, x 3/4 2 17/s 17/8 x] 2 17/8 17/S .... A -------- 11/2x 12 2|/2 21/4 21/4 X 3/4 21/~, 21/4 21/4 T _~,~---~O. D . - ~ x] 2V:, 21/, 21./4 xll/4 2V2 21/4 21/4 2 X 3/4 3 2V2 ]3~ xl 3 21/2 2 Xll/4 3 2V2 21/, xlV~, 3 21/:, 23/8 2V:, x 1 3V2 3 2V4 x11/4 31/2 3 2Vz x 11/~, 31/~, 3 2s/. ..... OD.- x2 3V2 3 23~ f _7 3 xl 31/2 33/, 2s/8 xlV~, 3V2 33/. 2)/S [ or x2 31/2 33/8 3 x 21/~, 31/2 3~ 3V( REDUCING :UTLET ~o D,-ff, REDUCERS TEES T--~, " ; - T NOM. Concentric & PIPE Eccentric Center to End Center to End c ~ ,--T" SIZE Lenl[th (H) of Run (C) of Outlet (M) 31/2 x I//4 4 x2 4 3% 31/4 x2V2 4 3 90 3V2 x3 4 33A 3~s ..... 4 x 11/z 4 41/8 33/8 x2 4 498 31/z x21/z 4 41/e 3 90 x3 4 41/e 37/s x31/z 4 4Vs 4 5 x2 5 47/s 41/s x21/2 5 47/s 41/4 x3 5 47/I 43/11 x 31/2 5 47/s 41/2 x4 5 47/8 4s/s (Continued on next page)106
    • Table 5.1 continued REDUCING OUTLET REDUCERS TEES * NOM. Cencentric & PiPE Eccentric Center te E H Center te [ M SIZE Len|th (H) ef Rue (C) ef Outlet (M)T x2V2 5V~. 5s/8 4u x3 5V2 5% 47/e x3/2 51/:, 5s/. 5 x4 51/2 5% 51/s x5 51/2 5r,/8 53/s x3 6 7 6 x3Vz 6 7 6 x4 6 7 61/8 x5 6 7 63/e x6 6 7 6s/8 x4 7 8Vz 71/4 ?~ x5 8V2 7V2 .......... 0 -~ 81/2 7u l 8V2 8 ---~ O.D. r--- REDUCING OUTLET .... lr REDUCERS TEES* NOM. Concentric & O.D. PIPE Eccentric Center to End Center to End SIZE LenDth (H) of Run (C) of Outlet (M) 12x 5 8 10 8t/2 -~ c ---4.----- c ----J x 6 8 10 8~s x 8 8 10 9 xlO 8 10 91/2 14x 6 ]3 11 9H x 8 13 11 9 90 xlO 13 11 10V. x12 13 11 10sA 16x 6 ]4 12 103/8 x 8 ]4 12 10 90 x 10 ]4 12 llV. x]2 14 12 llY. x 14 14 12 12 18x 8 15 13V2 11% xlO 15 131/2 121/. x12 15 131/2 12s/k T x]4 15 131/ 13 x 16 ]S 131/2 13 20x 8 2O 15 12% xlO 2O 15 131/s x ]2 2O 15 13s/. x]4 20 15 14 x 16 2O 15 14 x 18 2O 15 141/2 24x 10 2O 17 151/a x 12 2O 17 15s/8 T t , x 14 20 17 16 x16 20 17 16 x18 20 17 161/2 x 20 2O 17 17 o.D -t- ~ - - 1 - ~ ~ *Use same dimensmons for reductng outlet crosses. All dmlenslons are in inches and conform to ASA B]6.9 and MSS SP-43, where applicable. 107
    • Figure5-1. Standardmarkingsfor stainlesssteelfittings. (Courtesyof FlowlineCorp.)Markings of Fittings Figure 5-1 illustrates a stainless steel 90-degree weldelbow long radius with standard markings:7071 (heat or batch number)4" Sch. 40S (size and pipe schedule)Flowline (trademark of the manufacturer).237" Wall (wall thickness of S/40S pipe)WP304L (ASTM specification design) Types of Stainless Steel There are over forty types of stainless steels. Threebasic types account for half of the stainless steel used.These are the 300 and 400 series of stainless.108
    • The most likely types of stainless steel used in ANSIsystems will be 304, 304L, 316, and 316L. The "L" des-ignation is for a low-carbon content in the steel. Screwed fittings are usually 304 or 316 stainless.Valves are usually 316 stainless. Pipe and flanges maybe any of the above types. Stainless steel stud bolts arenot common. Carbon steel lap joint flanges are used with stainlesssteel stub ends when feasible to limit the use of thehigher priced stainless flanges. See Table 5-3 for dimen-sions of stub ends. Stainless Steel Fittings Figures 5-2 through 5-5 show the most commonlyused weld fittings. Identification markings are identical to the require-ments for carbon steel flanges, i.e., trademark, type ofmaterial, size, pressure rating, and bore. Descriptionsare the same as for carbon steel flanges.Storage of Stainless Flanges The same methods described in Chapter 2 for storingor shipping carbon steel flanges applies as well forstoring stainless steel flanges. However, it is preferableto store stainless flanges indoors if possible to protectthe flange face and gasket surface. It is not necessary tolubricate the face of any stainless steel flange. (Text continued on page 110) 109
    • " *"" ~ ~! J ji,~ ill f ~.~.__ DIUS 90 ~ ELBOWS 90 ~ ELBOWS . ~ ~ " ~ " , ~? ----=,~ ===~__~ ~... ~.,,.=_,~------~ LONGRADIUS REDUCING 90 ~ ELBOWS 45 ~ ELBOWS Figure 5-2. Stainless steel elbows. (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) 110
    • / k STRAIGHT TEES REDUCINGOUTLETTEES r~ ,~ STRAIGHT CROSSES i, !! i/ REDUCING OUTLETCROSSESFigure 5-3. Stainless steel tees and crosses. (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) 111
    • 180~ TURNS CAPS ECCENTRIC REDUCERS CONCENTRIC REDUCERSFigure 5-4. Stainless steel returns, caps, and reducers. (Courtesy of FlowlineCorp.)112
    • fi,L,STUB ENDS--MSS SHORTLENGTHS i STUB ENDS--ANSI LONGLENGTHS TYPE C STUB ENDSFigure 5-5. Stainless steel stub ends and flange. (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) 113
    • Stainless Steel Pipe The common schedules of stainless steel pipe are 5S,10S, 40S, and 80S. Table 5-2 is a complete chart ofstainless steel pipe schedules and other important data.Stainless pipe is commonly referred to and described bysize, schedule, and the wall thickness. Weight per foot isseldom mentioned. Example: 8-in. S/10S .109" WT. 8-in. S/40S .322" WT. 1-in. S/80S .179" WT.Care of Stainless Steel Pipe Extra care of stainless steel pipe during the entire cy-cle of receipt, storage, fabrication, and shipment is a re-quirement that cannot be over emphasized. Stainlesspipe has a finished surface and thin walls. Pipe shouldbe stored indoors, if possible, and on carpet-coveredpipe racks. The pipe should be stored by type, size and schedule.Suitable dunnage should be used between each layer ofpipes. Nylon slings, not chains or cable slings, should beused to handle the pipe. A special protective harness isavailable for use when shipping stainless pipe for protec-tion from damage, which can be caused by chains andbinders. Stainless pipe should never be dropped or bumpedagainst other joints, cr~x~continued on page 118)114
    • Table 5-2 Dimensions for Stainless Steel Pipe (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) . . . . . . . . . . I ~" "JI p~-,, ! uumu I ~i! % | 675 I : . " ./ . . . . I .... I " I[ ~ -I -TBo(~-- - - - ~ ..... F- -- "-:I; v,,~ l t.9oo r t- ...... -- ~n-~----T-~. 3--7~ [ ~ ~ . . / ~ m c m i w ; ~ ! ; . ] , ) = 4 oooj 3 500 4.500 . . . . ,.~ " ;~ " , I . . . . . l w 6 625 t,F-~o--~I-~ 9 1t~~. ~ - ~q Jil 12 { 12 750 !i~. : M ~ ? . . ~ . ~ ~..]},! ~,~ j ~4ooo ! ! ~ : , ~-"~~- :,1, 25o i3~oo I!~s L_ zs.ooo I I 25o ~s ~oo~L 20 I 2oooo I k . ~ : . l i ~ . ~ : i J i ~ Z ~ : ~ . i, ?so l~ sooIL.!* ~ ~ ~~]~ ~o ll,,,,,~m::~~~ Jl r - - ~ ~ ~ 8 - - I - - ~ ~2a lFt-,lllllLl~:F~~!::lII ~,ZO ! )~ 20 000 I ];~ 375 ~g ti ,~ t ~).~7 1 . t. . ~ . ~ I 9 250 ~ . 500 19 000 .*v (Continued on next page)
    • Table 5-2 continued ,.-+., o+,. ,<..o,,o., s<...,o I+ R rim o~,.w ..... w..] I.s,~ ~ w.. 7 ~.+e,, 7 ~ ~ .~m ms I .269 : ... .088 I .364 i .ore I .493+- ~ "" ..... _ ~ 88 1.315 .133 I I 049 ].660 .140 ] 1.380 . . 1 89 !.900 .145 t 1 610--2 2.375 .154 f 2.--~ 7---- ~.~ 2.875 .203 / 2.469 3soo ;t6 i 3.o68 3 89 4000 .226 J 3 548 4 4.500 .237 l 4.026 5 ~963 .2~8 i 5o47 al 6.625 280 I 6.065 ii 8.625 .322 1 7 981 .406 7,813: 10 10.750 . .365 . I . 10.020 . . . -~00 -~75o - ~ li iz.7so ,4o6 I ]] 938 .962 is 626 14 14 000 .438 I 13 124 .593 12.814 ~ " : , 1zl i6.ooo ~oo i zsooo 6s6 ] 4.688"-ii ~8.ooo- ~-6~---l--T~-s~- . . . . T~.s-~i 20 20.000 .,593 I 18 814 812 18376 .~Ji - 2,~.~ ,,, 687 ! ~.~,~ , ~o~ 22 064 ~ , ~ ipl Oilmlltlr Wall I ,.s,de wail i Ins,de l] Wall Ins,de , l;izo + Thick. J O,am. I[ Think. J O,am. L Thick. ] Omm. + ~ N I II .0% I +~il .i. ~I , , .... ~/+ll ~ + .119 I .302 ++ , . ~ .+, II ,, i .... Yl i .]47 J__+__:.~ .... J . N .... i " i ...... ;l~ .... l . 7 ~ .... T .... I . . . . . . . . . ][ ...... i ........ -T+;-! .179 l .957 il 9 l .... tl i . . . . ;. { .]91 I +.2;8 ii I . . II .... " .... ] .200+ i.500 II 9 I ,, iJ . . . . . . . l~-z- 1 2.375 [ ] - - 2 i 8 - - ~ - - T ; w .... , ~,---~ ..... .-~--T.-+; . . . . . . . . . .;;+ ]II z 89 I 2.~7S Ii .276 i 2 323 ~! . . I 9 II . . . . . iII z I 3.+oo II .~oo i 2.900 +t . I .,. 1,1 . . . . . . +l l _ ~ 4 1 / i ~ ,318| 3.364 ,~ , . ! --I~- . . . . . .II s I s.~+ll I .432 I 5,761 ~ I ,, II .562 5.501 III iO i0,750l I ,993 i s+,564 il ill19,3 .843 9,0 III IZ I 12.750 ill 687 I 11 376 ! :4 t / I 1 C il l 000 10.750 I!! 1,1 I ]4.000 ! 1750 1 121500 II 3 ll2I I I 11093 li.8t4 I!i I I J 16.~ 1]_ .843 ! 14.314 IIi ~3L I 13.938 iI 1.218 13.564 |IFTz ....... ~ ]8:ooo r,--~s~-i-~:~--tl-i ~-Tis~iii~-11--i:3-sr---i~so--III 2o ! 20.000 j 1+031 i 17.938 ii 1 8L t 17.438 II 1.500 i7.000 i ~.~s 1 ~964 tl t i a t ,,,,- i I 20938 ii 1.812 11 20,3761 (Continued on next page)
    • Table 5-2 continuedNominal SCHEDULE 140 SCHEDULE 160 DOUBLE X STRONG Outside P~pe Diameter Walt Inside Wall Inside Wail .....Inside .... Size ...... Thick.. . . . Diam. . . . Thick. Diam.. . . . . . . . Thick. .... Diam. .... i / | .... ..... i40s 9 .. .540 I ,675 _ . .~____~ .187 .466 294 ,252 I 1.050 218 .614 1:308 .434 1 1 315 250 .815 358 .5~ 1.660 250 ].160 ,382 .896 1 89 L 9 1.900 ~ . . . . . ~ . . .28] 1.338 .400 ],lO0 ....- - .--I - T ~ I - ~ - - T - - - ] -689 -- ,436 . . . . . . 11503 ~= z,/, 2875 il .... .... i] .375 | 2125 ,552 ].771 3 3.500 U .... .... il .438 | 2.624 .600 2,300 3,/, 4o0o j[ .... .._ ..,,. jl ~,,.,,. / ,~:. ,,:,:_ .... 4,~-~ l .531 3438 ~(~74 ~:3i]52 5.563 J 625 4.313 .750 4.063 6,625 / .718 5.189 ,864 4,897 8,6z5 S]2 700i .906 6.8]3 .875 6.875 10,750 1.000 8.750 ~-~125 85~ " 12,750 1.]25 ]o.5oo ~.3]2 lO.]26 14.00(3 1250 ~!.~ !4o6 ]!.]. 16,000 1.438 t3.124 1.593 "12.814 18000 1.552 ]4.876 ].78] ]4.438 20.000 ~75o ~ ]6.~ !.~s 16o64 2r 2.062 [ ]9.876 ~ 2.343 . . . . 19.314 ............ ............... All dimensions are in (A} Proposed ~vall thick- ;nches. hess ~or Schedules 5S Dtmensmns for Standard anO lOS. Wetght. Extra Strong, (8~ Wall thicknesses for Double Extra Stron$, Schedu|es 40.40S. ant; Schedules 10, 20. 30, 40. Standard Weight are 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and identical through 10" 160 are in conformance seze. wtth A,S A. B36 ]0, (C) Wall thicknesses for Dimensions for Schedules Schedules 80, 80S, and 5S, 10S. 4OS. and BO~ a r e Extra Strong are ~den- m conformance with A,S,A ttcal throuitl 8" s=ze. B36,19. (I) Th=ckness a(~rees wtth that for Standard We=iht Pipe ~A,S,A, B36 I0"~; not included In Schedule 40S (2) Thickness agrees with that ~or Extra Stron8 Ptpe (AS,A, B36 10); not Included in Sched- ule SOS, 117
    • Table 5-3 Dimensions of Stainless Steel Stub Ends (Courtesy of Flowline Corp.) SCHEDULE5S Featherweight LENGTH RADIUS . . . . . . . NOM. OUTSIDE LAP (F) THICKNESS stainless PIPE DIAMETER DIAMETER Steel SIZE (O.D.) (G) Approx. Wt. WALL LAP in Pounds* Lone Short A B (T) (t) Shert Lenlth 1/2 .840 1% 3 2 ,/. ,/~ m .m .12 % 1.050 111/~6 3 2 I/. lh2 JI6S .14 1 1.315 2 4 2 1/8 1/32 .tit6 .18 1 V,, 1.660 21/2 4 2 3/~6 1/32 .... ~ .... ,Og5 .28 1 i/~ 1.900 2 7/s 4 2 !/4 1In ,Ore J~ .33 2 2.375 3% 6 2112 s/~6 V32 m .1W. .49 2 /~ 2.875 4 /s 6 2 I/2 s/;6 1/32 - 1 ~ 3 . . . . . J30 .67 3 3.500 5 6 21/2 % i/32 Jm3 .Lt4 .91 3 V2 4.000 51/2 1.18 4 4.500 63A6 6 3 7/i, 1/32 1.37 5 5.563 7s/~6 8 3 T/16 1/16 .tOg .168 1.89 6 6.625 8 I/2 8 31/~ 1/2 1/1~ 109 .175 3.45 8 8.625 10% 8 4 I/2 1/16 ~ ..... 1 8 7 ..... 5.34 10 10.750 123/; 10 5 1/2 1/16 .134 .221 8.35 12 12.750 15 10 6 1/2 1/16 _ J N ....... ~ _ ~ 13.34 14 14.000 161/, 12 6 1/, 1/i6 , I , ~ i .249 14.00 16 16.000 181h 12 6 1/2 1/16 , , ~ .249 17.50 18 18.000 21 12 6 1/2 t/~6 ~ .2~ 25.25 20 20.000 23 22 22.000 25 !/~ 12 6 1/2 1/16 30.75 24 24.000 27 V,, 12 6 !/2 I/~6 . . . . . . . . 34.50 (Continued on next page)FLaWUN~ TYPE "A" STUB ENDS -[-~, MADE IN , ,- CONFORMANCE WITH A.S.A. B16.9 G oo AND M.S.S. SP.-43 ~_"[3 WHERE APPLICABLE EXCEPT THICKNESS A OF CERTAINLAPS .- s,,,,,,D ,,,,c, HAS BEEN INCREASED118
    • Table 5-3 continued SCHEDULE10S LiEht I.P.S. ~ LEI TH ~OM. I DIAMETER DliIMETER RADIUS OUTSIDE LAP THICKNESS stli;:e? s IPE SiZE (O.D.) (G) i Approx. Wt. WALL I LAP in Pounds* Lenl Short A I B (1") ! (t) Short LenIth */~ 1"/,6 /81 /37 1~/~ 1/~ 1.660 2V2 3/"1 /- ~ 1 .48 llh 1.900 2 7. 4 2 V, I V3= i .tin ..t a,~.| .5s 2 2.375 3% 6 272 ~/~61V. 2V~ 2.875 4 V8 6 2V~ s/.lV. m 1 .ml ": ~ 1 .96 3 3.5O0 5 6 2 V2 %1 1/32 ,120 | .z6[ ! 1.34 31h 4.000 51/2 i .|20 ] ~ ] 1.72 4.500 63/~6 7. I V32 ~.]20 ~l ....- ~ ] 1.99 5.563 7sh6 3 /"I/" ,]34 I .18t ! 2.26 6.625 8 Vz 3/2 hi /1, : .134 | . ~ ] 4.25 8.625 10% v,l v,, ~1148 ]~ ~ ] 6.73 10.750 123A 1 /~I /1~ ass I ~ ! 10.31 12.750 15 10 ,/211/,, : . . ~ I ~ i l 14.39 14 14.000 16h 12 /21 /,~ i ; ~ - ~ ] -~il)"] 16.75 16 16.000 18h 12 /21/": J~} .~I]l- l 20.00 18 18.000 21 12 /211/,6 _,l;Mm_:| i J , : ] 21.50 20 20.000 23 12 h I l,, ] 1 ~ | ,.U~:] 28.25 22 22.000 251/, 12 /21/ ~ A l m i J l j 31.00 24 24.000 271/, 12 6 hI/. i ~_|i "~_.J 39.75 (Continued on next page)F L G W U I V s TYPE " B " STUB ENDS --.~ r ~"1 MADE IN i~i!i CONFORMANCE WITH A.S.A.B16.9 AND M.S.S. SP.-43 WHEREAPPLICABLE EXCEPTTHICKNESS OF CERTAINLAPS 9 HAS BEEN INCREASED 119
    • Table 5-3 continued SCHEDULE StandardI.P.S. 40S LENGTH , .NOM. OUTSIDE LAP (F) RADIUS Stainless Steel Aluminum THICKNESS Approx. Wt. Approx. Wt.:PiPE DIAMETER DIAMETER in Pounds* in PoundsSIZE (O.D.) (G) Len| Short A B W(~L Ii L(~)P LonlE Lenl[th Lonl[ Len~h Short 9 Lenlth 1/2 .840 ] % 3 2 1/s 1/32 .32 .24 .1 ] 3/4 ]..050 1"/14 3 2 ~ 1/32 .45 .36 .).6 1 ]..3].5 2 4 2 1/o 1/32 .65 .37 .23 ] 11, ]..660 2112 4 2 3/~6 1132 1.00 .62 .35 11/2 ]..900 2~ 4 2 1/,, 1/32 ]..20 .75 .42 2 2.375 3% 6 21/2 s,~6 1/32 2.25 1.29 .79 21/2 2.875 4 I/a 6 21/2 s~6 1/32 3.4]. 1.71 1.80 3 3.500 5 6 21/2 % 1/3~ 4.67 2.46 1.65 31/2 4.000 5 I/~ 6 3 % 1/32 5.58 3.30 1.97 4 4.500 63/14 6 3 x/16 1/32 6.70 4.06 2.37 5 5.563 7s/~6 8 3 x/16 1/16 10.75 4.64 3.79 6 6.625 8 I/2 8 3 I/2 lh 1/16 ].6.].8 9.06 5.71 8 8.625 ].0% 8 4 I/2 1A6 25.50 15.98 8.].5l0 10.750 12 3/~ l0 5 1/2 1/16 40.00 23.13 ]4.].212 ].2.750 15 l0 6 1/~ 1A6 47.00 30.48 ].6.5914 14.000 161/~ ].2 6 1/2 1/i6 60.00 35.00 2]...].216 16.000 181/2 ].2 6 1/~ 1/i6 69.75 41.75 24.5018 ],8.000 21 ].2 6 1/2 IA6 80.50 48.00 28.2520 20.000 23 ].2 6 1/2 1/16 9]..25 54.50 32.0022 22.000 25 I/, 12 6 1/2 1A6 99.75 59.50 35.0024 24.000 27 i,~ 12 6 l/z i/16 ],13.25 67.50 39.75 TYPE " C " STUB ENDS .Ao g,,own, IN NOMINALPIPE o SIZES THROUGH 1/2" 12"-- ~ 1 O N NTLS (A) S SHORTE G E LY N T OE E H ,AC~ 120
    • Table 5-3 continued SCHEDULE80S Extra HeavyI.P.S. LENGTH RADIUS NOM. OUTSIDE LAP (F) THICKNESS Stainless Aluminnm PiPE DIAMETER DIAMETER Steel Approx. Approx. Wt. in SIZE (O.D.) (G) wt. in Pounds WALL LAP Pounds* Long Leng Short A B (T) (t) Long Length Length /2 .840 1% 3 2 i/+ /32 ,147 .187 .38 .13 3/, 1.050 11/,+ 3 2 1/s 1/22 .|54 .187 .51 .18 1 1.315 2 4 2 1/o 1/32 ,l~.. .187 .87 .31 11/4 1.660 2112 4 2 311+ 1132 I91 ~ 1 .I91 1.35 .48 1 /2 1.900 2 7/a 4 2 /4 /32 ~ .200 1.54 .54_ 2 2.375 3% 6 2/2 s/~+ 1/32 .218 .218 3.10 1.09 ~1/2 2.875 3.500 4 I/o 5 6 6 2 !/2 21/2 s/~+ /32 .276 % /32 300 .276 .300 4.64 6.36 1.64 2.25 3/2 4.000 5/2 6 3 % 1/32 .318 .318 7.70 2.72 4 4.500 62/% 6 3 7I+ 1/32 337 337 9.37 3.31 5.563 7sA+ 8 3 71+ I/i+ 375 .375 16.50 5.82 6.625 8/2 8 31/2 1/= /!+ .432 .432 22.56 7.96 8 8.625 10% 8 4 1/= 1/,+ .500 .... .~ 34.50 ]2.18 10 10.750 12 3/; 10 5 I/= 1/,+ .500 .500 54.00 19.06 12 12.750 15 ,10 6 11= 7,+ .500 .500 64.50 22.77" 14 14.000 16 V4 12 6 11= 7,+ . ~ i~" 82.00 28.75 16 16.000 18 V= 12 6 1/= /i+ .$OOm .500 96.50 33.80 18 18.000 21 12 6 I/= VI+ .~ .5~. 108.50 38.00 20 20.000 23 12 6 11= 111 i ~ + .500 119.50 42.00 22 22.000 25114 12 6 11= 111+ .51)1~ .500 128.25 45.00 24 24.000 27/4 12 6 !/2 1/1+ .$01~ .500 .. 148.00 52.00 121
    • Cut-offs at fabrications shops should be re-marked ifnecessary with the standard markings, and then re-turned to stock for future issue.Marking Stainless Pipe Stainless steel pipe and fittings should never bepainted because they do not require a protective coating.In addition, identification would be more difficult. Be sure all stainless steel items are marked with goodidentification code numbers. Leave any vendor markingson stainless pipe for future identification purposes. Markyour company codes with stencil ink that includes thetype, size, schedule, and purchase order item numberon each joint. (The stencil ink is available in aerosolcans). You may also use good quality bar code markings.Place codes inside each end of each joint of pipe. To further ensure the correct identification of stainlesssteels, a color code scheme is used. A suggested colorcode appears in Table 5-4. Stencil inks are used to applythe color code in designs of your choice such as lines,dots, triangles, etc. Identification Tests If a stainless item is not identified for some reason, be-sides a laboratory test, craftsmen can perform certaintests at jobsites.122
    • Table 5-4 Color Code ChartType of steel Stencil Ink Colors-21 degree F to -50 degree F Carbon Steel YellowSpecial Carbon Steel (Project stated as special) Red31/2% Nickle WhiteType 304 Stainless Steel RedType 304L StainlessSteel YellowType 316 StainlessSteel BlueType 316L StainlessSteel GreenType 309 StainlessSteel Red & YellowType 310 Stainless Steel Red & BlueCarpenter 20 Stainless Steel BlackCarbon-lh% Molybdenum Red & White1% Chrome-~h%Molybdenum Yellow & White11/4%Chrome-lh% Molybdenum Green & White21/4%Chrome-l% Molybdenum Green & Yellow5% Chrome-V2%Molybdenum Orange9% Chrome-l% Molybdenum Orange & YellowAF-22-65 Duplex Blue & YellowAF-22-100 Duplex Red & YellowAF-22-130 Duplex Black & YellowMW CR-13 Blue & OrangeMagnet Tests The 300 series of stainless steels are non-magnetic inmost cases to a hand magnet. The 400 series of stain-less steels are magnetic.Chemical Tests Saturated copper sulphate solution deposits metalliccopper on non-stainless steel in about five minutes. Onstainless steels there will not be a deposit. (To apply thecopper sulphate solution for the test, clean a small area 123
    • of the steel with emory cloth, then apply a few drops ofthe solution to the abraded area.)Other Tests How to distinguish 302 and 304 from 316 and 317stainless steels is described in Table 5-5 along with othertypes of tests. Figure 5-6 illustrates a tool called the WT Alloy Sepa-rator. | When the probe is touched to any metal, theprobe creates an instant thermocouple voltage that isunique for each metal containing sufficient differences inchemistry or crystalline structure. It is manufactured byTechnicorp of Wayne, N.J.Figure5-6. Electronicmetaltester.(Courtesyof Technicorp-Wayne,NewJersey.)124
    • Table 5-5 Identification Tests for Stainless Steels (Courtesy of Uddeholm Steel Corp.) AISI i MAGNET HARDNESS TYPE GROUP i TEST SPARK TEST TEST ii 302 Austenitic Short, reddish, with 9 few forks u. 303 Austenitic Short, reddish, with " few forks ... 303Se Austenitic Short. reddish, with o few forks a 304 Austenitic ~ Short, reddish, with ~esc ~ few forks 9o 308 ~ Full red without many forks *,. o" 309 ,I ~ Full red without many forks ~m-~ ~ 310 Austenitic O~ Full red without many forks i = : o 316 Austenitic Short. reddish, with r few forks m 317 Austenitic tn 321 Austenitic 3 lo r 347 Austenitic :) 410 Martensitic Long white with few forks "~ 414 . Martensitic. Long white with few forks ~ ~" 416 Martensitic Long white with few forks r m = 416,Se . Martensitic m 420 Martensitic Long white-red with burst o ~c m 431 "! Martensitic "_ .Z Long white with few forks C~ _ 440, A, B, C Martensitic < Long white-red with burst 9 9 9O 1430 . Ferritic Long white with few forks "~ ccm~c,10 ~"~ 9 . i430F Ferritic 6: t n t - ~ o" 430FSe Ferritic ~3~3 446 Ferritic Full red without many forks ~-~o~ q.. (Continued on next page) 125
    • Table 5-5 continued AISI HYDROCHLORIC TYPE GROUP SULFURIC ACID TEST ACID TEST 302 Austenitic Strong attack. Dark surface, Fairly rapid reaction Green crystals Pale blue-green solution 303 Austenitic Spoiled egg odor. heavy black smudge 303Se Austenitic Garlic odor 304 Strong attack. Dark surface. Fast attack Green crystals Gas formation 3O8 Austenitic 309 Austenitic 310 Austenitic 316 Austenitic Slow attack, Tan surface Very slow attack compared turns brown to 302, 304, 321 and 347 317 AustenitiC Slower attack, Tan surface turns brown 321 Austenitic Fast attack Gas formation 347 Austenitic Fast attack Gas formation 410 Martensitic More vigorous reaction than 302 Darker green solution 414 Martensitic 416 Martensitic Spoiled egg odor 416Se Martensitic Garlic odor 420 Martensitic 431 Martensitic 440. A, B. C Martensitic . 430 Ferritic 430F Ferritic Spoiled egg odor 430FSe Ferritic Garlic odor 446 Ferritic126
    • 6 MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS There are small items such as screwed fittings, gas-kets, pipe nipples, and plugs that are necessary on ev-ery project. The materials described in this chapter aremerely to acquaint the new materials person of their ex-istence, and so are not shown with dimensions and ta-bles. Malleable iron fittings, either black or galvanized, arethe low-pressure fittings sold at the hardware store, andused accordingly. Figure 6-1 shows a 150-1b bronze toiron ground joint union. This type fitting is available froml/s-in, through 4-in. in 150, 250, and 300-1b ratings. Figure 6-1. Malleableiron union. (Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.) 127
    • Elbow 48 EIINw Tee Cram S~oet EIImw lateral Figure 6-2. Forgedsteelfittings.(Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee, Inc.) Figure 6-2 shows the most commonly used fittings inANSI systems, the forged steel screwed (and socket-weld) fittings. These fittings are used for steam, water,oil, gas, and air. They are available in 2,000, 3,000 and6,000-1b classes, in many types of alloys including stain-less steels. Figure 6-3 shows additional forged steel fit-tings. Store fittings by size and rating. Pipe nipples are stocked in various lengths in black orgalvanized pipe, and in schedules to match the pipe be-ing used. They are also made to the length required forfit-up by pipefitters using pipe machines. Figure 6-4 de-picts typical pipe nipples. One of the nipples is referred128
    • Coupling Half Couplinll Reducer Cap Hex. HeadBushinll Rush Bushin| Round HeadPlug SquareHeadPlug Flex.HeadPlull Figure 6-3. Forged steel fittings. (Courtesy of Jaqua-McKee, Inc.) t~I~f~=! I ,~,~ttl,ll,titttlAll Thread Nipple Nipple Threaded Both Ends Figure 6-4. Pipe nipples. (Courtesy of Jaqua-McKee, Inc.) 129
    • to as an all-thread or close nipple by the craftsmen.Other nipples are described in size by the nippleslength. A shoulder nipple is an all-thread nipple with asmall unthreaded section in the center of the nippleforming a shoulder. Some nipples have a thread on oneend only. Some used with socketweld fittings do nothave any threads. Store nipples by type, size, andlength. Swage nipples are used to reduce pipe sizes. Swagesare available in combinations from Vs-in. to about 8-in.,but larger in special cases. Figure 6-5 shows a typicalswage nipple threaded on both ends. Swages may havealmost any combination of ends such as bevel large end,thread small end, grooved, and bevel both ends. Another type of cross-over fitting is the sub-tubing nip-pie as shown in Figure 6-6. Sub-tubing nipples are usedto change from an API tubing thread to a line pipethread. The longer variations of this nipple are called Figure 6-5. SwageNipples.(Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.)130
    • Figure 6-6. Sub-tubingnipple,pup- Figure6-7. Bullplugs. (Courtesyofjoints. (Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.) Jaqua-McKee,Inc.)pup-joints. Pup-joints are in even-numbered lengths from2-ft through 16-ft, and are used to complete a string ofpipe in given length without cutting and threading. Pup-joints are usually API threads on both ends. Bu//p/ugs, see Figure 6-7, are used to close ends oflines or strings of tubing in oil wells. They are akin to thesmaller hex head or round pipe plugs, but are not thesame. Bull plugs are available in sizes from ~/8-in.through 8-in., and can have threaded, plain, beveled, orgrooved ends. Bull plugs are often drilled and tapped,and a valve and nipple added for an outlet. There are fe-male threaded plugs available, but they are not common. 131
    • Figure 6-8. Hammerunions. (Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.) I i Spiral Wound Red Rubber,Asbestos Figure 6-9. TypicalANSIgaskets. (Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.) Figure 6-8 shows the wing or hammer union. Theserugged unions are used most commonly in oil field hook-ups and temporary lines. They are available in sizesfrom 1-in. through 12-in., from 1,000 psi to 15,000 psi.132
    • Gaskets require proper storage methods for protec-tion. Do not store gaskets on nails or pegs. Store by type,size, and rating on a flat surface. Never issue gasketsthat will be placed in a sack with the fittings and bolts.Figure 6-9 illustrates some of the common ANSI systemgaskets. Flange insulation sets are used between systems,such as an offshore pipeline connection to the produc-tion facilities. The set consists of a flange gasket, eitherfull faced or raised face, sleeves, and washers for thebolts. Store the insulation kits in the same vendor box asthey were shipped in. Do not mix or mingle the varioussets. Figure 6-10 is a flange insulation kit or set. Corrosive areas sometimes mandate the use of a pro-tector of the flange stand-off area to protect the gasketarea between the flanges. These protectors are available Figure 6-10. Flangeinsulationsets. (Courtesyof Jaqua-McKee,Inc.) 133
    • 9 ~ ,..~ !Figure 6-11.Processflangeprotectors.(Courtesyof RodunDevelopmentCorp.,Houston,Texas.)in various shapes and models. Figure 6-11 shows a pro-tector called Flexi-seal. | (Rodun Development Corp.,Houston, Texas). This protector features a center V-shaped section that forms its primary seal. Flexible ribson each side provide secondary sealing. It is secured inplace by a stainless steel band and latched with a steelT-bolt. Store miscellaneous items by size and rating, and ifnecessary, apply a tag for future identification.134
    • 7 I PIPELINE PIGS Pipelines require cleaning, and products require sepa-ration when being transported through the same line si-multaneously; pipeline pigs are used to make cleaningand separation possible. The slang word "pig" means scraper, ball, sphere, orother apparati used in pipelines. Figure 7-1 illustrates aPolly-Cast | pig made from polyester urethane. Pigs suchas the Polly-Cast | can be used in gas, crude oil, salt wa-ter, refined product, and LPG lines. They are also avail-able with steel bristles on the wear surface, which in-creases the life of the urethane pig. Spherical balls or pigs (Figure 7-2) have been used formany years. They are available in solid material in sizes1 "through 12" and inflatable from 4" through 56". Pigsare inflated with a displacement pump capable of 250 psior 1,724 kPa (Figure 7-3). This type of pig is often used inautomated piping systems, meter proving, product sepa-ration, hydrostatic testing, and cleaning. Most are madefrom Neoprene, Nitrile, Polyurethane, or Viton. 135
    • I | ! ITSTANDARD LENGTH POLLY-CAST | ~ ~ mt.vuR :THANE FOAM CORE Available as Plain or Steel Belted (Steel Belted shown above) I | I 1 9 EXTENDED LENGTH POLLY.CAST | Available as Plain or Steel Belted (Plain shown above) Figure 7-1.Polly-Cast (Courtesy KnappPollyPig,Inc.) pig. of Without pigging, product buildup, sediment, and slimein pipelines increases and flow capacity decreases.Eventually, the pipeline might even need to be replacedentirely. The cost of the power needed to move the prod-ucts also increases dramatically as buildup increases.Without pigs for product separation, separate pipelineswould be required for different fluids. Pigs are a routinepart of pipeline operations.136
    • Figure 7-2. Spherical pipeline pigs. (Courtesy of LTV Energy Products Company.) Figure 7-3. Pressure pump. (Courtesy of LTV Energy Products Company.) 137
    • Pigs are placed into lines by means of a launcher and areceiver, as shown in Figures 7-4a and b. They are moveddown the line by means of pressure. Both the launcherand the receiver have bolted, swinging doors to install orremove the pigs. In the case of very large diameter pigs, arail hoist is part of both units. Pigs are usually ~/8" largerthan the inside diameter of the pipeline for a good tight fit.At intersections of pipelines, Scraper Bar Tees (Figure 2-15) are used to keep the pig in line. The pig moves rightthrough bends and turns until it reaches the receiver. Nearthe end of its trip and at checkpoints on the way, the pigpasses over a device known as a "pig signal," and raises h i, ,, i~ L . ~.... /~--~. ~ , . ~ ---- : ~ ~i-; .-.: Figure ?-4A. Pipeline pig launcher. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Technologies, Inc.)138
    • Figure 7-4B. Pipeline pig closures. (Courtesy of Tube Turns Technologies, Inc.)either a flag notice on a manual system or an indicatinglight on a panel board. (See Figure 7-5). Pigs are trackedin lines by a radioactive isotope which gives off a radiosignal and can be monitored from the air, ground, or a sat-ellite tracked by an electronic transmitter. The most common pig is the polyurethane style usedfor pigging lines up to 60 inches. These pigs are used forproduct or crude oil pipelines, chemical process piping,water systems, offshore condensate removal, and manyother variations of pigging. 139
    • Figure 7-5. Automatedclosures.(Courtesyof TubeTurnsTechnologies,Inc.) A noninflatable Polly-Sphere pig (Figure 7-6) has ahigh-density polyurethane foam core and a hard but flex-ible outer cover. This type of sphere offers the advantageof not deflating and the pressures inside the sphere andin the line are equalized by small holes drilled in the pig.It can be used for low pressure lines as well. Bullet-shaped pigs are made of durable foam. A spe-cial exterior surface made from plastic, in a spiral or140
    • ex,ble but hard polyurethane outer sphere The KnolDp Polly-Spt~re through the Outer .~ COnSistsof 0 horcI yet flex- oliow l::~ssure eq~ tble polyurethone outer tK~nbetween hne I sphere with o high density and It~t of tt~e Sl~ pOlyuretr~one l o o m core core. 11~usno inflot A ser,es of holes drilled required Fioure 7-6. Polly-Spherepig. (Courtesyof KnappPollyPig, Inc.)criss-cross design imparts greater cleaning power,strength, and wearability. The nose is completely cov-ered to insure proper sealing. For extra-tough cleaningjobs, a coat of silicon carbide or abrasives can be added.Flame-hardened steel wires are bonded to the polyure-thane body of the pig (Figure 7-7) for use on long runs.The bristles are mounted at the specific angle thatmakes them self-sharpening. A simpler pig, the foamSweege Pig, is made of extremely soft foam and is de-signed for temporary sweeping of lines to eliminatethings such as oxides which cause red water. They arepropelled by normal water pressure. A Polly-Pig of thistype is shown in Figure 7-8. 141
    • Coated SuperHavelina Polly Pig Super Havelina Polly Pig Havelina Polly Pig Figure 7-7. Bullet-shapedpigs. (Courtesy of Knapp Polly Pig, Inc.) Inexpensive Foam S w e e g e Pigs are now a v a i l a b l e to temporarily remove oxide that cause red water. The standard Sweege Foam Pig StyleV-B, is an inexpensive, ex- pendable Knapp Polly-Pig s of extremely soft foam designed specifically for temporary sweeping of a line to eliminate oxides that cause red water. The are easily inserted into water mains by hand, require no special devices, no line shut offs, and are propelled by nor- mal water pressure. , , Figure 7-8. Foamsweege pig. (Courtesy of Knapp Polly Pig, Inc.)142
    • The diameter of Polly-Pigs is usually one and a halftimes the length. As a rule, ~/8" is added to the pig bodysize for coating. Some pigs with diameters less than 6"have mesh for internal reinforcement. Some areequipped with a rope on one or both ends for ease inhandling and pulling. Dished ends add to the effectivefluid removal while pointed ends are used for bi-direc-tional changes. The ends may be either shorter or longerfor extreme valves or launches. They also come in eithersoft or hard for variations in density (Figure 7-9), which ismeasured in pounds per cubic foot. Some styles of Polly-Pigs made by Knapp are de-scribed in Figure 7-10. They are color-coded by type ofcover for identification and some are criss-crossed.S,ngle SID,rOICOOt~ng IDot- Double sD=ral coating Sdtcon corbtde ~mpreg-tern allows greater flexlbd- po~ern Drov=des greater noted coohng ~sovodoble~,h,O! the p,g for runn,ng number Of cleonmng edges ~nboth s,ngle and doublet~ght bends "T s." valves and makes the pig more spiral patterns Th=scoot-0."~31vOnohons ~nO~lOe I .D res:stont tO teonng Th~sde- tr~:j =sadvisable when re- s~gn ~sintended for longer moving mill scale, weld runs where less flexibility is slog. calcite or carbonate reclutred depos,ts, rust. or other hord or abrasive delaOslts. Figure7-9. Coatedpollypigs.(Courtesyof KnappPollyPig, Inc.) 143
    • Urethane Scraper Cup specifications from 3" through56" are described in Table 7-1. It is important to note thatcups up to 14" are molded without a center hole, so youmust specify the hole size required when ordering. Theapproximate pressures and flows required for polly pig-ging are shown in Table 7-2. (Text continued on page 148) STYLE TYPE DENSITY FUNCTION $BD (Scarlet 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heavy Drying bare durafoam) Up to 200 MI SCC (Scarlet 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heavy Wiping criss-cross) Up to 200 MI lid SCC-WB (Scarlet 8 LBS./CU. FT. Hjeavy Scraping criss-cross wire p to 200 MI brush) SCC-$C (Scarlet 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heavy Scraping criss-cross silicon Up To 200 MI carbide) SBD-T (Turning) 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heaviest Drying Up To 300 MI SCC-T (Turning) 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heaviest Wiping Up To 300 MI SCC-WB-T 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heaviest Scraping (Turning) Up To 300 MI SCC-SC-T 8 LBS./CU. FT. Heaviest Scraping (Turning) Up To 300 MI RBS (Red bare 5 LBS./CU. FT. Regular Drying squeegee) Up To 10 MI RCC (Red criss- 5 LBS./CU. FT. Regular Wiping cross) Up To 10 MI RCC-WB (Red criss- 5 LBS./CU. FT. Regular Scraping cross wire brush) Up To 10 MI Figure 7-10. Pollypig styles.(Courtesyof KnappPollyPig, Inc.)144
    • STYLE TYPE DENSITY ,, ,_ FUNCTION ,m RCC-SC (Red crias- 5 LBS.ICU. FT. cross silicon carbide) RBS-T 5 LBS./CU. FT. Regular Scraping Up To 10 MI Longer Drying Fuming) Up To 25 MI RCC-T 5 LBS.ICU. FT. Longer Wiping! (Turning) Up To 25 MI RCC-WB-T 5 LBS.ICU. FT. Longer Scraping (Turning) Up To 25 MIm RCC-SC-T (Turning) 5 t.BS./CU. FT. Longer Scraping Up To 25 MI YBS (Yellow bare 2 LBS./CU. FT. Ught Orang swab) Up To I MI YCC (Yellow 2 LBS.ICU. FT. Ught Drying criss-cross) Up To I MI u (Yellow 2 LBS./CU. FT. Light Drying criss-cross silicon Up To I MI- carbide) Y ~S- ~ (Bullet) 2 LBS./CU. FT. Ught Drying Up To 1 MI vCC-T 2 LBS./CU. FT. Light DryingCID (Turning) Up To 3 MI vCC.SC-T 2 I.BS./CU. FT. Light Drying (Turning) Up To 3 MI 2o u~s.~cu.~. , UNICAST cleening Up To 2000 MI GRAY HARD 8 LBS./CU. FT. Industrial Scraping SCALE Up To 300 MI MAXI.BRUSH 8 LBS./CU. FT. Maximum Scraping (UGHT WiRE) Up To 300 MI MAXI-BRUSH 8 LBS./CU. FT. Maximum Scraping (HEAVYWIRE) Up To 300 MI ,, 145
    • Table 7-1 Urethane Scraper Cups STANDARD & STEEL BELTED POLLY.CUP | NOM. APPX. PIPE A B C D E F G H(~ K~ WT. SIZE =.,,,,,, ,,,,.,,- ,=.,. ,, , , ~ ~. . . . . s..... ~ =. . . . , , ~ =..... , , ~ =.... ,,,,.,,,, =..... , H O L E S LBS. 3" 3.19 " 1.13 " .50 2.25 2.75 * ~ .3 4" 4.25 ~ 1.38 " .50 3.07 3.38 ~ " .4 6" 6.13 * 1.75 ~ .50 4.25 5.25 " ~ 1.3 8" 8.25 ~ 2.00 " .75 6.13 7.25 " * 2.6 10" 10.50 * 2.25 * .88 8.13 8.75 * * 4.8 12" 12.22 " 2.25 1.63 .88 12.07 11.50 ~ * 7.3 14" 14.25 * 2.50 1.88 .88 13.00 11.63 " ~ 8.7 16" 16.00 8.75 2.75 2.25 1.00 15.25 13.88 11.00 8 9.9 18" 18.00 10.88 3.00 2.38 1.00 17.25 16.00 12.75 8 12.2 20" 20.25 10.88 3.50 2.63 1.25 19.00 17.25 13.50 12 18.6 22" t t t t t t t t t 24.4 24" 24.25 14.13 4.00 2.88 1.50 23.25 21.63 16.50 14 29.8 26" t t t t t t t t t 34.8 28" t t t t t t t t t 51.0 30" 30.25 16.13 4.38 3.00 1.88 29.50 26.25 19.50 16 57.5 32" t t t t t t t t t 74.0 34" t t t t t t t t t 77.0 36" 36.25 22.13 4.38 3.00 1.88 35.88 33.25 25.00 22 80.8 40" 40.25 22.13 5.00 3.25 2.00 38.50 35.75 26.00 24 100.0 42" 42.25 24.13 5.50 3.38 2.00 T t t 24 105.0 48" 48.25 32.13 s 3.50 2.00 4EO0 44.50 36.00 24 144.0 56" 5E25 I | PLAIN POLL Y-CUPP 1 , 111 i | | } 1I 2] l i _l | ,(Courtesy Knapp Polly Pig, Inc.)146
    • ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0"~| ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~LLi 0 ~0 cO 0 ~0 0,I ~0 oo ~1" ~-- I~ i~ ~ ~" ~" I~ I~ r~= N~.X ,< ~EEEEEEEEeEEEEEEeEE~ ~ S N S N S ~ ~ ~ 8 8 N S N ~ u ~ ~ ~ o ~ o ~ o ~ o ~ o ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ Z ~ ONNN~NbNN~NbNN~b~b Z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
    • (Text continued from page 144) Pigs should be stored indoors where possible, on theirends and sorted by size and style. Staples, pins, or othersharp objects should not be used to attach tags or barcodes. An easily removable self-adhesive bar code tag isrecommended instead.148
    • 8 MATERIALS HANDLING TIPS Tallying Pipes The lengths of pipes received must be verified by tally-ing or measuring each joint. It requires up to three personsto handle and read the tape, and the third person to recordthe measurements on a tally sheet. See Figure 8-1. Step 1. Attach a bar code description to the tally sheet,and write a brief description of the pipe on the sheet. Step 2. Place 1-in. thick boards across the center of thestack of pipe to prevent the tape from falling between thejoints and breaking. If the third helper is present, have thatperson hold the tape in the center of the joints. If the tapesticks between the joints, either pry apart or lift the nearestjoint to the tape. A typical tape is shown in Figure 8-2, the magnified ver-sion of an engineers steel tape divided into ten units tothe foot, and is read as a decimal, as if it were dollars andcents. 149
    • Order or Transfer No.Project Number Pipe Tally DateShip ShipTo From Via (Truck--Barge---Boat)DescriptionCondition Measurements made with [] Decimal tape [] Meters-Centimeters Tape [] TenthsJoint Feet Tenths Feet Hndths Feet Hndths Feet Hndths Feet Hndths Feet Hndths Feet Hndths No. or or or or or or or or or or or or Meters Cent Meters Cent Meters Cent Meters Cent Meters Cent Meters Cent 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .... 14 15 TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL Feet]Meters Hndths/CentRemarks Total Footage I Figure 8-1. Pipe tally sheet.150
    • Figure 8-2. Engineerstapeand boardfor preventingit fromfallingbetweenpipe. Step 3. One helper holds the heel of the tape (see Figure8-3) to the end of a joint. The second helper holds the tapeon top of the joint about the center. The third helperstretches the tape tightly to the other end of the joint forthe reading, calls it out to the recorder, and then places achalk mark on each joint as it is tallied. As each layer ofpipe is tallied, a physical count of the joints is made, andthe numbers verified with those recorded on the tallysheet. Each joint could be numbered with a paint stick justinside the ends for future reference. (See Figure 8-4.) Indi-vidual bar code descriptions can also be applied insideeach joint. It will not be necessary to re-tally joints onfuture moves. Step 4. Pipe stored on pipe racks should be marked withjob number, purchase order number, size, schedule/wallthickness, and the actual length. (See Figure 8-5.) The outer edge of each layer of pipe should indicatetotal footage, number of joints in the layer, total footage inthe layer, length of the joint, size-weight per foot, sched-ule, and the pipe rack number for location purposes. 151
    • Measure to the outer edge of the PLAIN END PIPE joint and then call out the reading to the recorder. Example "40.50" It is not necessary to call out feet HEEL and inches. against the end of the joint. , i 9 I., .II. ,. I., .2i.,. I. ,. 31" LEATHER STRAPS Figure 8-3. Tape and method for measuring pipe joint. Paint stick mark as joint #37. Figure 8-4. Each joint should be numbered just inside the ends.152
    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. Purchase order number 4. Length of this joint 2. Total joints per layer 5. Size, weight, schedule 3. Total footage per layer 6. Pipe rack number Figure8-5. Identificationof pipestoredon racks. Step 5. Threaded and coupled line pipe is tallied in over-all lengths, including the coupling and the threads. Thisrule also applies to oilwell tubing, casing and drill pipes instorage. It is not necessary to remove pipe thread protec-tors during a pipe tally at the warehouse or dockside (seeFigure 8-6). Step 6. When issuing pipe, always send an extraamount, never less than requested. Record the length andjoint number on the tally sheet, and verify accuracy. Do notstore mixed pipe schedules or types on the same rack. I i t Figure8-6. Measureentire lengthof threadedand coupledpipe. 153
    • Marking Fabricated Pipe Spools When the same pipe, flanges, and fittings that you mayhave issued from the warehouse return from welding fabri-cation for storage, a special piece mark is applied to markthese spool pieces for later erection into process flowlines. Following Figure 8-7 shows a typical spool piecemarking procedure. Digital camera photos are helpful tolocate these pieces later for issue to the piping group.Weatherproof bar coding markers should be used duringstorage to identify. Warehouse Layout Tips Very few fancy warehouses may exist at constructionsites. Most are along a road side, out of the way of theproject, with minimal shelter. However, you must considerseveral factors when planning the initial layout of a ware-house or outside storage area: 1. Similarity of materials: Store like items together when practicable. 2. Popularity: Save steps by storing fast-moving stock nearest the major work area. 3. Size and weight: Keep heavy items low for safety pur- poses; store lightweight stackable items on top of bins. Gaskets should be stored flat, not on pegs or stuffed into bins or sacks.154
    • Vendor Data Invariably vendor data will arrive at a warehouse withmaterials despite all efforts to have it shipped as a sepa-rate item on the purchase order. Vendor data is to projectswhat the instructions, parts lists, and safety warnings areto any appliance or tool you buy at a hardware store. Pro-ject vendor data will later be assembled into projectbinders of operating instructions by the project managergroup. This data and data such as material test certificateson pipe flanges and fittings are very important, and shouldnot be discarded or filed away, but delivered to the projectmanager. Storing Materials Inside/Outside Threaded and socketweld items and all fittings under12-in. are always warehoused. Other fittings, 12-in. andlarger, may be stored outside, but never directly on theground. Decking or docks may be anything from a pallet,skid, a sheet of plywood, or heavy timbers, so long as thematerial is off the ground. Pipe should be stacked on runners made from otherpipe or what is available. Long pipe should have a centerrunner. Try not to store pipe in a triangular nesting,because space can be saved by stacking straight up withthe aid of cleated dunnage between the tiers. Always con-sider safety as the most important factor in storage ofmaterials.156
    • APPENDIX A PIPING ABBREVIATIONS API American Pe- AWWA American Wa- troleum Insti- ter Works As- tute sociation ASA American BE Beveled end Standards As- BW Buttweld sociation BBE Bevel both Asb Asbestos ends (gaskets) Bbl BarrelANSI American Na- Bdr Bleed ring tional Stan- Bfy Butterfly dards Insti- (valve) tute, Inc. Bid Blind (flange)ASME The American BLE Bevel large Society of Me- end chanical Engi- BIk Black (pipe) neers BOE Bevel one endASTM The American BOM Bill of materi- Society for als Testing and BOP Bottom of Materials pipe 157
    • Brz Bronze (valve) Ditto Do not use BSE Bevel small this term. end DSAW Double sub- CI Cast iron merged Arc Cm Centimeter Welded (pipe) CS Cast Steel, Dwg # Drawing Num- carbon steel, ber cap screw Ea. Each Cu Cubic El Elevation (on CW Chain wheel drawing) Chk Check (valve) Ecc Eccentric Cpl Coupling Ell Elbow CSC Car seal Eol Elbolet~ closed ERW Electric Resis- tance Weld Csg Casing (pipe) CSO Car seal open Esw Eccentric Csw Concentric Swage swage EUE External upset CWO Chain wheel ends operator Ex. hvy Extra heavy CWP Cold water Ex. stg Extra strong pressure Exp jt Expansion Conc Concentric joint DI Ductile iron Elec Electrical D&T Drill & Tap F&D Faced and D&W Doped & drilled (flange) Wrapped FE Flanged ends/ (pipe) Flow element DES Double extra FF Flat/Full face strong F/F Face of flange Dia. Diameter FS Forged steel Dim. Dimension Ft Feet/Foot158
    • FW Field weld/ ISO Isometric Firewater (drawing)FAB Fabricate/Fab- IUE Internal upset ricator endsFAS Free along IS&Y Inside screw side & yoke (valve)Fem Female (ends) IBBM Iron body Fig Figure (num- bronze ber) mounted Fig. Flange (valve)FOB Free on board Insl InsulationFSD Flat side down Jt (s) Jt. (Joints)FSU Flat side up JW Jacket waterFlex Flexitallic Jkscr Jack screw (gasket brand Lb (s), # Pound (s) name) #symbol forFlgd Flanged pounds GG Gauge glass Lg Length, long, GJ Ground joint level gauge (union) LJ Lap joint Gal Gallon (flange) GIb Globe (valve) LP Line pipeGsk Gasket LR Long radiusGalv Galvanized LLC Liquid level HN Heat number controller Hdr Header LOL Latrolet~Hex Six-sided Latl Lateral head, bolt, Lin Ft Linear feet plug, etc. M Meter/oneHvy Heavy thousand ID Inside diame- MI Malleable iron ter Mk Mark (spool IPS Iron pipe size piece) 159
    • MM Millimeter OD Outside diam- M&F Male & Fe- eter male (ends) Oz Ounce Max Maximum (a Orf Orifice warehouse OS&D Over short & stocking level) damage (re- Mfg Manufacturer port) Min Minimum (a OS&Y Outside screw warehouse & yoke (valve) stocking level) Pc Piece (mark Misc Miscellaneous for spool (schedules of pieces) pipe) PE Plain ends MRR Materials re- PI Pressure indi- ceiving report cator (valves MSS Manufacturers & gauge as- Standards So- sembly) ciety of the PO # Purchase or- Valve and Fit- der or number tings Industry Pr Pair of items MTO Material Take- PS Pipe support off (from PW Potable water drawings) PBE Plain both NC Normally ends closed Pdl Paddle (aNo or # Number blind plate be- NU Non-upset tween flanges) (ends) PLE Plain large Nip Nipple (pipe) end NPS Nominal pipe Pit Plate (steel) size POE Plain one end NPT Nominal pipe PSE Plain small thread end160
    • psi Pounds per SE Screwed ends square inch SO Slip-on PVF Pipe, valves (flange) and fittings Sq Square feet, PSV Pressure yards, etc. safety (relief) SR Short radius, valve stress relievePress Pressure SS Stainless steel psig Pounds-force SW Socket weld square inch, S/40 Schedule 40 gauge (of pipe or fit- Qty Quantity tings) RF Raised face Sch Schedule (of RR Red rubber pipe or fit- (gasket type) tings) RS Rising stem Sdl Saddle (pipe) (valve) SOL Sockolet~ Rad Radius SRL Short radius Red Reducer ellRPM Revolutions Std Standard (a per minute pipe or fitting RTE Reducing tee schedule) Rtg Rating Stl Steel RTJ Ring type joint Stm Steam (flange facing) Sub Short length Rdcr Reducer of pipe or rodRecd Received (ma- terials) Swg Swage nippleReqd Required (ma- SWP Safe working terials) pressureReqn Requisition Skt Bid Skillet blind SC Sample con- (plate be- nection tween flanges) 161
    • Spl Sht Spool sheet TOL Thredolet| (from isomet- TSE Thread small ric drawing) end Scrd Screwed Typ Typical (re- (ends) peat the same Smls Seamless item)Spec Thrd Threaded bid Spectacle Un Union blind (plate Va Valve between Vac Vacuum flanges) Vol Volume TI Temperature Wd Width/Wide indicator WE Weld end TW Thermometer WI Wrought iron well WN Weldneck (flange) T&C Threaded & WP Working pres- coupled sure T&G Tongue & WT Wall thick- groove (flange ness/weight facing) WOL Weldolet ~ Tbg Tubing XR X-ray (at pipe Thk Thick welds) TLE Thread large XS Extra strong end XXS Double extra TOE Thread one strong end Yd Yard162
    • APPENDIX B r USEFUL FORMULASFor freight: Cubic Feet = H e i g h t (in.) x W i d t h (in.) x Length (in.) + 1,728 2000 pounds = Short ton 2240 pounds = Long ton 40 cubic feet = Measurement ton Metric ton = 1.1 tonsFor concrete: Length (ft) x Width (ft) x Height (ft) + 27 = Cubic yardsMiscellaneous Factors: 12 inches = 1-foot 2.54 centimeters = 1 inch 144 inches = 1 square foot 10.764 square feet = 1 square meter 3feet = 1yard 9 square feet = 1 square yard 3.2808 feet = 1 meter 1728 inches = 1 cubic foot 163
    • 27 cubic feet = 1 cubic yard 0.62137 miles - 1 kilometer 1 mile = 63,360 inches, 5,280 feet, 1760 yards 1 acre = 43,560 square feet 16ounces = 1pound 0.45359 kilograms = 1 pound C o n v e r t i n g English and Metric Units. Reading and Converting English and Metric Units English: (Inches are equally divided into 16 parts of 1/16") 1/16" = 0.625" 1Is" = 2/16" = 0.125" 1/4" = 2/8" = 0.25" ~ 1 / 2 " = 2-/4" = 4/8" = 8h6" = 0.5" ~1" =2/2" =4/4" =8/8" = 1.0" Example: 6" + 1/4" 4" l h 6 " = 6 " + "hs" + l h 8 " = 65/16"L Metric" (Centimeters are equally divided into ten parts of 1 millimeter) 164
    • lcm =lOmm = .01m lmm = 0.1cm = O.O01m Example: 14cm + 4 m m = 14.4cm = 144mEnglish to Metric C o n v e r s i o n s : 1 = 30.48cm 1" = 2.54cm V2" = 12.7mm 1/4" = 6.35mm ~/8" =3.175mm ~h6" = 1 . 5 8 8 m mMetric to English C o n v e r s i o n s : 1 cm = 0.39" 0.5cm = 0.195" lmm = 0.039"Courtesy of Abby Dawkins, West Hartford, CT. 165
    • INDEXAbbreviations, piping, 149-154 nut sizes, 99-100API materials spherical facing, 99 API and ANSI compared, spherical washer, 99, 100 83-84 wrench sizes, 99-100 API monogram, 85, 92, dual completion flanges, 101-102 5,000-1b psi, 95-96 assembly part number, 85 integral 6BX bore and tubular sizes, 5,000-1b psi, 90 83-85 10,000-1b psi, 91 calculations 15,000-1b psi, 91 bolt lengths for 6B and 20,000-1b psi, 92 6BX flanges, 94-95 multiple completion flanges bolt point heights, 94-95 5,000-1b psi, 95-97 clamp-type connectors, ring gaskets for API flanges 84-85, 98-101 care of, 103 bolt torque, 100 interchange, 93, 101-102 clamp numbers, 99-100 markings, 102 clamp weights, 99-100 types of gaskets hubs, 98-99 combination, 101166
    • oval and octagonal, stud with nuts, 24-26 101-102 wrench sizes, 24-26 R, RX, BX, 99, 101-102 Buttweld fittings transition piece, 92-93 ANSI, 41 tubular goods sizes, 83-85, backing rings, 56-57 87, 131 caps, 44-52 type 6B flanges control heat number 41-42 2,000-1b psi, 87, 93-95 crosses, 47, 49-50 3,000-1b psi, 87, 89, 91,103 dimensions of fittings, 42, 5,000-1b psi, 88, 93-95 44-45 type 6BX flanges elbows 10,000-1b psi, 89, 91,103 37 o, 46 15,000-1b psi, 87, 89, 45 ~ 44, 46 91,103 90 ~ long radius, 41-42, 44 20,000-1b psi, 97, 90, 92, double branch, 48 103 mixed schedules, 5 integral, 90-92 reducing, 43-44 weldneck, 86-87, 89, 93 side outlet, 48 street, 48Bar codes laterals, 49, 53 identifying pigs, 148 pipe saddle, 52-53 identifying pipes, 122 reducersBolts concentric, 50, 55 ANSI, 19 eccentric, 45, 50 circle, 16-17 returns, 44, 46-47 hole size, 16-18 stub ends, 7, 44, 51 machine, 23 Buttweld fittings (continued) markings, 19 stub-in, 51 plating, 19 taper boring, 55 polylock, 15 tees storing bolts, 19 barred, 54 167
    • reducing, 47-49 heat code or batch number, service, 48 4,6,14 side outlet, 49 hub thickness, 10 true wye, 48 identifying markings, 1,4, 14 types of fittings, 41, 55 insulation sets, 133 jack screws, 11Color codes and markings, 80, lap joint, 2, 7-8 122-123 long weldneck, 10-11 miscellaneous flanges,Docks and pallets, 13 10-12Duct tape, 15 orifice, 11-12Dunnage, 13, 78-80, 114 oval ring gaskets, 31-37 raised face, 4-6, 14, 16-17Fabricated pipe spools, 154 ratings, 1, 4, 14, 16-17Flange protectors, raw materials used, 6 14-15, 124 reducing, 9Flanges, refinery type reducing slip-on, 3 ANSI, 1, 83-84 ring-type joint, 6 blind, 3, 10 shipping, 14, 109 bore markings, 4, 6, 16-17 shoulder, 8 care of face, 5, 14 slip-on, 2, 7-8, 16-17 counter bore, 7-8 socket weld, 3, 6-7 damage to, 14-15 storing flanges, 13 descriptions, 14 trademarks, 4, 14 dimensions, 15-17 threaded, 2, 7, 16-17 flange bores, 6-18 threaded reducing, 10 flanges by ratings twin flanges, 7 150-2,500-1b raised face, weldneck, 2, 4, 6-7, 14, 16-17, 23-30 16-17 150-2,500-1b ring type, Formulas, 163-165 31-37 concrete conversions, 163168
    • English to metric dimensions, 58-59, 63 conversions, 164-165 elbolets, 61-63 factors, miscellaneous, flatolets, 63 163-164 interchange charts, 57-58 freight conversions, 163 inventory of, 59 latrolets, 64-65Gasket storage, 155 nipolets, 64-65Gauge, dimensional reducing inserts, 64-65 for bolting, 22 run sizes, 58-59Gaskets for raised or flat-faced sockolets, 58-59, 61-62 flanges storage of, 65 asbestos, 132 thredolets, 58-60, 62 red rubber, 132 weldolets, 58-60, 62 spiral wound, 132 storage of, 133 Pigs bullet-shaped, 142Line service temperatures definition of, 135 materials for use in, 38-39 displacement pump for, 135, 137Material control Foam Sweege Pig, bar codes, 122 141,142 bin boxes, 65 launcher, 138 commodity codes, 13 Polly Sphere | (see Pigs, over, short, damage, 12 spherical) purchase orders, 80 Polly-Cast | 135, 137 receiving materials, 1, 80 polly-cups, 146Materials handling, 149ffMetering device, 11-12 Pigs (continued) polyurethane style (polly-Olet branch connections pigs), 139, 143, couplets, 64-65 144-145 169
    • pressures required for polly- ASTM A-53, 76 pigging, 147 ASTM A-106, 77 rail hoists for, 138 ASTM A-120, 76 Scraper Bar Tees, 54, 138 spools, marking, 153 scrapers, 54, 138 storage of pipe, 78-80 signal, 138 tallying, 149 spherical, 135, 137, 141 Piping abbreviations, 157-162 storing, 148 Pressure vessels, 1, 10Pipe, standard carbon steels Protecting fittings, 54-55 bundling schedule, 76-77 calculations, weight per foot, Screwed and socketweld 81-82 fittings dimensions, 66-74 bushings markings, 76-80 flush, 129 manufacturing process hex head, 129 continuous weld, 75-76 caps, 129 double submerged arc classes of, 129 weld, 75 couplings electric weld, 75 full, 129 seamless, 75 half, 129 matching thickness, 6 reducing, 129 measuring (tally) pipe, elbows 8-81,149 45 ~ 128 nominal size, wall, 1,4, 6 90 ~ 128 outside diameter, 1,81 street, 128 pipe piece (fabricated), 14 lateral, 128 racks for pipe, 78-80, malleable iron, 127 114, 151 pipe nipples random pipe lengths, 74, 149 all-thread, 129-130 schedules, 16-18, 66-74 close, 129 specifications for pipe shoulder nipple, 130 API 5L, 78 storage of nipples, 130170
    • plugs pipe schedules, 114-117 bull, 131 reducers female bull, 131 concentric, 106-107, 112 hex head, 131 eccentric, 106-107, 112 round head, 129 returns, 105-112 square head, 129 stub ends, 105, 107, 109, swage nipple, 130 113, 118-119 tubing nipples tees pup joint, 131 reducing, 106-107, 111 sub-tubing, 130 straight, 105-107, 111 unions test procedures ground joint, 127 alloy separator, 124 hammer or wing, 132 chemical, 123-124Spools, marking, 153 identification, 122-123Stainless steel magnet, 123 caps, 105-106, 112 other tests, 124-125 care of pipe, 114 Storage, 156 crosses, 105-107, 111 elbows Tallying pipes, 149 45 ~ 105-106, 110 90~ radius, 105-106, Vendor data, 155 108, 110 reducing, 110 flanges, 19, 113 Wall thickness, 6ff marking, 108-109, 122-123 Warehouse layout tips, 155 171
    • ABOUT THE AUTHOR R. R. Lee is the vice-president/owner of Lees MaterialServices, Inc. in Houston, Texas, which received the pres-tigious Presidential "E" Award for excellence in export. Mr.Lees 35 years experience includes serving as materialtakeoff section leader with McDermott Engineering, pur-chasing agent, material/inventory control supervisor, andspecialist/manager with Brown & Root International, Texa-co, and Oasis Oil Company of Libya.172